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Full text of "A rational illustration of the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England : being the substance of every thing liturgical in Bishop Sparrow, Mr. L'Estrange, Dr. Comber, Dr. Nichols, and all former ritualists, commentators, and others, upon the same subject"

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IN a former edition of this book, which was printed in folio, I was 
at a loss in what manner I was to address the reader ; that is, whe- 
ther I was to bespeak his candour as to an entire new book, or 
whether only the continuance of it as to a new edition of an old one. 
I called it indeed the third edition in the title-page ; though I think 
I had but little other reason for doing so, than my having twice 
published a treatise upon the same subject before. For scarce a 
fifth part of what I then offered to the world was printed from 
either of the former editions ; nor had so much of them as I have 
mentioned been continued entire, had I foreseen how little I should 
have confined myself to the rest. But when it first went to the 
press, I had no other design than to have reprinted it exactly from 
the second edition ; except that I had yielded to the request of the 
booksellers, who, being encouraged by the quick sale of two large 
impressions, in a smaller volume, were willing to run the hazard of 
one in a larger size. This was all the alteration I proposed : nor 
did I think of any other, till the introductory discourse, the whole 
first chapter, and great part of the second, were worked off from the 
press; which therefore, for the most part, stand just as they did 
before, and not in the method into which I should have thrown 
them, had I known from the beginning what alterations I should 
have made. However, the reader will have no reason to complain ; 
since though the form would have been different, the arguments 
notwithstanding must have been much the same : and they sure 
will appear to a better advantage by standing entire, and in the 
light they are set by the authors themselves, from whom I have 
borrowed them, than if they had been broke into comments and 
notes, and produced in parcels, as the rubrics would have required ; 
which was the method I afterwards thought fit to pursue.* For 

* I desire that what I have said may be principally understood of the introductory 
discourse (which is almost verbally transcribed from Dr. Bennet's Brief History of the 
joint Use of precomposed set Forms of Prayer) and of the three first sections of the se- 
cond chapter ; for the first of which I am partly obliged to bishop Beveridge's Discourse 
on The Necessity and Advantage of Public Prayer; for the second to Dr. Cave's Pri- 
mitive Christianity ; and for the third to Mr. Roberts's excellent Sermon at the Primary 
Visitation of the late bishop of Exeter at Oakhampton. The two following sections of 
that chapter are pretty much in the method I afterwards observed, and so for the most 
part is the whole first chapter ; for the first division of which (concerning the Tables 
and Rules) I must not forget to repeat the acknowledgments I have more than once 
made to the learned Dr. Brett. 

A 2 


when I observed at the close of the second chapter, (which is upon 
the general rubric concerning The Order for Morning and Evening 
Prayer,) that I had taken no notice in what part of the Church Di- 
vine Service should be performed, (the appointment of which was 
yet the principal design of the first part of that rubric,) I not only 
found it necessary to add a new section to supply that defect ; but 
taking the hint, to examine how I had managed the rubrics in ge- 
neral, I perceived that I had been equally deficient in most of 
them ; and that consequently, to make the work truly useful, the 
like additions would be necessary through the whole. 

The occasion of this defect in the two first editions was owing to 
a neglect of those parts of our offices in all who had writ upon the 
Liturgy before me : for as I never, till the third edition, attempted 
any further than to give the substance and sum of what others had 
treated of more at large ; it could not be expected, that the epitome, 
or abridgment, should give more light than the books from whence 
it was taken supplied. However, as I considered the price of my 
own book would then be very considerably advanced, I thought it 
but reasonable to make the purchaser what amends I was able, 
by putting it into his hands as complete as I could. 

To this end I applied myself, in the first place, to the comparing 
our Liturgy, as it stands at present, with the first Common Prayer 
Book of King Edward VI., and with all the reviews that have been 
taken of it since : from whence, together with the history of com- 
piling it, and of the several alterations it has undergone from time 
to time, I easily foresaw the rubrics would be best illustrated and 
explained. Nor have I found myself disappointed in the advantage 
I proposed ; for I do not remember that I nave met with a difficulty 
through the whole Common Prayer, but what I have been enabled, 
by this means, in some measure to remove. 

And whilst I was upon these searches, it came into my mind, from 
the extravagant prices which the Old Common Prayer Books have 
borne of late, that it would not be unacceptable to the curious 
reader, to note the differences between them : wherever therefore 
I met with any variations, I have also been diligent to transcribe 
them at large, and to give the reason of the several changes : 
another improvement which I thought would be looked upon to be 
so much the more useful, as it furnished me with occasions of in- 
quiring into several ancient usages of the Church, and of shewing 
how far we have advanced to, or gone back from, the primitive 
standard, since our first Reformation. 

These arc the two principal alterations which I observed: and 
though these perhaps may seem but slight at first mentioning, yi-t 
I can assure the reader, that from my first laying the design, I found 
that, instead of what I had at first undertaken, which was only the 
supervising a few sheets as they were worked off, I had got an en- 
tire new work upon my hand*, and that I was to prepare for, as 
well as to correct from, the press. New additions I pi-rc-i-ived were 
necessary to be made almost in every page, and where the old mat- 
ter was continued, it was to be often transposed, and to be worked 


up again in different parts of the book. So that neither of my 
former editions was, from the time above mentioned, of any other 
use to me in compiling of this, than any of the authors that lay open 
before me : except that what was scattered in different books, 
which treat some of them of one thing and some of another, I ge- 
nerally found ready collected in my own, which therefore for the 
most part saved me the trouble of new weaving the materials which 
others had supplied. Not that I took any advantage from hence to 
spare myself the pains of reading over again the several authors 
themselves; for I do not know that there was a single piece on the 
subject, how inconsiderable soever, but what I gave a fresh review, 
and with the utmost care, that not a hint should escape me, which I 
judged would be any ways worth observation. And yet I dare 
affirm that the whole that I borrowed from all who have writ pro- 
fessedly upon the Common Prayer, does not amount to near a fourth 
part of what the following sheets contain. Nor will it seem in- 
credible, that every thing that is pertinent to my own design, should 
be reduced into so narrow a compass as I have mentioned; when it 
is considered that though the authors I made use of were numerous, 
yet the matters they treat of are generally the same ; that some of 
them have printed the Liturgy itself, as well as their explanations 
and comments upon it ; that they are most of them but small ; and 
that in the two that are voluminous (Dr. Comber and Dr. Nichols) 
scarce an eighth part of either of them come within the limits I 
confined myself to. The bulk of the former consists in large Para- 
phrases and practical Discourses, which I wholly passed by : and if 
the latter has done nothing in a practical way, yet the repetition of 
his Paraphrases, where the same forms return in different offices, 
together with his enlarging upon subjects that a reader would never 
think to look for in a Comment upon the Common Prayer, have very 
much contributed to swell his work with materials that I judged 
might be spared, without any danger of its being thought a defect ; 
especially since the omission of them made room for the enlarging 
upon other points much more pertinent to the subject of the book; 
and which indeed make the principal part of the whole, though 
most of them are touched upon but lightly, if at all, in any former 
direct Exposition of the Liturgy. To name all the particulars would 
be more ostentatious than useful ; and therefore I shall only observe 
in general, that wherever I knew any point I was to mention, 
handled more particularly by authors who have made it their 
principal view, 1 always had recourse to them, and took the 
liberty of borrowing whatever contributed to the perfecting my 

In such cases I have generally given notice in the margin to 
whom I have been beholden ; though there is one thing perhaps in 
which I have been deficient, and that is, in not using sometimes the 
ordinary marks of distinction, when I have taken the words as well 
as the thoughts of my author : for it was always my rule when I 
could not mend an expression, not to do it an injury by changing 
it : and yet as I was frequently forced to transpose the order of his 
sentences, and to blend and mix with them what my own thoughts 


supplied, it often came to pass, that when the paragraph was finish- 
ed, I questioned whether the author, from whom most of it was 
taken, would acknowledge it to be his own. 

And thus I have given the reader an account, as well of my 
first attempts on this subject, as of the further progress I made 
upon it when it came the third time to the press ; which I have 
done, not so much for the sake of acquainting him with the old 
editions, as of informing him more distinctly what it is he may look 
for in the new ones. It will be a needless caution I suppose to 
add, that I shall stand to nothing that I have said before, any 
further than it agrees with the contents of the last : the particulars 
indeed are but few, as far as I can remember, where my notions 
are changed ; but where they are, it is but common justice to take 
my sentiments from what I deliver upon maturer judgment; and 
not to expect I should always vindicate an error or mistake, be- 
cause I once advanced it in a juvenile performance. I should 
have very ill bestowed the pains I took to review my original 
papers, (which was more a great deal than it cost me at first to 
collect and compile them ; and which took up as many years as it 
would have done months, had they been only reprinted as they 
were before,} if they did not come out with some improvements at 
last. Not that I am so vain as to think, they are at last without 
faults and imperfections ; I am sensible there are many ; I can 
only plead that none willingly escaped me, and that wherever any 
escaped unwillingly, nobody could have been more industrious to 
find them. For in order to this, 1 not only, during the tedious 
delay that I then created to the press, examined the sheets upon 
every occasion that called the matter of them fresh to my mind; 
but also importuned the assistance and corrections of such learned 
friends as 1 knew were in no danger (except from too favourable 
an indulgence to the author) of overlooking the slightest mistakes. 

And this I take to be the proper place to explain myself in re- 
lation to one passage particularly which I know has been thought 
to need the greatest amendment, though I have let it stand with- 
out making any. And indeed an explanation of it is so much the 
more needful, as it is not only judged to be indefensible in itself, 
but also to be inconsistent with what I have said in another part 
of the book. The passage I mean is concerning the Absolution in 
the daily Morning and Evening Service, \rhich I have asserted to 
be "an actual conveyance of pardon, at the very instant of pro- 
nouncing it, to all that come within the terms proposed."* And 
again, that it " is more than DECLARATIVE, that it is truly EFFECTIVE ; 
insuring and conveying to the proper subjects thereof the very 
absolution or remission itself, "f This has been thought by some, 
from whose judgment I should be very unwilling to differ or recede, 
not only to carry the point higher than can be maintained, but 
also to be irreconcilable with my own notions of Absolution, a> 
I have described them upon the office for the Viritatton of the Sick. 
wlu re they are thought to be more consistent with Scripture and 

Page 115. t Page 119, 120. 


antiquity. I have there endeavoured to shew that there is no 
" standing authority in the Ministers of the Gospel, to pardon or 
forgive sins immediately and directly in relation to God, and as to 
which the censure of the Church had been in no wise concerned." * 
And again, " that no absolution pronounced by the Church can 
cleanse or do away our inward guilt, or remit the eternal penalties 
of sin, which are declared to be due to it by the sentence of GOD, 
any further than by the prayers which are appointed to accompany 
it, and by the use of those ordinances to which it restores us, it 
may be a means, in the end, of obtaining our pardon from God, 
himself, and the forgiveness of sin as it relates to him."f These 
passages, I acknowledge, as they are separated from their contexts, 
and opposed to one another, seem a little inconsistent and con- 
fusedly expressed : but if each of them are read in their proper 
places, and with that distinction of ideas which I had framed to 
myself when I writ them, I humbly presume they may be easily 
reconciled, and both of them asserted with equal truth. I desire 
it may be remembered that in the latter place I am speaking of 
a judicial and unconditional absolution, pronounced by the Min- 
ister in an indicative form, as of certain advantage to the person 
that receives it. By this I have supposed the Church never intends 
to cleanse or dp away our inward guilt, but only to exercise an 
external authority, founded upon the power of the keys ; which 
though it may be absolute, as to the inflicting and remitting the 
censures of the Church, I could not understand peremptorily to 
determine the state of the sinner in relation to GOD. And thus far 
I have the happiness to have the concurrence of good judges on 
my side ; so that it is only in what I assert on the daily absolution, 
that I have the misfortune not to be accounted so clear. But, 
with humble submission, I can see nothing there inconsistent with 
what I have said on the other. The absolution I am speaking of 
is conditional, pronounced by the Priest in a declarative form, 
and limited to such as truly repent and unfeignedly believe God's holy 
Gospel. This indeed I have asserted to be effective, and that it 
insures and conveys to the proper subjects thereof the very absolu- 
tion or remission itself: but then I desire it may be remembered 
that I attribute the effect of it not to a judicial, but to a ministerial 
act in the person who pronounces it: but to such an act however 
as is founded upon the general tenor of the Gospel, which supposes, 
if I mistake not, that GOD always accompanies the ministrations 
of the Priest, if there be no impediment on the part of the people. 
And therefore when the Priest, in the name of GOD, so solemnly 
declares to a congregation that has been humbly confessing their 
sins, and importuning the remission of them, that GOD does ac- 
tually pardon all that truly repent and unfeignedly believe ; why may 
not such of them as do repent and believe humbly presume that 
their pardon is sealed as well as made known by such declar- 
ation ? 

* Page 442. t Page 443, 


I am sure this notion gives no encouragement either of presump- 
tion to the penitent, or of arrogance to the Priest : I have supposed 
that, to receive any benefit from the form, the person must come 
within the terms required : and such a one, though the form should 
have no effect, is allowed notwithstanding to be pardoned and 
absolved. And the Priest I have asserted to act only ministerially, 
aa the instrument of Providence ; that he can neither withhold, 
nor apply, the absolution as he pleases, nor so much as know upon 
whom or upon how many it snail take effect ; but that he only 

S renounces what God commands, whilst God himself ratifies the 
eclaration, and seals the pardon which he proclaims. 
It is true, indeed, it does not appear by the ancient Liturgies, 
that the primitive Christians had* any such absolution to be pro- 
nounced, as this is, to the congregation in general. But yet, if 
they had absolutions upon any occasion, and those absolutions 
were supposed to procure a reconcilement with GOD. (neither of 
which, I presume, will be thought to want a proof,) I see no 
reason why they may not be usefully admitted (as they are with 
us) into the daily and ordinary service of the Church. For allow- 
ing that the persons they were formerly used to, were such as had 
incurred ecclesiastical censure; yet it is confessed that the forms 
pronounced on those occasions immediately respected the con- 
science of the sinner, and not the outward regimen of the Church ; 
that they were instrumental to procure the forgiveness of GOD, 
whilst the ecclesiastical bond was declared to be released by an 
additional ceremony of the imposition of hands.* If then absolu- 
tions, even in the earliest ages, were thought to be instrumental 
to procure GOD'S forgiveness to such sins as had deserved ecclesi- 
astical bonds ; why may they not be allowed as instrumental and 
proper to procure his forgiveness to sins of daily incursion, though 
they may not be gross enough, or at least enough public, to come 
within the cognizance of ecclesiastical censures? If it be urged, 
that the ancient absolutions were never declarative, but either 
intercessional, like the prayer that follows the absolution in the 
office appointed for the Visitation of the Sick, or optative, like the 
form in our Office of Communion: I think it may be answered, that 
the effect of the absolution does not at all depend upon the form 
of it, since the promises of GOD are either way applied, and it must 
be the sinner's embracing them with repentance and faith, that 
must make the application of them effectual to himself. 

I hope this explanation will justify my notions upon the daily 
absolution, as well as reconcile them with what I have said upon 
the other. I shall add nothing more in defence of them, than 
that they seem fully to be countenanced by the form itself, (as 
I have shewed at large upon the place,) and particularly by the 
inhibition of Deacons from pronouncing it:f which to me is an 
argument that our Church designed it for an effect, which it was 

8e Dr. Manhall'* Penitential Discipline, page 93, &c. See also the forms of 
Absolution in hU Appendix, numb. 4, 5, 6, 7. t See page 120, &c. 


beyond the commission of a Deacon to convey. Not that I would 
draw an argument from the opinion of our Church, where that 
opinion seems repugnant to Scripture or antiquity: but where it 
does not appear to be inconsistent with either, I think her decision 
should be allowed a due weight. Wherever I have found or sus- 
pected her to differ from one or the other, the reader will observe 
I have not covered or disguised it; but on the contrary perhaps 
have been too hasty and forward, and too unguarded in my re- 
marks. But TRUTH was what I aimed at through my whole under- 
taking; which therefore I was resolved at any hazard to assert 
just as it appeared to me. It is not at all indeed unlikely that in 
so many points as the nature of this work has led me to consider, 
some things may appear as truths to me, which others, who have 
better opportunities of inquiring into them, may find to be other- 
wise : and therefore I can only profess that I have not advanced 
any thing but what I have believed to be true ; and that if I am 
any where in an error, I shall be always open to conviction, let 
the person that attempts it be adversary or friend ; since if truth 
can be attained to by any means at last, I shall not value from 
whom or from whence it proceeds : though I cannot but say, the 
satisfaction will be the greater if it appear on the side which our 
Church has espoused, notwithstanding the discovery may possibly 
demand some retractations on my own part, which in such case I 
shall always be ready to make, and think it a happiness to find 
myself mistaken. 

In the mean while, I request that where I am allowed to be right, 
I may not meet with the less favour, because I have shewed my- 
self fallible ; and particularly I would importune my reverend 
brethren of the CLERGY, (upon whose countenance the success of 
this work must depend,) that if the Rubrics especially have been 
any where cleared, and with proper arguments enforced, they 
would join their assistance to make my endeavours of some service 
to the CHURCH. For it will be but of very little use to have illus- 
trated the rule, unless they also concur to make the practice more 
uniform. And indeed I would hope that a small importunity would 
be sufficient to prevail with them, when they see what disgrace their 
compliances have brought both upon the Liturgy and themselves ; 
since not only the occasional offices are now in several places pros- 
tituted to the caprice of the people, to be used where, and when, 
and in what manner they please ; but even the daily and ordinary 
service is more than the Clergy themselves know how to perform in 
any Church but their own, before they have been informed of the 
particular custom of the place. 

But I would not presume to dictate to those from whom it would 
much better become me to learn : and therefore I shall only ob- 
serve further with regard to the citations I have had occasion to 
make, that I have but very seldom set down any of them at large, 
because I was willing to avoid all unnecessary means of swelling 
the book. Besides, I considered, that though I should cite them 
ever so distinctly, yet those who understand not the language they 


were written in, must take my word for the meaning of them at 
last: and those who are capable of reading the originals, I sup- 
posed, would turn to the books themselves for any thing they 
should doubt of, how careful soever I should have been in tran- 
scribing them ; so that I thought it sufficient to be exact in my 
references, as to the tome, and page, and marginal letter, and then 
to insert a general table of the ecclesiastical writers, which should 
once for all shew the editions that I have used.* The reason of 
my adding the times when the writers flourished, was, that my less 
learned reader might gather from thence the antiquity of the se- 
veral rites and ceremonies I had occasion to treat of, by consulting 
when those authors lived who are produced in defence of them. 

If I have any where made use of a different edition, I have taken care to specify 
it in the citation itself. 




Alcuin, A. D. 780. De Offic. Divin. Paris. 1610. 

Ambrose, A. D. 374. Opera, ed. Bened. Paris. 1686. 

Arnobius, A. D. 303. Adv. Gentes. Lugd. Bat. 1651. 

Athanasius, A. D. 326. Opera, ed. Benedict. Paris. 1698. 

Athenagoras, A. D. 177. Legatio by Dechair. Oxon. 1706. 

Augustin, A. D. 396. Opera, ed. Benedict. Paris. 1679. 

Basil the Great, A. D. 370. Opera. Paris. 1638. 

Bernard, A. D. 1115. Opera. Paris. 1640. 

Canons called Apostolical, most of them composed before A. D. 300. By 

Coteler. Antwerp. 1698. 

Cedrenus, A. D. 1056. Histor. Compend. Paris. 1649. 
Chrysostom, A. D. 398. Opera, ed. Savil. Eton. 1612. 
Clemens of Alexandria, A. D. 192. Opera. Paris. 1629. 
Clemens of Rome, A. D. 65. Epistolae by Wotton. Cant. 1718. 
Codex Theodosianus, A. D. 438. Lugd. 1665. 

Constitutions called Apostolical, about A. D. 450. By Coteler. Antwerp. 1698. 
Cyprian, A. D. 248. Opera by Fell. Oxon. 1682. 
Cyril of Jerusalem, A. D. 350. Opera by Mills. Oxon. 1703. 
Dionysius of Alexandria, A. D. 254. Epist. adv. Paul. Sam. Paris. 1610. 
Dionysius, falsely called the Areopagite, A. D. 362. Opera. Paris. 1615. 
Durandus Mimatensis, A. D. 1286. Rationale. Lugd. 1612. 
Durantus. De Rit. Eccles. Cath. Rom. 1591. 
Epiphanius, A. D. 368. Opera. Paris. 1622. 
Euagrius Scholasticus, A. D. 594. Eccles. Histor. Paris. 1673. 
Eusebius, A. D. 315. Opera. Paris. 1659. 

Gennadius Massiliens, A. D. 495. De Eccles. Dogmat. Hamb. 1614. 
Gratian, A. D. 1131. Opera. Paris. 1601. 
Gregory the Great, A. D. 590. Opera. Paris. 1675. 
Gregory Nazianzen, A. D. 370. Opera. Paris. 1630. 
Gregory Nyssen, A. D. 370. Opera. Paris. 1615. 
Hierom or Jerome, A. D. 378. Opera, edit. Ben. Paris. 1704. 
Ignatius, A. D. 101. Opera by Smith. Oxon. 1709. 
Irenaeus, A. D. 167. Adv. Ha;res. by Grabe. Oxon. 1702. 
Isidore Hispalensis, A. D. 595. Opera. Paris. 1601. 
Isidore Pcleusiota, A. D. 412. Opera. Paris. 1638. 

Justin Martyr, A. D. 140. Apol. 1. by Grabe. Oxon. 1700. Opera. Paris. 1615. 
Lactantius, A. D. 303. Opera by Spark. Oxon. 1684. 
Micrologus, A. D. 1080. De Eccles. Observ. Paris. 1610. 



Minucius Felix, A. D. 220. Octavius by Davis. Cant. 1712. 

Nicephorus Calistus, A. D. 1333. Eccles. Histor. Paris. 1630. 

Optatus Milevitanus, A. D. 368. Opera. Paris. 1679. 

Origcn, A. D. 230. Opera Latino. Paris. 1604. 

Paulinus, A. D. 420. Lib. contr. Felic. Paris. 1610. 

Paulus Diaconus, A. D. 757. Opera. Paris. 1611. 

Polycarp, A. D. 108. Ep. ad Phil, by Smith. Oxon. 1709. 

Pontius Diaconus, A. D. 251. Vita S. Cypr. before St. Cyprian's Works. 

Oxon. 1682. 

Proclus, A. D. 434. DC Trad. Div. Lit. Paris. 1560. 
Ruffinus, A. D. 390. In Symbolum at the end of St Cyprian's Works. 
Socrates, A. D. 439. Eccles. Histor. Paris. 1668. 
Sozomen, A. D. 440. Eccles. Histor. Paris. 1668. 
Synesius, A. D. 410. Opera. Paris. 1631. 
Tatian, A. D. 172. Orat. nd Gr. by Worth. Oxon. 1700. 
Tertullian, A. D. 192. Opera by Rigaltius. Paris. 1675. 
Theodoret, A. D. 423. Opera. Paris. 1642. 
Theodosius Junior. See Codex Theodosianus. 

Theophilus Antiochen, A. D. 168. Ad Autolyc. by Fell. Oxon. 1684. 
Theophylact, A. D. 1077. Commentarii. Paris. 1631. 


By Labtee and Cossart, in 15 tomes. Paris. 1671. 

Agathense, A. D. 506. 
Aureliancnse 1, A. D. 511. 
Bracharcnsc 1, A. D. 5G3. 
Calchutense, A. D. 787. 
Carthagincnse 3, A. D. 252. 
Carthaginensc 4, A. D. 253. 
Constantinop. 2, Gen. A. D. 381. 
Constant. 6, Gen. Sec Quini-textum. 
Eliberitanum, A. D. 305. 
Gerundense 1, A. D. 517. 
Laodicenum, A. D. 367. 
Milevitan. 1, A. D. 402. 

Neocsesariense, A. D. 315. 
Nicenum 1, Gen. A. D. 325. 
Orleance 1. See Aurelianense 1. 
Placentinum, A. D. 1095. 
Quini-sextum in Trullo, A. D. 692. 
Rhemense 2, A. D. 813. 
Sardicense, A. D. 347. 
Toletanum 3, A. D. 589. 
Triburiensc, A. D. 895. 
Trullan. See Quini-sextum. 
Vasensel, A. D. 442. 
Vasensc 2, A. D. 529. 







MOST of the objections urged by the Dissenters against the 
Church of England, to justify their separation from it, being 
levelled against its form and manner of divine worship, pre- 
scribed in the Book of Common Prayer, &c., are, in the 
following Discourse, answered, as fully as its brevity would 
permit. So that, though the principal design of this book be 
to instruct such as are friends to our Church and Liturgy ; 
yet it is not impossible but that, by the blessing of God, it 
may in some measure contribute to the undeceiving some that 
are enemies to both, (such I mean as are disaffected to the 
former, upon no other account, than a prejudice to the 
latter ;) especially could we, by first convincing them of the 
Lawfulness and Necessity of National precomposed LI- 
TURGIES in general, prevail with them to take an impartial 
view of what is here ottered in behalf of our own. To this 
end therefore, and to make the following sheets of as general 
use as I can, I shall, by way of INTRODUCTION, endeavour to 
prove these three things ; viz. 

I. FIRST, That the ancient Jews, our Saviour, his Apostles, 
and the primitive Christians, never joined (as far as we can 
prove) in any prayers, but precomposed set forms only. 

II. SECONDLY, That those precomposed set forms, in which 
they joined, were such as the respective congregations were 
accustomed to, and thoroughly acquainted with. 

III. THIRDLY, That their practice warrants the imposition 
of a National precomposed Liturgy. 


I. FIRST, I am to prove that the ancient Jews, our Sa- 
viour, his Apostles, and the primitive Christians, never joined 
(as far as we can prove) in any prayers, but precomposed set 
forms only. And this I shall do by shewing, 

1. First, That they did join in precomposed set forms of 

2. Secondly, That (as far as we can conjecture) they never 
joined in any other. 

1. First, I shall shew that the ancient Jews, our Saviour, 
his Apostles, and the primitive Christians, did join in pre- 
composed set forms of prayer. 

1st, To begin with the Jews, we find that the first piece of 
solemn worship recorded in Scripture is a hymn of praise, 
composed by Moses upon the deliverance of the children of 
Israel from the Egyptians, which was sung by all the con- 
gregation alternately ; by Moses and the men first, and after- 
wards by Miriam and the women : l which could not have 
been done unless it had been a precomposed set form. Again, 
in the expiation of an uncertain murder, the elders of the city 
which is next to the slain are expressly commanded to say, 
and consequently to join in saying, a form of prayer, pre- 
composed by God himself. 2 And in other places of Scripture 3 
we meet with several other forms of prayer, precomposed by 
God, and prescribed by Moses ; which though they were not 
to be joined in by the whole congregation, are yet sufficient 
precedents for the use of precomposed set forms. But further, 
the Scriptures assure us, that David appointe'd the Levites to 
stand every morning to thank and praise the Lord, and 
likewise at even, 4 which rule was observed in the temple 
afterwards built by Solomon, and restored at the building of 
the second temple after the captivity. 8 Lastly, the whole 
book of Psalms were forms of prayer and praise, indited by 
the Holy Ghost, for the joint use of the congregation ; as 
appears as well from the titles of several of the Psalms, 6 as 
from other places of Scripture. 

Innumerable proofs might be brought, both ancient and 
modern, that the Jews did always worship God by precom- 
posed set forms : but the world is fully satisfied of this truth, 
from the concurrent testimonies of Josephus, Philo, Paul 

1 Exod. xv. 1, 20, 21. Deut. xxl. 7/8. Numb. vi. 22, &c. chap. x. 35, 36. 
Deut. xxvi. 3, 5, &c. ver. 13, rc. 1 Chron. xxiii. 30. Neh. xii. 44, 45, 46. 

See Pul. xlii., xliv., Ac. Pial. lv., T., vl., Sic. Psal. xcii. ' 1 Chron. xvi. 7. 2 

Chron. xxix. 30. Ezra ill. 10, II. 


Fagius, Scaliger, Buxtorf, and Selden in Eutychium. The 
reader may consult two learned men of our own, viz. Dr. 
Hammond (who both proves that the Jews used set forms, 
and that their prayers and praises, &c. were in the same order 
as our Common Prayer") and Dr. Lightfoot, who not only 
asserts they worshipped God by stated forms, but also sets 
down both the order and method of their hymns and suppli- 
cations. 9 So that there is no more reason to doubt of their 
having and using a precomposed settled Liturgy, than of our 
own having and using the Book of Common Prayer, &c., and 
of its consisting of precomposed set forms. We shall therefore 
proceed in the next place to inquire into the practice of our 
Saviour, his Apostles, and the primitive Christians. 

And, 1st, for our Saviour ; there is not the least doubt to 
be made, but that he continued always in communion with 
the Jewish Church, and was zealous and exemplary in their 
public devotions ; and consequently took all opportunities of 
joining in those precomposed set forms of prayer, which 
were daily used in the Jewish congregations, as the learned 
Dr. Lightfoot has largely proved. 10 And we may be sure, 
that had not our Saviour very constantly attended their 
public worship, and joined in the devotions of their congre- 
gations, the scribe and Pharisees, his bitter and implacable 
enemies, and great zealots for the temple-service, would 
doubtless have cast it in his teeth, and reproached him as an 
ungodly wretch, that despised prayer, &c. But nothing of 
this nature do we find in the whole New Testament ; and 
therefore, had we no other grounds than these to go upon, we 
might safely conclude, that our blessed Saviour was a con- 
stant attendant on the public service of the Jews, and conse- 
quently that he joined in precomposed set forms of prayer. 

And, 2ndly, as to the Apostles and our Lord's other dis- 
ciples, their practice was doubtless the same till our Saviour's 
ascension ; after which (besides that they did probably still 
join as before in the Jewish worship, 11 which consisted of pre- 
composed set forms) it is plain that they used precomposed 
set forms in their Christian assemblies, during the remainder 
bf their lives. 

As the primitive Christians also did in the following ages : 
as will appear, 

8 View of the Directory, p. 136, and his Oxford Papers, p. 260, vol. i. 9 Dr. Light- 
foot's Works, vol. i. p. 922, 942, 946. w Ibid. vol. U. part ii. p. 1036, &c. u See Acts 
iii. 1. xiii. 15. xvii. 2. 

B 2 


1 . From their joining in the use of the Lord's prayer. 

2. From their joining in the use of Psalms. 

3. From their joining in the use of divers precomposed set 
forms of prayer, besides the Lord's prayer and Psalms. 

1. They joined in the use of the Lord's prayer. And this 
is sufficiently evident from our Saviour's having commanded 
them so to do : for whatever dispute may be made about the 
word ourwc, in St. Matthew vi. 9, which is translated not ex- 
actly, but paraphrastically, after this manner, but ought 
with greater accuracy to be rendered so, or thus ; 12 yet if we 
should grant that our Lord in this place only proposed this 
prayer as a directory and pattern to make our other prayers 
by, we should still find afterwards, upon another occasion, 
viz. when his disciples requested him to teach them to pray, 
as John had also taught his disciples, he prescribed the use 
of these very words ; expressly bidding them, IVTien ye pray, 
say, Our Father. 13 I suppose nobody hath so mean an 
opinion, either of St. John's or our Saviour's disciples, as to 
think they were ignorant how to pray : therefore it is plain 
they could mean nothing else by their request, but that Christ 
would give them this peculiar form, as a badge of their be- 
longing to him ; according to the custom of the Jewish 
Doctors, who always taught their disciples- a peculiar form to 
add to their own ; u so that either our Saviour instructed 
them to use this very form of words, or else he did not answer 
the design of their requests. 

But it is objected, that " if our Lord had intended this 
prayer should be used as a set form, he would not have added 
the Doxology, when he delivered it at one time, as it is re- 
corded in St. Matthew, and omit it, when he delivered it 
upon another occasion, as in St. Luke." 

But to this we answer, That learned men are very much 
divided in their opinions, concerning the Doxology in St. 
Matthew ; some thinking it is, and others that it is not, a part 
of the original text. Whether it be or be not, we need not 
here dispute, but argue with our adversaries upon either sup- 

For, 1st, if they think it is not a part of the original text, 

" In which signification it U always used in the Septuagint Version of the Bible, 
as appears by comparing Numb. vi. 23. xxiii. 5. Isa. viii. 11. xxviii. 16. xxx. 15. 
xiXTii. 33. and some other places, with Numb, xxiii. 16. Isaiah zxx. 12. xxxvii. 21. 
liii. 3. For in the former texts, ou-n Xf>' 6 KKOKK, that lailk the Lard, bears the 
same signification as T& \+j K*p". M' ai'<A tht Lard, in the latter. w Luke 
zi. 1, 2, He. " Dr. Lightfoot, vol. il. p. 158. 


then their objection is groundless : for there is nothing found 
in one Evangelist, but what is also found in the other ; and 
the form, as to the sense of it, is exactly the same in both : 
for though one or two expressions may differ, yet the Syriac 
words, in which we know our Lord delivered it, are equally 
capable of both translations. 

But, 2ndly, if they think the Doxology is a part of the 
original text ; we answer, The addition of it is as good an 
argument against the Lord's prayer being a directory for the 
matter of prayer, as it can be against its being an established 
set form of prayer. For we may say, in the language of our 
adversaries, if Christ had intended his prayer for a directory 
for the matter of prayer, he would not have given such differ- 
ent directions, ordering us to add a Doxology to the end of 
our prayers at one time, and omitting that order at another. 
If therefore the addition of the Doxology be (as they must 
grant upon their own principles) no objection against its being 
a directory for the matter of prayer ; then certainly it is no ob- 
jection against its being an established set form. For the 
difference of our prayers will be every whit as great in follow- 
ing this pattern, by sometimes omitting and sometimes adding 
a Doxology at the end of our prayers, as it can possibly be, by 
using the Lord's prayer, sometimes with, and at other times 
without, the Doxology. The utmost therefore that can be 
concluded from the Doxology's being a part of the original 
text in St. Matthew, is this : That our Lord, though he com- 
manded the use of the Lord's prayer, does not insist upon the 
use of the Doxology, but leaves it indifferent ; or at most, 
orders it to be sometimes used, and sometimes omitted, as our 
established Church practises. But the other essential parts of 
the prayer are to be used notwithstanding ; it being very ab- 
surd to omit the use of the whole, because the latter part of 
it is not enjoined to be used constantly with the rest. 

But it is further objected, 1st, That, "supposing our Sa- 
viour did prescribe it as a form ; yet it was only for a time, 
till they should be more fully instructed, and enabled to pray 
by the assistance of the Holy Ghost." And to urge this with 
the greater force, they tell us, 2ndly, " That before Christ's 
ascension, the disciples had asked nothing in his name, 15 
whereas they were taught, that after his ascension they should 
offer up all their prayers in his name. 16 Now this prayer, say 

15 John xvi. 24. 16 John xiv. 13. and chap. xvi. 23. 


they, having nothing of his name in it, could not be designed 
to be used after his ascension." Accordingly they tell us, 
3rdly, " That though we read in the Acts of the Apostles of 
several prayers made by the Church, yet we find not any in- 
timation, that they ever used this form." 17 

Whatever resemblances of truth these objections may seem 
to carry with them at first sight, if we look narrowly into 
them, we shall find them to be grounded upon principles as 
dangerous as false. 

For, 1st, If, because our Saviour hath not in express words 
commanded this form of prayer to be used for ever, we con- 
clude that it was only prescribed for a time ; we must neces- 
sarily allow, that whatever Christ hath instituted without 
limitation of time does not always oblige ; and, consequently, 
we may declare Christ's institutions to be null without his au- 
thority ; and at that rate cry down baptism and the Lord's 
supper for temporary prescriptions, as well as the Lord's 

In answer to the second objection, we may observe, that to 
pray in Christ's name, is to pray in his mediation ; depend- 
ing upon his merits and intercession for the acceptance of our 
prayers ; and therefore prayers may be offered up in Christ's 
name, though we do not name him. And as for the Lord's 
prayer, it is so 'framed, that it is impossible to offer it up, un- 
less it be in the name of Christ : for we have no right or title 
to call God our Father, unless it be through the merits and 
mediation of Jesus Christ ; who hath made us heirs of God, 
and Joint-heirs with himself. And therefore Christ's not 
inserting his own name in his prayer, does by no means prove, 
that he did not design it for a standing form. 

And, 3rdly, as to the objection of the Scriptures not once 
intimating the use of this prayer, in those places where it 
speaks of others ; we might answer, that we may as well con- 
clude from the silence of the Scripture, that the Apostles did 
not baptize in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost, as that they did not use this prayer ; since they had 
as strict a command to do the one as the other. But besides, 
in all those places, except two, 18 there is nothing else men- 
tioned, but that they prayed ; no mention at all of the words 
of their prayers ; and therefore there is no reason why we 

11 Chmp. I. 24. 11. 42. l. 24. vi. 6. vlii. 15. xtl. 1J. xiiL 3. xx. 36. Acts 1. 24. 
and chap. iv. 24. 


should expect a particular intimation of the Lord's prayer. 
And as for those prayers mentioned in the aforesaid places, I 
do not see how they can prove from thence, that they were 
offered up in the name of Christ. 

But, lastly, it is objected, that " the words of this prayer are 
improper to be used now ; because therein we pray that God's 
kingdom may come now, which came many ages since, viz. at 
our Saviour's ascension into heaven." 

But in answer to this, I think it sufficient to observe, that 
though the foundations of God's kingdom were laid then, yet 
it is not yet completed. For since we know that all the world 
must be converted to Christianity, and the Jews, Turks, and 
Infidels still make up the far greater part of it, we have as 
much reason upon this account to pray for the coming of 
God's kingdom now as ever. And if we consider those parts 
of the world which have already embraced Christianity, I can- 
not think it improper to pray, that they may sincerely prac- 
tise what they believe ; which conduces much more to the 
advancement of God's kingdom, than a bare profession does 
without such practice. 

Since therefore, from what has been said, it appears that our 
Saviour prescribed the Lord's prayer as a standing form, and 
commanded his Apostles and other disciples to use it as such ; 
it is not to be suspected but that they observed this command ; 
especially since the accounts which we have from antiquity do 
(though the Scriptures be silent in the matter) fully prove it 
to have been their constant custom ; as appears by a numer- 
ous cloud of witnesses, who conspire in attesting this truth : 
of which I shall only instance in a few. 

And first, Tertullian was, without all doubt, of opinion, that 
Christ delivered the Lord's prayer, not as a directory only, but 
as a precomposed set form, to be used by all Christians. For 
he says, " 19 The Son taught us to pray, Our Father, which art 
in heaven ; " i. e. he taught us to use the Lord's prayer. And 
speaking of the same prayer, he says, " 20 0ur Lord gave his 
new disciples of the New Testament a new form of prayer." 
He calls it, " 20 The prayer appointed by Christ," and " 2l The 
prayer appointed by Law," (for so the word legitima must be 
rendered,) and " the ordinary " (i. e. the usual and customary) 
" prayer which is to be said before our other prayers ; and 
upon which, as a foundation, our other prayers are to be 

19 Adv. Prax. c. 23, p. 514, A. De Orat. c. i. p. 129, A. 2I Ibid. c. ix.p. 133, B. 


built : " and tells us, that " w the use of it was ordained by our 

Next, St. Cyprian '"tells us, that " Christ himself gave us a 
form of prayer, and commanded us to use it ; because, when 
we speak to the Father in the Son's words, we shall be more 
easily heard;" and that " ** there is no prayer more spiritual 
or true than the Lord's prayer." And therefore he most 
earnestly M exhorts men to the use of it as often as they pray. 

Again, St. Cyril of Jerusalem calls it, " M the prayer which 
Christ gave his disciples, and n which God hath taught us." 

About the same time Optatus takes it for granted that it is 
commanded. 28 

After him, St. Chrysostom calls it, " M the prayer enjoined 
by laws, and brought in by Christ." 

In the same century St. Austin tells us, " ^that our Saviour 
gave it to the Apostles, to the intent that they should use it : 
that he taught it his disciples himself, and by them he taught 
it us ; that he dictated it to us, as a lawyer would put words 
in his client's mouth ; that it is necessary for all, i. e. such as 
all were bound to use ; and that we cannot be God's children, 
unless we use it." 

Lastly, St. Gregory Nyssen says, " 31 that Christ shewed his 
disciples how they should pray, by the words of the Lord's 
prayer." And Theodoret assures us, that " 32 the Lord's 
prayer is a form of prayer, and that Christ has commanded us 
to use it." But testimonies of this kind are numberless. 

If therefore the judgment of the ancient Fathers may be re- 
lied on, who knew the practice of the Apostles much better 
than we can pretend to do ; we may dare to affirm, that the 
Apostles did certainly use the Lord's prayer : and if it be 
granted that they used it, we may reasonably suppose that 
they Joined in the use of it. For, besides that it is very im- 
probable that a Christian assembly should, in their public de- 
votions, omit that prayer which was the badge of their dis- 
cipleship ; the very petitions of the prayer, running all along 
in the plural number, do evidently shew, that it was primarily 
designed for the joint use of a congregation. 

That the Christians of the first centuries used it in their 

** De Oral. c. Ix. p. 133, A. M De Oral. Domin. p. 139. ' Ibid. * Ibid. p. 139, 
140. Catech. Mjritag. 5, J. 8, p. 23H, lln. 12, &c. Ibid. . 15, p. 300, lin. 24. 
De Schtam. Donatiit. 1. 4, p. 88. Horn. II. In 2 Cor. torn. ill. p. 553. lin. 21. 22. 
Ep. 157, torn. ii. col. 543, B. et Serm. 58, torn. v. col. 337, D. E. De Oral. Dorain. 
Oral. 1, torn. i. p. 712, B. Hasrct. Fabul. lib. 5, cap. 28, torn. IT. p. 316, B. 


assemblies, is evident from its being always used in the cele- 
bration of the Lord's supper, 33 which for some ages was per- 
formed every day. 34 And St. Austin tells us in express words, 
that ' 435 it was said at God's altar every day." So that, with- 
out enlarging any more, I shall look upon it as sufficiently 
proved, that the Apostles and primitive Christians did join in 
the use of the Lord's prayer ; which is one plain argument 
that they joined in the use of precomposed set forms of prayer. 
Another argument I shall make use of to prove it, is, 

2. Their joining in the use of Psalms. For we are told, 
that Paul 36 and Silas, when they were in prison, prayed and 
sang praises to God. And this we must suppose they did 
audibly, because the prisoners heard them, and consequently 
they would have disturbed each other, had they not united in 
the same prayers and praises. 

Again, St. Paul blames the Corinthians, because, when they 
came together, every one had a psalm, had a doctrine &c. 
Where we must not suppose that he forbad the use of psalms 
in public worship, any more than he did the use of doctrines, 
&c. ; but that he is displeased with them for not having the psalm 
all together, i. e. for not joining in it; that so the whole con- 
gregation might attend one and the same part of divine service 
at the same time. From whence we may conclude, that the 
use of psalms was a customary thing, and that the Apostle 
approved of it ; only ordering them iojoin in the use of them, 
which we may reasonably suppose they did for the future ; 
since we find by the Apostle's second Epistle to them, that 
they reformed their abuses. 

Thus also in his Epistle to the Ephesians, 38 the Apostle ex- 
horts them to speak to themselves with psalms, and hymns, 
and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in their 
hearts to the Lord. And he bids the Colossians 39 teach and 
admonish one another in psalms, and hymns, and spiritual 
songs, singing nrith grace in their hearts to the Lord. From 
all which texts of Scripture, and several others that might be al- 
leged, we must necessarily conclude, that joint psalmody was 
instituted by the Apostles, as a constant part of divine worship. 

And that the primitive Christians continued it, is a thing so 
notorious, that it seems wholly needless to cite any testimonies 


to prove it : I shall therefore only point to such places at the 
bottom of the page, 40 as will sufficiently satisfy any, that will 
think it worth their while to consult them. 

The practice therefore of the Apostles and primitive Chris- 
tians, in joining in the use of psalms, is another intimation, 
that they joined in the use of precomposed set forms of pray- 
er. For though all psalms be not prayers, because some of 
them are not spoken to God ; yet it is certain a great part of 
them are, because they are immediately directed to him ; as is 
evident, as well from the psalms of David, as from several 
Christian hymns : 41 and, consequently, the Apostles and pri- 
mitive Christians, by jointly singing such psalms in their con- 
gregations, did join in the use of precomposed set forms of 
prayer. It only remains then that I prove, 

3. That they joined in the use of divers precomposed set 
forms of prayer, besides the Lord's prayer and psalms. 

And 1st, as to the Apostles, we are told that Peter and John, 
after they had been threatened, and commanded not to preach 
the Gospel, rvent to their own company, and reported all 
that the chief priests and elders had said unto them. And 
lohen they heard that, they lift up tJteir voice to God with 
one accord, and said, Lord, thou art God, 42 &c. 

Now in this place we are told, that the whole company lift 
up their voice mith one accord, and said, (i. e. they joined all 
together with audible voices in using these words,) Lord, thou 
art God, &c. ; which they could not possibly have done, unless 
the prayer they used was a precomposed set form. For what- 
ever may be said in favour of joining mentally, with a prayer 
conceived extempore ; I suppose nobody will contend, that it 
is possible for a considerable congregation to join vocally or 
aloud, as the Apostles and their company are here said to have 
done, in a prayer so conceived. 

But some may object, that " though it is affirmed, that the 
whole company lift up their voice, and said the prayer here 
mentioned ; yet it is possible that one only might do so in 
the name of all the rest, who joined mentally with him, though 
not in an audible manner." To this we answer, That the 

Plin. F.pist. 1. 10, Ep. 97, p. 284. Oxon. 1703. Euseb. Eccl. Hint. lib. 5, c. 28, p. 196, 
A. Juit. Mart. KpUt. ad Zen. et Seren. p. 509, A. Cyril. Micros. Catcch. IS. . 3, p. 
180, lin. 9, fcc. Cmtecb. Mystag. 5, . 17, p. 300, lin. 34, &c. Socr. Hint. Eccl. 1. 2, c. 
11. p. 89, A. Athanas. ad Marcellin. EpUt. f. 27, t. i. par. 2, p. 999, B. All these, 
and many other*, mention the Church'* tiling psalms in the public assemblies, as a 
practice that had universally obtained from the times of the Apostles. ' As St. Am- 
brose's Te Deura, and the like. Act* iv. 23, 24. 


Scripture never attributes that to a whole congregation or 
multitude, which is literally true of a single person only, ex- 
cept in such cases, where the thing related requires the con- 
sent of the whole multitude, but could not conveniently be 
performed or done by every one of them in their own persons. 
But I suppose no one will pretend, either that it was impossi- 
ble for the Apostles and their company to lift up their voice, 
and say the prayers recited in the context, or that God could 
not hear or understand them when speaking all together. 

But that which puts the matter out of all doubt, is the fol- 
lowing consideration, viz. that the company is not barely said 
to have lift up their voice, but to have lift it up [6/io0i>/zai>ov] 
with one accord, or all together ; which adverb is so placed, 
that it cannot be joined to any other verb than ypav- and no- 
thing is more evident, than that this adverb implies and de- 
notes a conjunction of persons ; and consequently, since it is 
here applied to all the company, and particularly to that action 
of theirs, viz. their lifting up their voice ; it is manifest 
that they did all of them lift up their respective voices, and 
that they could not be said to have lift up their voices in that 
sense which this objection supposes, viz. by appointing one 
person to lift up his single voice for them all. For if they did 
so, then the historian's words must signify, that the whole 
congregation lift up their voice together, by appointing one 
man to lift up his particular voice in conjunction with himself 
alone ; which is such nonsense, as cannot, without blasphemy, 
be imputed to an inspired writer. So that it is undeniably 
plain, that the persons here said to have been present, uttered 
their prayer all together, and spake all at the same time ; and 
consequently, that the prayer must be a precomposed set form. 

If any person should be so extravagant as to imagine, that 
" the whole congregation was inspired at that very instant with 
the same words ; and, consequently, that they might all of 
them break forth at once, and join vocally in the same prayer, 
though it were not precomposed ;" we need only reply, that 
this assertion is utterly groundless, having neither any show of 
reason, nor so much as one example in all history to warrant it. 

But it may perhaps be objected, that " the Apostles and their 
company could have no notice of this unforeseen accident ; 
and therefore could not be prepared with such a precomposed 
set form of thanksgiving ; and that it was uttered so soon 
after the relation of what had befallen the Apostles, that if it 


had been composed upon that occasion, it seems impossible 
that copies of it should have been delivered out for the com- 
pany to be so far acquainted with it, as immediately to join 
vocally in it." To which we answer, (1.) That since we have 
evidently proved, from their joining vocally in it, that it must 
have been a precomposed set form ; it lies upon our adversa- 
ries to answer our argument, more than it does upon us to 
account for this difficulty ; for a difficulty, though it could not 
be easily accounted for, is by no means sufficient to confront 
and overthrow a clear demonstration. But, (2.) this difficulty 
is not so great as it may at first appear : for there is nothing 
in the whole prayer, but what might properly be used every 
day by a Christian congregation, so long as the powers of the 
world were opposing and threatening such as preached the 
Gospel, and the miraculous gifts of the Holy Ghost were con- 
tinued in the Church : so that those who think this prayer to 
have been conceived and used on that emergency only, and 
never either before or after, do, in reality, beg the question, 
and take that for granted which they cannot prove. For the 
Scripture says nothing like it, nor do the circumstances require 
it ; and therefore it is very probable that it was a standing 
form, well known in the Church, and frequently used, as oc- 
casion offered : and, consequently, upon this occasion, (on 
which it is manifest it was highly seasonable and proper,) they 
immediately brake forth, and vocally uttered, and jointly said 
it, and perhaps added it to their other daily devotions, which, 
we may very well suppose, they used at the same time, though 
the historian takes no notice of it. 

There remains still another objection, which may possibly 
be made, viz. that " the holy Scriptures, when they relate what 
was spoken, especially by a multitude, do not always give us 
the very words that were spoken, but only the sense of them ; 
and accordingly in this instance, perhaps the congregation did 
not jointly offer up that very prayer, but when they had heard 
what the Apostles told them, they might all break out at one 
and the same time into vocal prayer, and every man utter 
words much to the same sense, though they might not join in 
one and the same form." But to remove this objection, we 
need only reflect upon the intolerable confusion such a prac- 
tice must of necessity cause ; for that they all prayed vocally, 
has been evidently proved : if therefore they did not join in 
the same prayer, but offerup every man different words, though 


to the same sense : it must necessarily follow, that the whole 
company would, instead of uniting in their devotions, inter- 
rupt and distract each other's prayers. 

How much more reasonable then is it to believe, that the 
Apostles and their company, who then prayed all together 
vocally, upon so solemn an occasion, did really use the same 
prayer, and join in the same words ! And if so, then the ar- 
gument already offered is a demonstration that they joined in 
a precomposed set form of prayer, besides the Lord's prayer 
and psalms. 

And that the primitive Christians did very early use pre- 
composed set forms in their public worship, is evident from 
the names given to their public prayers ; for they are called 
the common prayers?* constituted prayers,^ and solemn 
prayers.^ But that which puts the matter out of all doubt, 
are the Liturgies ascribed to St. Peter, St. Mark, and St. 
James ; which, though corrupted by later ages, are doubtless 
of great antiquity. For besides many things which have a 
strong relish of that age, that of St. James was of great 
authority in the Church of Jerusalem in St. Cyril's time, 
who has a comment upon it still extant, 46 which St. Jerome 
says was writ in his younger years : 47 and it is not probable 
that St. Cyril would have taken the pains to explain it, unless 
it had been of general use in the Church ; which we cannot 
suppose it could have obtained in less than seventy or eighty 
years.. Now St. Cyril was chosen Bishop of Jerusalem either 
in the year 349 or 351 ; to which office, it is very well known, 
seldom any were promoted before they were pretty well in 
years. If therefore he writ his comment upon this Liturgy 
in his younger years, we cannot possibly date it later than the 
year 340 ; and then, allowing the Liturgy to have obtained in 
the Church about eighty years, it necessarily follows that it 
must have been composed in the year 260, which was not 
above 160 years after the apostolical age. It is declared by 
Proclus 48 and the sixth general Council, 49 to be of St. James's 
own composing. And that there are forms of worship in it 
as ancient as the Apostles, seems highly probable ; for all the 
form, Sursum corda, is there, and in St. Cyril's comment 

43 Kon. i i X a<. Just. Mart. Apol. 1, c. 85, p. 124, lin. 28. " Ei X ai irpoffTaxSe.Va,. 
Origen. cont. Cels. 1. 6, p. 312. Aug. Vindel. 1605. 45 Preces solennes. Cypr. De 
Laps. p. 132. > Catech. Myst. 5, a p. 295 ad p. 301. 47 Catalog. Scriptor. Eccles. 
torn. i. p. 317, num. 123. 8 De Trad. Div. Liturg. ap. Bonam. de Rebus Liturgicis, 
1. 1, c. 9, p. 157. Can. 32. ConcU. torn. vi. col. 1158, B. 


The same is in the Liturgies of Rome and Alexandria, and in 
the Constitutions of Clemens, 50 which all agree are of great 
antiquity, though not so early as they pretend ; and St. 
Cyprian, who was living within an hundred years after the 
Apostles, makes mention of it as a form then used and re- 
ceived,* 1 which Nicephorus does also of the Trisagium in 
particular. 52 We do not deny but that these Liturgies may 
have been interpolated in after-times : but that no more over- 
throws the antiquity of the groundwork of them, than the 
large additions to a building prove there was no house before. 
It is an easy matter to say, that such Liturgies could not be 
St. James's or St. Mark's, because of such errors or mistakes, 
and interpolations of things and phrases of later times. But 
what then ? Is this an argument that there were no ancient 
Liturgies in the churches of Jerusalem or Alexandria ; when 
so long since as in Origen's time, 53 we find an entire collect 
produced by him out of the Alexandrian Liturgy ? And the 
like may be shewed as to other churches, which by degrees 
came to have their Liturgies much enlarged by the devout 
additions of some extraordinary men, who had the care of the 
several churches afterwards : such as were St. Basil, St. 
Chrysostom, and others. So that, notwithstanding their in- 
terpolations, the Liturgies themselves are a plain demonstra- 
tion of the use of divers precomposed set forms of prayer, 
besides the Lord's prayer and psalms, even in the first and 
second centuries. 

And that in Constantine's time the Church used such pre- 
composed set forms, is evident from Eusebius, who tells us of 
Constantine's M composing a prayer for the use of his soldiers ; 
and in the next chapter 44 gives us the words of the prayer; 
which makes it undeniably plain, that it was a set form of 
words. If it be said, that " Constantine's composing a form 
is a plain evidence, that at that time there w.ere no public 
forms in the Church ; " we answer, that this form was only 
for his heathen soldiers ; for the story tells us, 46 that he gave 
his Christian soldiers liberty to go to church. And therefore 
all that can be gathered from hence is, that the Christian 
Church had no form of prayers for heathen soldiers ; which is 
no great wonder, since if they had, it is very unlikely that 

* L. 8, c. 12, torn. . p. MS, E. ' De Orat. Domin. p. 15S. M Hint. Eccles. L 18. 
c. 53, torn. i!. p. 883, B. M Oriff. in Jerem. Horn. XIV. vol. I. p. 141, edit. Huet. 

Hothonuff. 1068. * De TiU Con.tant. 1. 4, c. 19, p. 53i, B. Ibid. c. 20, p. 535, C. 
* Ibid. c. 18, p. 534, D. 


they would have used it. But that the Church had forms of 
prayer is evident, because the same author calls the prayers 
which Constantine used in his court ('Ec/cX^me Qeov rpoirov, 
according to the manner of the Church 57 of God) ev-^ag ivQia- 
HOVQ, authorized prayers ; which is the same title he gave to 
that form which he made for his heathen soldiers. 58 And 
therefore if by the authorized prayers, which he prescribed to 
the soldiers, he meant a form of prayer, as it is manifest he 
did, then by the authorized prayers which he used in his 
court, after the manner of the Church of God, he must mean 
a form of prayers also. And since he had a form of prayers 
in his court, after the manner of the Church, the Church must 
necessarily have a form of prayers too. 

It is plain then, that the three first centuries joined in the 
use of divers precomposed set forms of prayer, besides the 
Lord's prayer and psalms : after which, (besides the Liturgies 
of St. Basil, St. Chrysostom, and St. Ambrose,) we have also 
undeniable testimonies of the same. 59 Gregory Nazianzen says, 
that " St. Basil composed orders and forms of prayer." 60 And 
St. Basil himself, reciting the manner of the public service 
that was used in the monastical oratories of his institution, 
says, 61 that " nothing was therein done but what was consonant 
and agreeable to all the churches of God." The Council of 
Laodicea expressly provides, 62 " that the same Liturgy or form 
of prayer should be always used, both at the ninth hour, and 
in the evening." And this canon is taken into the Collection 
of the Canons of the Catholic Church ; which Collection was 
established in the fourth general Council of Chalcedon, in the 
year 451 ; 63 by which establishment the whole Christian Church 
was obliged to the use of Liturgies, so far as the authority of 
a general Council extends. 

It were very easy to add many other proofs of the same 
kind, within the compass of time to which those I have al- 
ready produced do belong; 64 but the brevity of my design only 
allows me to mention such as are so obviously plain as to admit 
of no objections. To descend into the following ages, is not 
worth my while ; for the greatest enemies to precomposed set 
forms of prayer do acknowledge, that in the fourth and fifth 
centuries, and ever after, till the times of the Reformation, 

5r De vita Constant. 1. 4, c. 17, p. 534, A. M Ibid. c. 19, p. 535, B. 59 See St. Chry- 
sost. Homil. XVIII. in Ep. 2, ad Corinth, torn. iii. p. 647. Concil. Carthag. 3, can. 23, 
torn. ii. col. 1170. De Concil. Milev. 2, can. 12, torn. ii. col. 1540, E. w Oral. 20, in 
Basil. ei Epist. 63, torn. ii. p. 843, D. 6i Can. 18, Concil. torn. i. col. 1500, B. 
63 Can. 1, Concil. torn. iv. col. 756, B. G1 See Dr. Bennet's History of the joint Use of 
precomposed set Forms of Prayer, from chap. viii. to chap. xvi. 


the joint use of them obtained all over the Christian world. 
And therefore I shall take it for granted, that what has been 
already said is abundantly sufficient to prove, that the ancient 
Jews, our Saviour, his Apostles, and the primitive Christians, 
did join in the use of precomposed set forms of prayer. I 
shall now proceed to prove, 

2. Secondly, That (as far as we can conjecture) they never 
joined in any other. And first, that the ancient Jews, our 
Saviour, and his Apostles, never joined in any other than pre- 
composed set forms, before our Lord's resurrection, may very 
well be concluded, from our having no ground to think they 
ever did. For as he that refuses to believe a matter of fact, 
when it is attested by a competent number of unexceptionable 
witnesses, is always thought to act against the dictates of 
reason; so does that person act no less against the dictates of 
reason, who believes a matter of fact without any ground. 
And what ground can any man believe a matter of fact upon, 
but the testimony of those, upon whose veracity and judg- 
ment in the case he may safely rely ? But what testimonies 
can our adversaries produce in this case ? They cannot pre- 
tend to any proof (either express or by consequence) within 
this compass of time, of the joint use of prayers conceived 
extempore, because there is not the lowest degree of evidence, 
or so much as a bare probability of it. And therefore they 
ought of necessity to conclude, that the ancient Jews, our 
Saviour, and his Apostles, never joined in any other prayers 
than precomposed set forms, before our Lord's resurrection. 
It only remains therefore that I show, that there is no reason 
to suppose that they ever joined in any others afterwards. 

And here as for our Saviour, we have no particular account 
of his praying between the time of his resurrection and that of 
his ascension ; and therefore we can determine nothing of his 
joining therein. But as for the Apostles and primitive Chris- 
tians, we may conclude, that they never joined in any other 
than precomposed set forms after our Lord's resurrection, by 
the same way of reasoning, as we concluded they never did 
before his resurrection. For unless our adversaries can bring 
sufficient authorities, to prove that they joined in the use of 
prayers conceived extempore, we may very reasonably con- 
clude they never did. 

I know indeed there are some objections, which our adversa- 
ries pick up from words of like sound, and, without considering 
the sense, or how the holy penmen used them, urge them for 


solid arguments : but these my time will not permit me to ex- 
amine, nor is it indeed worth my while. I shall only desire it 
may be considered, that nothing more betrays the badness of 
a cause, than when groundless suppositions are so zealously 
opposed to evident truths. 65 

I shall however mention one thing, which is of itself a strong 
argument, that the Apostles and primitive Christians did never 
join in any other than precomposed set forms of prayer, viz. 
The difference between precomposed set forms of prayer, and 
prayers conceived extempore, is so very great ; and the alter- 
ation from the joint use of the one, to the joint use of the other, 
so very remarkable ; that it is utterly impossible to conceive, 
that if the joint use of extempore prayers had been ever prac- 
tised by the Apostles and first Christians, it could so soon have 
been laid aside by every Church in the Christian world ; and 
yet not the least notice to be taken, no opposition to be made, 
nor so much as a hint given, either of the time or reasons of 
its being discontinued, by any of the ancient writers whatso- 
ever : but that every nation, that has embraced the Christian 
faith, should, with a perfect harmony, without one single ex- 
ception, (as far as the most diligent search and information can 
reach,) from the Apostles' days to as low a period of time as 
our adversaries can desire, unite and agree in performing their 
joint worship by the use of precomposed set forms only. Cer- 
tainly such an unanimous practice of persons, at the greatest 
distance both of time and place, and not only different, but 
perfectly opposite in other points of religion, as well as their 
civil interests, is, as I said, a strong argument, that the joint 
use of precomposed set forms was fixed by the Apostles in all 
the churches they planted, and that, by the special providence 
of God, it has been preserved as remarkably as the Christian 
sacraments themselves. 

Much more might be added, but that I am satisfied, what has 
already been said is enough to convince any reasonable and un- 
prejudiced person ; and to those that are obstinate and biassed 
it is in vain to say more. I shall therefore proceed to shew, 

II. SECONDLY, That those precomposed set forms of prayer, 
in which they joined, were such as the respective congregations 
were accustomed to, and thoroughly acquainted with. And 
upon this I shall endeavour to be very brief, because a little 

65 For further satisfaction see Dr. Bennet's Discourse of the Gift of Prayer, and his 
History of the joint Use of precomposed set Forms of Prayer, chap, xviii. 



reflection upon what has been said will effectually demonstrate 
its truth. 

And, 1st, as to the practice of the ancient Jews, our Saviour, 
and his disciples, it cannot be doubted, but that they were ac- 
customed to, and well acquainted with, those precomposed set 
forms which are contained in the Scriptures : and as for their 
other additional prayers, the very same authors, from whom 
we derive our accounts of them, do unanimously agree in at- 
testing that they were of constant daily use ; and consequently 
the Jews, our Saviour, and his disciples, could not but be ac- 
customed to them, and thoroughly acquainted with them. 

The matter therefore is past all dispute till the Gospel-state 
commenced ; and even then also it is equally clear and plain. 
For it has been largely shewed, that the Apostles and primitive 
Christians did constantly use the Lord's prayer and psalms ; 
whereby they must necessarily become accustomed to them, 
and thoroughly acquainted with them. 

But then it is objected, that " their other prayers, which 
made up a great part of their divine service, were not stinted 
imposed forms, but such as the ministers themselves composed 
and made choice of for their own use in public." But this 
may likewise be answered with very little trouble ; because the 
same authorities, which prove that they were precomposed set 
forms, do also prove that the respective congregations were ac- 
customed to them, and thoroughly acquainted with them. 
For since the whole congregation did with one accord lift up 
their voice in an instant, and vocally join in that prayer which 
is recorded in the fourth chapter of the Acts ; since the public 
prayers, which the primitive Christians used in the first and 
second centuries, were called common prayers, constituted 
prayers, and solemn prayers ; since the Liturgy of St. James 
was of general use in the Church of Jerusalem within an hun- 
dred and sixty years after the apostolical age; since the Church 
in Constantino's time used authorized set forms of prayer ; since 
the Council of Laodicea expressly provides, that " the same Li- 
turgy be constantly used both at the ninth hour, and in the 
evening ;" I say, since these things are true, we may appeal to 
our adversaries themselves, whether it was possible, in those 
and the like cases, for the respective congregations to be other- 
wise than accustomed to, and thoroughly acquainted with, those 
precomposed set forms of prayer, in which they joined. 

We own indeed, that, by reason of the ancient Christians 


industriously concealing their mysteries, copies of their offices 
of joint devotion might not be common. And therefore (ex- 
cept the Lord's prayer, which the catechumens were taught 
before their baptism, and the psalms, which they read in their 
Bibles) none were acquainted with their joint devotions before 
they were baptized ; but were forced to learn them by con- 
stant attendance upon them, and by the assistance of their 
brethren. But the forms, notwithstanding, were well known 
to the main body of the congregation ; and those very per- 
sons, who at first were strangers to them, did, as well as 
others, by frequenting the public assemblies, attain to a per- 
fect knowledge of them ; because they were daily accustomed 
to them, and consequently, in a very short time, thoroughly 
acquainted with them : which was the second thing I was to 
prove. I come now in the last place to prove, 

III. THIRDLY, That the practice of the ancient Jews, our 
Saviour, his Apostles, and the primitive Christians, warrants 
the imposition of a national precomposed Liturgy : and this I 
shall make appear in the following manner. 

1. Their practice proves that a precomposed Liturgy was 
constantly imposed upon the laity. For that, without joining 
in which it was impossible for the laity to hold Church-com- 
munion, was certainly imposed upon the laity. Now their 
practice proves that it was impossible for the laity to hold 
communion with either the Jewish or Christian Church, un- 
less they joined in a precomposed Liturgy ; because the joint 
use of a precomposed Liturgy was their particular way of 
worship : and consequently as many of the laity as held com- 
munion with them must submit to that way of worship ; and 
as many as submitted to that way of worship had a precom- 
posed Liturgy imposed upon them. 

2. Their practice shews that a precomposed Liturgy was 
imposed on the clergy, i. e. the clergy were obliged to the use 
of a precomposed Liturgy in their public ministrations. For 
since the use of such a Liturgy was settled amongst them, it 
was undoubtedly expected from the respective clergy, that 
they should practise accordingly. For any one that is in the 
least versed in antiquity, must know how strict the Church- 
governors were in those times, and how severely they would 
animadvert upon such daring innovators, as should offer to set 
up their own fancies in opposition to a settled rule. So that 
it is no wonder, if in the first centuries we meet with no law to 

c 2 


establish the use of Liturgies ; since those primitive patterns 
of obedience looked upon themselves to be as much obliged 
by the custom and practice of the Church, as they could be by 
the strictest law. But we find that afterwards, when the per- 
verseness and innovations of the clergy gave occasion, the 
governors of the Church did, by making canons on purpose, 
oblige the clergy to the use of precomposed Liturgies ; as 
may be seen in the eighteenth canon of the Council of Lao- 
dicea; which, as I have shewed, enjoined, that "the same 
Liturgy should be used both at the ninth hour, and in the 
evening : " which is as plain an imposition of a precomposed 
Liturgy, as ever was or can be made. Thus also the second 
council of Mela enjoins, ^that " such prayers should be used 
by all, as were approved of in the Council, and that none 
should be said in the church, but such as had been approved 
of by the more prudent sort of persons in a synod : " which is 
another as plain imposition of a precomposed Liturgy as words 
can express, even upon the clergy. 

But though neither clergy nor laity had been thus obliged, 
yet one would think that the practice of all the ancient Jews, 
our blessed Saviour himself, his Apostles, and the whole 
Christian world, for almost fifteen hundred years together, 
should be a sufficient precedent for us to follow still. We may 
be sure, that had they not known the joint use of Liturgies to 
have been the best way of worshipping God, they would 
never have practised it : but since they did practise it, we 
ought in modesty to allow their concurrent judgments to be 
too great to be withstood by any person or society of men ; 
and consequently that their practice warrants the imposition 
of a precomposed Liturgy. 

And if of a precomposed Liturgy, it does for the same 
reason warrant the imposition of a national precomposed Li- 
turgy : for it appears, from what has been said upon my second 
head, that the precomposed Liturgies of both Jews and Chris- 
tians were such as the respective congregations were ac- 
customed to, and thoroughly acquainted witli ; and therefore 
their practice warrants the imposition of such a precomposed 
Liturgy, and consequently of a national precomposed Liturgy. 
For upon supposition that it is expedient for the congregations 
to be accustomed to, and thoroughly acquainted with, the 
Liturgies which they join in the use of; it is plain that a 

* A before quoted in notei , , p. 15. 


whole nation may as well have the same Liturgy, as each con- 
gregation may have a distinct one. And the clergy of a whole 
nation may as well resolve in a synod, or require by a canon 
made to that purpose, that the same Liturgy shall be used in 
every part of the nation, as leave it to the liberty of every 
particular bishop or minister to choose one for his own diocese 
or congregation. Nor is such an imposition of a national pre- 
composed Liturgy any greater grievance to the laity, than if 
each pastor imposed his own precomposed Liturgy or prayer 
conceived extempore on his respective flock ; because every 
precomposed Liturgy or extempore prayer is as much imposed, 
and lays as great a restraint upon the laity, as the imposition 
of a national Liturgy. Nor, again, is the synod's imposing a 
national Liturgy any grievance to the clergy ; since it is done 
either by their proper governors alone, or else (especially ac- 
cording to our English constitution) by their proper govern- 
ors, joined with their own representatives. So that such im- 
position, being either what they are bound to comply with in 
point of obedience, or else an act of their own choice, cannot 
for that reason be any hardship upon them. V 

Since therefore (to draw to a conclusion) this imposition of 
a national precomposed Liturgy is warranted by the constant 
practice of all the ancient Jews, our Saviour himself, his 
Apostles, and the primitive Christians ; and since it is a griev- 
ance to neither clergy nor laity, but appears quite, on the 
other hand, as well from their concurrent testimonies, as by 
our own experience, to be so highly expedient, as that there 
can be no decent or uniform performance of God's worship 
without it ; our adversaries themselves must allow it to be 

And if so, they can no longer justify their separation from 
the Church of England, upon account of its imposing The 
Book of Common Prayer, &c. as a national precomposed 
Liturgy ; unless they can shew, that though national precom- 
posed Liturgies in general may be lawful ; yet there are some 
things prescribed in that of the Church of England, which 
render it unlawful to be complied with : which that they can- 
not do, is, I hope, (though only occasionally, yet) sufficiently 
shewn in the following illustration of it. From which I shall 
now detain the reader no longer than to give him some small 
account of the original of The Book of Common Prayer, and 
of those alterations which were afterwards made in it, before 


it was brought to that perfection in which we now have it. 
And this 1 choose to do here, because I know not where more 
properly to insert such an account. 

An Appendix to the Introductory Discourse, concerning the 
Original of the Book of Common Prayer, and the several 
Alterations which were afterwards made in it. 

HOW the Liturgy BEFORE the Reformation, the Liturgy was only 
stood before the in Latin, being a collection of prayers made up 
lon ' partly of some ancient forms used in the primitive 
Church, and partly of some others of a later original, accom- 
modated to the superstitions which had by various means 
crept by degrees into the Church of Rome, and from thence 
derived to other Churches in communion with it ; like what 
we may see in the present Roman Breviary and Missal. And 
these being established by the laws of the land, and the canons 
of the Church, no other could publicly be made use of: so 
that those of the laity, who had not the advantage of a learned 
education, could not join with them, or be any otherwise edi- 
fied by them. And besides, they being mixed with addresses 
to the saints, adoration of the host, images, &c., a great part 
of the worship was in itself idolatrous and profane. 

But when the nation in king Henry VIII. 's 
i^eiatum to ne ^ me wa8 disposed to a reformation, it was thought 
Liturgical mat- necessary to correct and amend these offices : and 
SVi n ii k Ke n " not only have the service of the Church in the 
English or vulgar tongue, (that men might pray, 
not n>ith the spirit only, but with the understanding also 
and that he, roho occupied the room of the unlearned, might 
understand that unto which he mas to say Amen ; agree- 
able to the precept of St. Paul ; 67 ) but also to abolish and 
take away all that was idolatrous and superstitious, in order to 
restore the service of the Church to its primitive purity. For 
it was not the design of our Reformers (nor indeed ought it 
to have been) to introduce a new form of worship into the 
Church, but to correct and amend the old one ; and to purge 
it from those gross corruptions which had gradually crept into 
it, and so to render the divine service more agreeable to the 
Scriptures, and to the doctrine and practice of the primitive 

1 Cor. xiv. 15, 18. 


Church in the best and purest ages of Christianity. In which 
reformation they proceeded gradually, according as they were 

And first, the Convocation 68 appointed a committee, A. D. 
1537, to compose a book, which was called, The godly and 
pious institution of a christen man ; containing a declara- 
tion of the Lord's Prayer, the Ave Maria, the Creed, the Ten 
Commandments, and the Seven Sacraments, 69 &c. ; which book 
was again published A. D. 1540, and 1543, with corrections 
and alterations, under the title of A necessary doctrine and 
erudition for any christen man .- and as it is expressed in 
that preface, was setfurthe by the King, with the advyse of 
his Clergy ; the Lordes bothe spirituall and temporall, with 
the nether house of Parliament, having both sene and lyked 
it very well, 

Also in the year 1540, a committee of bishops and divines 
was appointed by king Henry VIII. (at the petition of the 
Convocation) to reform the rituals and offices of the Church. 
And what was done by this committee for reforming the 
offices was reconsidered by the Convocation itself two or 
three years afterwards, viz. in February, 1542-3. And in the 
next year the king and his clergy ordered the prayers for 
processions, and litanies, to be put into English, and to be 
publicly used. And finally, in the year 1545, the king's 
Primer came forth, wherein were contained, amongst other 
things, the Lord's Prayer, Creed, Ten Commandments, Venite, 
Te I)eum, and other hymns and collects in English ; and 
several of them in the same version in which we now use 
them. And this is all that appears to have been done in 're- 
lation to liturgical matters in the reign of king Henry VIII. 

In the year 1547, the first of king Edward 
VI., December the second, the Convocation 70 SSSSfftLer 
declared the opinion, nullo reclantante, that the compiled in the 
Communion ought to be administered to all per- Edward vif 
sons under both kinds. Whereupon an Act of 
Parliament was made ordering the Communion to be so ad- 
ministered. And then a committee of bishops, and other 
learned divines, was appointed to compose an uniform order 
of Communion, according to the rules of Scripture, and the 
use of the primitive Church. In order to this, the corn- 
's Fo 

p. 184 to p. 205. < Strype 
Strype's Memorials of Archbishop Cranmer, p. 157, 158. 


mittec repaired to Windsor Castle, and in that retirement, 
within a few days, drew up that form which is printed in 
bishop Sparrow's collection. 71 And this being immediately 
brought into use the next year, the same persons, being em- 
powered by a new commission, prepare themselves to enter 
upon a yet nobler work ; and in a few months' time finished 
the whole Liturgy, by drawing up public offices not only for 
Sundays and Holidays, but for Baptism, Confirmation, Matri- 
mony, Burial of the Dead, and other special occasions ; in 
which the forementioned Office for the Holy Communion 
was inserted, with many alterations and amendments. And 
the whole book being so framed, was set forth by the common 
agreement and full assent both of the Parliament and 
Convocations provincial ; i. e. the two Convocations of the 
provinces of Canterbury and York. 

The Committee appointed to compose this Liturgy were, 

1. Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury; who was 
the chief promoter of our excellent Reformation ; and had a 
principal hand, not only in compiling the Liturgy, but in all 
the steps made towards it. He died a martyr to the religion 
of the Reformation, which principally by his means had been 
established in the Church of England ; being burnt at Oxford 
in the reign of queen Mary, March 21, 1556. 

2. Thomas Goodrich, bishop of Ely. 

3. Henry Holbech, alias Randes, bishop of Lincoln. 

4. George Day, bishop of Chichester. 

5. John Skip, bishop of Hereford. 

6. Thomas Thirlby, bishop of Westminster. 

7. Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, and afterwards 
of London. He was esteemed the ablest man of all that ad- 
vanced the Reformation, for piety, learning, and solidity of 
judgment. He died a martyr in queen Mary's reign, being 
burnt at Oxford, October 16, 1555. 

8. Dr. William May, dean of St. Paul's, London, and after- 
wards also master of Queen's College in Cambridge. 

9. Dr. John Taylor, dean, afterwards bishop of Lincoln. He 
was deprived in the beginning of queen Mary's reign, and 
died soon after. 

10. Dr. Simon Heynes, dean of Exeter. 

11. Dr. John Redmayne, master of Trinity College in 
Cambridge, and prebendary of Westminster. 

12. Dr. Richard Cox, dean of Christ Church in Oxford, 

n Page 17. 


almoner and privy-councillor to king Edward VI. He was 
deprived of all his preferments in queen Mary's reign, and 
fled to Frankfort; from whence returning in the reign of 
queen Elizabeth, he was consecrated bishop of Ely. 

13. Mr. Thomas Robertson, archdeacon of Leicester. 

Thus was our excellent Liturgy compiled by And confirmed 
martyrs and confessors, together with divers by Act of Par- 
other learned bishops and divines ; and being re- hament - 
vised and approved by the archbishops, bishops, and clergy 
of both the provinces of Canterbury and York, was then con- 
firmed by the king and the three estates in parliament, A. D. 
1548, 72 who gave it this just encomium, viz. which at this 
uniform agreement is of them concluded, set forth, &c. 

But about the end of the year 1550, or the be- 

c , ctri i- j. i j. But afterwards 

ginning of 1551, some exceptions were taken at submitted to the 
some things in this book, which were thought to censure J BU- 

. . . _ cer and Martyr. 

savour too much of superstition. To remove 
these objections, therefore, archbishop Cranmer proposed to 
review it ; and to this end called in the assistance of Martin 
Bucer and Peter Martyr, two foreigners, whom he had invited 
over from the troubles in Germany ; who not understanding 
the English tongue, had Latin versions prepared for them : 
one Alesse, a Scotch divine, translating it on purpose for the 
use of Bucer ; and Martyr being furnished with the version of 
Sir John Cheke, who had also formerly translated it into La- 
tin. 73 What liberties this encouraged them to TT 

, i .1 / ii_ .e i T -i. j Upon whose ex- 

take in their censures or the first Liturgy, and ceptions u was 

how far they were instrumental to the laying reviewed and ai- 
aside several very primitive and venerable usages, 
I shall have properer opportunities of shewing hereafter, when 
I come to treat of the particulars in the body of the book. It 
will be sufficient here just to note the most considerable addi- 
tions and alterations that were then made : some of which 
must be allowed to be good ; as especially the addition of the 
sentences, exhortation, confession, and absolution, at the 
beginning of the morning and evening services, which in the 
first Common Prayer Book began with the Lord's Prayer. 
The other changes were the removing of some rites and cere- 
monies retained in the former book ; such as the use of oil in 

72 Second and third of Edward VI. chap. i. n Strype's Memorials of Archbishop 
Cranmer, p. 210. 


baptism ; the unction of the sick ; prayers for souls depart- 
ed, both in the Communion -office, and in that for the burial 
of the dead ; the leaving out the invocation of the Holy Ghost 
in the consecration of the Eucharist, and the prayer of obla- 
tion that was used to follow it ; the omitting the rubric, that 
ordered water to be mixed with wine, with several other less 
material variations. The habits also, that were prescribed by 
the former book, were ordered by this to be laid aside ; and, 
lastly, a rubric was added at the end of the Communion-office 
to explain the reason of kneeling at the Sacrament. The book 
thus revised and altered was again confirmed 
firmecMtiy Act of in parliament A. D. 1551, who declared, that the 
Parliament. alterations that were made in it proceeded from 
Both which Acts curiosity rather than any worthy cause. But 
a e Mlry peale(lby both this and the former act made in 1548, were 
repealed in the first year of queen Mary, as not 
being agreeable to the Romish superstition, which she was 
resolved to restore. 

But the second But u P on * ne accession of queen Elizabeth, 
book of K. Ed- the act of repeal was reversed ; and, in order to 
es^biilhedTtfthe the restoring of the English service, several learn- 
reignof a Eliza- e d divines were appointed to take another review 
of king Edward's Liturgies, and to frame from 
them both a book for the use of the Church of England. The 
names of those who, Mr. Carnden 74 says, were employed, are 
these that follow : 

Dr. Matthew Parker, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury. 
Dr. Richard Cox, afterwards bishop of Ely. 

Dr. May. 

Dr. Bill. 

Dr. James Pilkington, afterwards bishop of Durham. 

Sir Thomas Smith. 

Mr. David Whitehead. 

Mr. Edmund Grindall, afterwards bishop of London, and 
then archbishop of Canterbury. 

To these, Mr. S try pe says, 74 were added Dr. Edwin Sandys, 
afterwards bishop of Worcester, and Mr. Edward Guest, a very 
learned man, who was afterwards archdeacon of Canterbury, 
almoner to the queen, and bishop of Rochester, and afterwards 
of Salisbury. And this last person, Mr. Strype thinks, had 
the main care of the whole business ; being, as he supposes, re- 
commended by Parker to supply his absence. It was debated 

i* In his History of Q. Elizabeth. '* Strypc's Annals of Q. Elizabeth, p. 82, 83. 


at first, which of the two books of king Edward should be re- 
ceived ; and secretary Cecil sent several queries to Guest, 
concerning the reception of some particulars in the first book ; 
as prayers for the dead, the prayer of consecration, the de- 
livery of the sacrament into the mouth of the communicant, &C. 7 * 
But however, the second book of king Edward was pitched 
upon as the book to be proposed to the parliament to be 
established, who accordingly passed and commanded it to be 
used, rvith one alteration or addition of certain lessons to 
be used on every Sunday in the year, and the form of the 
Litany altered and corrected, and two sentences added in 
the delivery of the sacrament to the communicants, and 
none other, or otherwise. 

The alteration in the Litany here mentioned was the leav- 
ing out a rough expression, viz. from the tyranny of the 
Bishop of Rome, and all his detestable enormities, which 
was a part of the last deprecation in both the books of king 
Edward ; and the adding those words to the first petition for 
the queen, strengthen in the true worshipping of thee, in 
righteousness and holiness of life, which were not in before. 
The two sentences added in the delivery of the sacrament 
were these, the body of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was 
given for thee ; or the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
which was shed for thee ; preserve thy body and soul to 
everlasting life : which were taken out of king Edward's first 
book, and were the whole forms then used : whereas in the 
second book of that king, these sentences were left out, and 
in the room of them were used, take, eat, or drink this, with 
what follows ; but now in queen Elizabeth's book both these 
forms were united. 

Though, besides these here mentioned, there are some 
other variations in this book from the second of king Edward, 
viz. the first rubric, concerning the situation of the chancel 
and the proper place of reading divine service, was altered ; 
the habits enjoined by the first book of king Edward, and 
forbid by the second, were now restored. At the end of the 
Litany was added a prayer for the queen, and another for the 
clergy. And lastly, the rubric that was added at the end of 
the Communion-office, in the second book of king Edward 
VI., against the notion of our Lord's real and essential pre- 
sence in the holy Sacrament, was left out of this. For it 

78 Strype, ut supra. 


being the queen's design to unite the nation in one faith, it 
was therefore recommended to the divines to see that there 
should be no definition made against the aforesaid notion, but 
that it should remain as a speculative opinion not determined, 
in which every one was left to the freedom of his own mind. 
And in this state the Liturgy continued with- 

And some al- .. ,, ,, .. .-ii .1 t> * e 

terationsmadein out any further alteration, till the first year of 
kin" JamelT f ^' n o J ame8 ! when, after the conference at 
Hampton Court, between that prince with arch- 
bishop Whitgift of Canterbury, and other bishops and divines, 
on the one side ; and Dr. Reynolds, with some other Puritans, 
on the other, there were some forms of thanksgiving added 
at the end of the Litany, and an addition made to the Cate- 
chism concerning the sacraments ; the Catechism before that 
time ending with the answer to that question which immedi- 
ately follows the Lord's prayer. And in the rubric in the 
beginning of the Office for private baptism, the words lawful 
minister were inserted, to prevent midwives or laymen from 
presuming to baptize, with one or two more small alterations. 

And the whole ^"^ m ^* 8tatC '* contmuec ' to tne ^ me f 

book" again* re- king Charles II., who, immediately after his 
Resloratfo" the restorat i n at tne request of several of the 
Presbyterian ministers, was willing to comply to 
another review, and therefore issued out a commission, dated 
March 25, 1661, to empower twelve of the bishops, and 
twelve of the Presbyterian divines, to consider of the objec- 
tions raised against the Liturgy, and to make such reasonable 
and necessary alterations as they should jointly agree upon : 
nine assistants on each side being added to supply the place 
of any of the twelve principals who should happen to be ab- 
sent. The names of them are as follow : 

On the Epitcoparian side. 

Dr. Frucn, archb. of York. 
Dr. Shelden, bp. of London. 
Dr. Cosin, bp. of Durham. 
Dr. Warner, bp. of Rochester. 
* Dr. King, bp. of Chichestcr. 

On the Pretbyterian tide. 

Dr. Reynolds, bp. of Norwich. 
Dr. Tuckney. 
Dr. Conant. 
Dr. Spurstow. 
Dr. Wallis. 

I do not meet with this name either in the copy of the commission that wa 
printed in 1661, in the account of the proceeding* of the Commissioners, or in that 
copy of it which Dr. Nichols has printed at the end of hU preface to hi* book upon 
the Common Prayer; nor in that which Mr. Collier (rives us in his Ecclesiastical 
History.* But Mr. Baxter inserts it in the copy of the commission that he has printed 
vol. it. p. arc. 




On the Episcoparian side. 

Dr. Henchman, bp. of Sarum. 
Dr. Morley, bp. of Worcester. 
Dr. Sanderson, bp. of Lincoln. 
Dr. Laney, bp. of Peterborough. 
Dr. Walton, bp. of Chester. 
Dr. Stern, bp. of Carlisle. 
Dr. Gauden, bp. of Exeter. 


Dr. Earles, dean of Westminster. 
Dr. Heylin. 
Dr. Hackett. 
Dr. Barwick. 
Dr. Gunning. 
Dr. Pearson. 
Dr. Pierce. 
Dr. Sparrow. 
Mr. Thorndike. 

On the Presbyterian side. 

Dr. Manton. 
Mr. Calamy. 
Mr. Baxter. 
Mr. Jackson. 
Mr. Case. 
Mr. Clark. 
Mr. Newcomen. 

Dr. Horton. 
Dr. Jacomb. 
Mr. Bates. 
Mr. Rawlinson. 
Mr. Cooper. 
Dr. Lightfoot. 
Dr. Collins. 
Dr. Woodbridge. 
Mr. Drake. 

These commissioners had several meetings at the Savoy, 
but all to very little purpose : the Presbyterians heaping to- 
gether all the old scruples that the Puritans had for above a 
hundred years been raising against the Liturgy, and, as if they 
were not enough, swelling the number of them with many 
new ones of their own. To these, one and all, they demand 
compliance on the Church side, and will hear of no contradic- 
tion even in the minutest circumstances. But the completes! 
piece of assurance was the behaviour of Baxter, who (though 
the king's commission gave them no further power, than to 
compare the Common Prayer Book with the most ancient 
Liturgies that had been used in the Church, in the most 
primitive and purest times ; requiring them to avoid, as much 
as possible, all unnecessary alterations of the Forms and Li- 
turgy wherewith the people were altogether acquainted, and 
had so long received in the Church of England) would not so 
much as allow that our Liturgy was capable of amendment, but 
confidently pretended to compose a new one of his own ; and, 
without any regard to any other Liturgy whatsoever, either 
modern or ancient, amassed together a dull, tedious, crude, 

in the narrative of his own life,* and Dr. Nichols mentions him in his introduction to 
his Defence of the Doctrine and Discipline of the Church of England : and there are 
not twelve principal Commissioners on the Church side without him : and therefore I 
suppose he was left out of the copy of the commission in 1661, by the printer's mistake, 
and that from thence Dr. Nichols and Mr. Collier might continue the omission. 
6 Page 303. 


and indigested heap of stuff; which, together with the rest 
of the commissioners on the Presbyterian side, he had the 
insolence to offer to the bishops, to be received and estab- 
lished in the room of the Liturgy. Such usage as this, we 
may reasonably think, must draw the disdain and contempt 
of all that were concerned for the Church. So that the con- 
ference broke up, without any thing done, except that some 
particular alterations were proposed by the episcopal divines, 
which, the May following, were considered and agreed to by 
the whole Clergy in Convocation. The principal of them 
were, that several lessons in the calendar were changed for 
others more proper for the days ; the prayers upon particu- 
lar occasions were disjoined from the Litany, and the two 
prayers to be used in the Ember-weeks, the prayer for the 
Parliament, that for all conditions of men, and the general 
thanksgiving, were added : several of the collects were al- 
tered, the Epistles and Gospels were taken out of the last 
translation of the Bible, being read before according to the 
old translation : the office for baptism of those of riper 
years, and the forms of prayer to be used at sea, were 
added. 77 In a word, the whole Liturgy was then brought to 
that state in which it now stands ; and was unanimously sub- 
scribed by both houses of Convocation, of both provinces, on 
Friday, the 20th of December, 1661. And being brought to 
the house of lords the March following, both houses very 
readily passed an act for its establishment ; and the earl of 
Clarendon, then high chancellor of England, was ordered to 
return the thanks of the lords to the bishops and clergy of 
both provinces, for the great care and industry shewn in the 
review of it. 
n,. ,! Thus have I given a brief historical account 

The compiling -._. -i- iL n i / <- 

of our Liturgy, of the first compiling the Book of Common 
dtart!r Prayer, and of the several reviews that were 
and not a civil afterwards taken of it by our bishops and Con- 
vocations : one end of which was, that so " who- 
soever will may easily see (as bishop Sparrow shews on a like 
occasion 78 ) the notorious slander which some of the Roman per- 
suasion have endeavoured to cast upon our Church, viz. That 
her reformation hath been altogether lay and parliamentary." 
For it appears by the proceedings observed in the reforma- 

" For a more particular account of what was done in this review, see the Preface to the 
Common Prayer Book. w Preface to hii collection of Article*, &c., towards the end. 


tion of the service of the Church, that this reformation was 
regularly made by the bishops and clergy in their provincial 
synods ; the king and parliament only establishing by the 
civil sanction what was there done by ecclesiastical authority. 
" It was indeed (as my lord bishop of Sarum has excellently 
well observed 79 ) confirmed by the authority of parliament, 
and there was good reason to desire that, to give it the force 
of a law ; but the authority of [the book and] those changes 
is wholly to be derived from the Convocation, who only con- 
sulted about them and made them. And the parliament did 
take that care in the enacting them, that might shew they did 
only add the force of a law to them : for in passing them it 
was ordered, that the Book of Common Prayer and Ordina- 
tion should only be read over, (and even that was carried 
upon some debate ; for many, as I have been told, moved 
that the book should be added to the act, as it was sent to 
the parliament from the Convocation, without ever reading 
it ; but that seemed indecent and too implicit to others,) and 
there was no change made in a tittle by parliament. So that 
they only enacted by a law what the Convocation had done." 
And therefore, as his lordship says in another place, 80 " As it 
were a great scandal on the first general councils to say, that 
they had no authority for what they did, but what they de- 
rived from the civil power ; so is it no less unjust to say, 
because the parliament empowered (I suppose his lordship 
means approved] some persons to draw up forms for the 
more pure administration of the sacraments, and enacted that 
these only should be lawfully used in this realm, which is the 
civil sanction ; that therefore these persons had no other 
authority for what they did. Was it ever heard of that the 
civil sanction, which only makes any constitution to have the 
force of a law, gives it any other authority than a civil one ? 
The prelates and other divines, that compiled [these forms], 
did it by virtue of the authority they had from Christ, as 
pastors of his Church ; which did empower them to teach the 
people the pure word of God, and to administer the sacra- 
ments, and to perform all holy functions, according to the 
Scripture, the practice of the primitive Church, and the rules 
of expediency and reason ; and this they ought to have done, 
though the civil power had opposed it : in which case their 
duty had been to have submitted to whatever severities and 

Vindication of Ordinations of the Church of England, p. 53, 54. P. 74, 75. 


persecutions they might have been put to for the name of 
Christ, or the truth of his gospel. But on the other hand, 
when it pleased God to turn the hearts of those which had 
the chief power, to set forward this good work ; then they 
did, as they ought, with all thankfulness acknowledge so 
great a blessing, and accept and improve the authority of the 
civil power, for adding the sanction of a law to the reforma- 
tion, in all the parts and branches of it. So by the authority 
they derived from Christ, and the warrant they had by the 
Scripture and the primitive Church, these prelates and di- 
vines made those alterations and changes in the ordinal ; 
and the king and the parliament, who are vested with the 
supreme legislative power, added their authority to them, to 
make them obligatory on the subjects." These excellent 
words of this right reverend prelate are a full and complete 
answer to the Romanists' cavil of the lay original of our 
Liturgy. And I cannot but wonder, that others, who have 
wrote exceeding well on the Common Prayer Book, have not 
been careful to obviate this objection ; but have indeed rather 
given occasion for it, by intimating as if the Book of Common 
Prayer had been compiled by some persons only by virtue 
and authority of the king's commission : whereas it was in- 
deed a committee of the two houses of Convocation, and the 
book was revised and authorized by the whole synod, and in 
a synodical way, before it received the civil sanction from 
the king and parliament. 

And for this reason I have given a true account of this 
matter, that others who are led away by Erastian principles, 
and think that the civil magistrate only has authority in mat- 
ters of religion, may be convinced that this is not agreeable 
to the doctrine of our Church ; who declares in her twentieth 
article, that the Church (that is, the ecclesiastical governors, 
the bishops and their presbyters ; for there may be a Church 
where there is no Christian civil magistrate) hath porter to 
decree rites and ceremonies and authority in matters of 
faith: and affirms again in the thirty-seventh article, that 
nhere ne attribute to the Queen's Majesty the chief govern- 
ment, me give not to our Princes the ministering either of 
God's nord, or of the Sacraments ; but that only preroga- 
tive, which we see to have been given always to all godly 
Princes in holy Scripture by God himself; that is, that 
they should rule all estates and degrees committed to their 


charge by God, whether they be ecclesiastical or temporal, 
and restrain with the CIVIL sword the stubborn and evil 
doers. Our Liturgy was therefore first established by the 
Convocations or provincial Synods of the realm, and thereby 
became obligatory in foro conscientice ; and was then con- 
firmed and ratified by the supreme magistrate in parliament, 
and so also became obligatory in foro cimli. It has therefore 
all authority both ecclesiastical and civil. As it is established 
by ecclesiastical authority, those who separate themselves 
and set up another form of worship are schismatics ; and 
consequently are guilty of a damnable sin, which no tolera- 
tion granted by the civil magistrate can authorize or justify. 
But as it is settled by act of parliament, the separating from 
it is only an offence against the state ; and as such may be 
pardoned by the state. The act of toleration therefore (as it 
is called) has freed the Dissenters from being offenders 
against the state, notwithstanding their separation from the 
worship prescribed by the Liturgy : but it by no means ex- 
cuses or can excuse them from the schism they have made 
in the Church ; they are still guilty of that sin, and will be so 
as long as they separate, notwithstanding any temporal au- 
thority to indemnify them. 

And here I designed to have put an end to the Introduc- 
tion ; but having in the first part of it vindicated the use of 
Liturgies in general, and in this Appendix given an historical 
account of our own ; I think I cannot more properly conclude 
the whole than with Dr. Comber's excellent and just en- 
comium of the latter ; by which the reader will, I doubt not, 
be very well entertained, and perhaps be rendered more in- 
quisitive after those excellencies and beauties which are here 
mentioned, and which it is one chief design of the following 
treatise to shew. In hopes of this, therefore, I shall here 
transcribe the very words of the reverend and learned author. 

" Though all churches in the world," saith 
he, 81 " have, and ever had forms of prayer ; yet ^Stag 
none was ever blessed with so comprehensive, 
so exact, and so inoffensive a composure as ours : which is 
so judiciously contrived, that the wisest may exercise at once 
their knowledge and devotion; and yet so plain, that the 
most ignorant may pray with understanding : so full, that 
nothing is omitted which is fit to be asked in public ; and so 

si Dr. Comber's preface, p. 4, of the folio edition. 



particular, that it compriseth most things which we would ask 
in private ; and yet so short, as not to tire any that hath true 
devotion : its doctrine is pure and primitive ; its ceremonies 
so few and innocent, that most of the Christian world agree in 
them : its method is exact and natural ; its language signifi- 
cant and perspicuous; most of the words and phrases being 
taken out of the holy Scriptures, and the rest are the expres- 
sions of the first ana purest ages ; so that whoever takes ex- 
ception at these must quarrel with the language of the Holy 
Ghost, and fall out with the Church in her greatest innocence ; 
and in the opinion of the most impartial and excellent 
Grotius, (who was no member of, nor had any obligation to, 
this Church,) the English Liturgy comes so near to the 
primitive pattern, that none of the Reformed Churches can 
compare with it. 82 

" And if any thing external be needful to recommend that 
which is so glorious within ; we may add that the compilers 
were [most of them] men of great piety and learning ; [and 
several of them] either martyrs or confessors upon the resti- 
tution of Popery ; which as it declares their piety, so doth the 
judicious digesting of these prayers evidence their learning. 
For therein a scholar may discern close logic, pleasing rheto- 
ric, pure divinity, and the very marrow of the ancient doc- 
trine and discipline ; and yet all made so familiar, that the 
unlearned may safely say Amen. 83 

" Lastly, all these excellencies have obtained that universal 
reputation which these prayers enjoy in all the world : so that 
they are most deservedly admired by the Eastern Churches, 
and had in great esteem by the most eminent Protestants be- 
yond sea, 8 * who are the most impartial judges that can be de- 
sired. In short, this Liturgy is honoured by all but the Ro- 
manist, whose interest it opposeth, and the Dissenters, whose 
prejudices will not let them see its lustre. Whence it is that 
they call that, which the Papists hate because it is Protestant, 
superstitious and popish. But when we consider that the 
best things in a bad world have the most enemies, as it doth 
not lessen its worth, so it must not abate our esteem, because 
it hath malicious and misguided adversaries. 

" How endless it is to dispute with these, the little success 
of the best arguments, managed by the wisest men, do too 
sadly testify : wherefore we shall endeavour to convince the 

Grotiu* Ep. ad Boet M 1 Cor. xiv. 18. * See Durel't Defence of the Liturgy. 


enemies, by assisting the friends of our Church devotions : 
and by drawing the veil which the ignorance and indevotion 
of some, and the passion and prejudice of others, have cast 
over them, represent the Liturgy in its true and native lustre : 
which is so lovely and ravishing, that, like the purest beauties, 
it needs no supplement of art and dressing, but conquers by 
its own attractions, and wins the affections of all but those who 
do not see it clearly. This will be sufficient to shew, that 
whoever desires no more than to worship God with zeal and 
knowledge, spirit and truth, purity and sincerity, may do it 
by these devout forms. And to this end may the God of 
peace give us all meek hearts, quiet spirits, and devout affec- 
tions ; and free us from all sloth and prejudice, that we may 
have full churches, frequent prayers, and fervent charity; 
that uniting in our prayers here, we may all join in his praises 
hereafter, for the sake of Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen." 







SECT. I. Of the Rule for finding Easter. 

THE proper Lessons and Psalms being spoken to at large 
in other parts of this treatise, there is no need to say any thing 
particularly concerning the Tables that appoint them. I shall 
therefore pass them by, and begin with the Rule 
for finding Easter,- which stands thus in all 
Books of Common Prayer printed in or since the 
year 1752 : Easter-day is always the first Sunday after the 
full Moon, which happens upon or next after the twenty - 

1 In this edition, after the example of all others published since the year 1752, this 
chapter is printed with the alterations necessary to adapt it to the new Calendar, Ta- 
bles, and Rules, which were ordered to be prefixed to all future editions of the Book 
of Common Prayer, by the Act 24 Geo. II., entitled, An Act for regulating the com- 
mencement of the year; and for correcting the calendar. 

D 2 


first day of March ,- and if the full Moon happens upon 
Sunday, Easter-day is the Sunday after. 
Upon what occs- ^" ^ shew upon what occasion the rule 
ston this rule was framed, it is to be observed, that in the first 
was framed. a g eg Q f Christianity there arose a great difference 
between the churches of Asia and other churches, about the 
day whereon Easter ought to be celebrated. 
Easter differently r ^^ ie churches of Asia kept their Easter upon 
observed by dif- the same day on which the Jews celebrated their 
L passover, viz. upon the fourteenth day of their 
first month Nisan (which month began at the new moon next 
to the vernal 2 equinox) ; and this they did upon what day of 
the week soever it fell ; and were from thence called Quarto- 
decimans, or such as kept Easter upon the fourteenth day 
after the 4>ao-tc, or appearance of the moon : whereas the other 
churches, especially those of the West, did not follow this 
custom, but kept their Easter on the Sunday following the 
Jewish passover ; partly the more to honour the day, and partly 
to distinguish between Jews and Christians. Both sides plead- 
ed apostolical tradition : these latter pretending to derive their 
practice from St. Peter and St. Paul ; whilst the others, viz. 
the Asiatics, said they imitated the example of St. John. 3 

This difference for a considerable time con- 
e^ver^whe^ob- tinned with a great deal of Christian charity and 
served on the forbearance ; but at length became the occasion 
c^nclf office! f great bustles in the Church ; which grew to 
such a height at last, that Constantino thought it 
time to use his interest and authority to allay the heat of the 
opposite parties, and to bring them to a uniformity of practice. 
To which end he got a canon to be passed in the great general 
Council of Nice, " That every where the great feast of Easter 
should be observed upon one and the same day ; and that not 
on the day of the Jewish passover, but, as had been generally 
observed, upon the Sunday afterwards." And 4 that this dis- 
pute might never arise again, these paschal canons were then 
also established, viz. 
^ 1. "That the twenty-first day of March shall 

The Paschal . j .1 __> 

canons passed in be accounted the vernal equinox. 

Ni e ce Council f 2 ' " That the ful1 moon happening upon or 
next after the twenty-first day of March, shall be 
taken for the full moon of Nisan. 

* Joaephui, Antiq. Judaic, lib. 3. cap. 10. * Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 5, c. 23, 24, p. 193 
*c. Vide et 1. 4, c. 14. 4 Eusebius in Vita Constant. I. 3, c. 18. 


3. " That the Lord's day next following that full moon be 

4. " But if the full moon happen upon a Sunday, Easter- 
day shall be the Sunday after." 

. 3. Agreeable to these is the Kule for find- Them0 onsto be 
ing Easter, which we are now discoursing of. But found out by the 
here we must observe, that the Fathers of the G 
next century ordered the new and full moons to be found out 
by the cycle of the moon, consisting of nineteen years, invent- 
ed by Meton the Athenian, 5 and from its great usefulness in 
ascertaining the moon's age, as it was thought for ever, was 
called the Golden Number ; and was for some time usually 
written in letters of gold. By this cycle, I say, the Fathers 
of the next century ordered the moon's age to be found out ; 
which they thought a certain way, since at the end of nine- 
teen years the moon returns to have her changes on the same 
day of the solar year and month, whereon they happened nine- 
teen years before. For which reason the cycle was some time 
afterwards placed in the calendar, in the first column of every 
month, in such manner as that every number of the cycle 
should stand against those days in each month, on which the 
new moons should happen in that year of the cycle. But 
now it is to be noted, that though at the end of every nine- 
teen years the moon changes on the very same days of the 
solar months, on which it changed nineteen years before ; yet 
the change happens about an hour and half sooner every nine- 
teen years than in the former ; which, in the time that the 
Golden Number stood in the calendar, had made an alter- 
ation of about five days. 

. 4. By this means it happened that Easter Easter was kept 
was kept sometimes sooner and sometimes later sometimes sooner 
than the rule seemed to direct, and the Fathers ^terTan'thT 
of the Nicene Council intended. For it is very rule seems to 
manifest that they designed that the first full 
moon after the vernal equinox should be the paschal full 
moon : (for otherwise they knew that the resurrection of our 
blessed Lord could not be commemorated at the time it 
happened :) but then, for want of better skill in astronomy in 
those times, they confined the equinox to the twenty-first of 
March ; whereas it hath since been discovered not only that 
the moon's cycle of nineteen years complete was too long, but 
also that the Julian solar year, which they reckoned by, ex- 

5 Blondel's Roman Calendar, part I. lib. 2, c. 5. 



{CHAP. i. 

ceeds the true solar one by about eleven minutes every year ; 
which had brought the equinoxes forward eleven or twelve 
days from the time of the Nicene Council. Hence it must 
often have happened, that the first full moon after the twenty- 
first of March hath been different from the first full moon 
after the vernal equinox ; and that they who have observed 
Easter according to the letter of the Nicene canons, and the 
rule for finding the paschal full moon by the Golden Number 
as placed soon after in the calendar, have not always observed 
it according to the intent of those Fathers. But yet as soon 
as ever the canons were passed, the whole catholic Church 
was very strict in adhering to them ; and so tender of the au- 
thority of them, that about two hundred years after the 
Nicene Council this following table was drawn up by Diony- 
sius Exiguus, a Koman ; wherein are ex- 
pressed all those days on which the first 
full moons after the twenty-first of March 
happen in all the nineteen years of the lunar 
cycle : which was so well approved o$ that, 
by the Council of Chalcedon holden a little 
after, it was agreed that the Sunday next 
following the Paschal Limits answering the 
Golden Numbers, as they are expressed in 
this table, should be Easter-day ; and that 
whosoever celebrated Easter on any other 
day should be accounted an heretic. 

According to this table was Easter ob- 
served from the year of Christ 534, or 
thereabouts, till the year 1582 : at which 
time pope Gregory XIII. reformed the 
calendar, and brought back the vernal 
equinox to the twenty-first of March. So 
that the Roman Church keeping their Easter 
from that time on the first Sunday after the 
first full moon next after the twenty-first of 

The Paschal Limits 
answering the Gold- 
en Numbers, accord- 

ing to the Julian ac- 



The Puchal 






March 25. 


April 13. 


April 2. 


March 22. 


April 10. 


March SO. 


April 18. 


April 7. 


March 27. 


April IS. 


April 4. 


March 24. 


April 12. 


Aprill . 


March 21. 


April 9. 


March 29. 


April 17. 

March, observed it exactly according to the use of the primi- 
tive Church. And in the year 1752, the like reformation was 
made in our calendar, by ordering the third day of September 
in that year to be called the fourteenth, thereby suppressing 
eleven intermediate days, and bringing back the vernal 
equinox to the twenty-first of March, as it was at the time of 
the Nicene Council. 


SECT. II. Of the Tables for finding Easter. 

AFTER the Rule for finding Easter is inserted an account 
when the rest of the movable feasts and holy-days begin , 
and after that follow certain tables relating to the feasts and 
vigils that are to be observed in the Church of England, and 
other days of fasting or abstinence, with an account of certain 
solemn days for which particular services are appointed. But 
these, and every thing relating to them, I shall have a more 
convenient opportunity to treat of hereafter ; and therefore 
shall pass on now to the Tables for finding Easter. 

When the Nicene Council had settled the true The bishop of 
time for keeping Easter in the method set down Alexandria was 
in the first section of this chapter, the bishop of togTve mSice'of 1 
Alexandria (for the Egyptians at that time ex- Easter-day to 

i, j . , , v , i j / \ other Churches. 

celled in the knowledge of astronomy) was ap- 
pointed to give notice of Easter-day to the pope and other 
patriarchs, to be notified by them to the metropolitans, and by 
them again to all other bishops. 6 But this injunction could 
be but temporary : for length of time must needs make such 
alteration in the state of affairs, as must render any such 
method of notifying the time of Easter impracticable. And 
therefore this was observed no longer than till a Cycle or 
course of all the variations which might happen in regard to 
Easter-day might be settled. 

. 2. Hereupon the computists applied them- 
selves to frame such a Cycle: and the vernal Cycl d e r s a a ^ ards 
equinox being fixed by the Council of Nice, and 
Easter-day by them also appointed to be always the first Sun- 
day after the first full moon next after the vernal equinox ; 
they had nothing to do, but to calculate all the revolutions of 
the moon and of the days of the week, and inquire, whether, 
after a certain number of years, the new moons, and conse- 
quently the full moons, did not fall out, not only on the same 
days of the solar year, (for that they do after every nineteen 
years,) but also on the same days of the week on which they 
happened before, and in the same ordinary course. Because, 
by calculating a table for such a number of years, they might 
find Easter for ever ; viz. by beginning again at the end of 
the last year, and going round as it were in a circle. 

f See Pope Leo's Epistle to the Emperor Marcianus, Epist. 64. 


And first a Cycle was framed at Rome for 
hc yean. f M eighty -f our years, and generally received in the 

Western Church ; it being thought that in that 
space of time the changes of the moon would return to the 
same days both of the week and year in such manner as they 
had done before. 7 During the time that Easter was kept ac- 
cording to this Cycle, Britain was separated from the Roman 
empire, and the British churches for some time after that 
separation continued to keep their Easter by this table of 
eighty-four years. But soon after that separation, the Church 
of Rome and several others discovered great deficiencies in 
this account, and therefore left it for another, which was more 
perfect : not but that also had its defects, though it has been 
continued ever since in the Greek Church, and some others ; 
and till very lately in our own. 8 

The Cycle of 532 ^he Cycle I mean was drawn up about the 
years, or victori- year 457, by Victorius or F'ictorinus, a native 

of Aquitain, an eminent mathematician : who, 
observing that the Cycle of the Sunday letter consisted of 
twenty-eight years, and consequently that the days of the 
week have a complete revolution, and begin and go on again 
every twenty-eight years, just in the same order that they did 
twenty-eight years before, and that the Cycle of the Moon re- 
turned to have her changes on the same days of the solar year 
and month, whereon they happened nineteen years before, 
but not on the same days of the week : Victorius, I say, hav- 
ing observed this, and endeavouring to compose a Cycle, 
which should contain all the changes of the days of the week, 
and of the moon also, (which was necessary to find Easter for 
ever ;) he multiplied these two Cycles of nineteen and twenty- 
eight together, and from thence composed his period of five 
hundred and thirty-two years, from him ever after called the 
Victorian period. And in this time he supposed the new 
moons would fall out on the same days both of the month 
and week, on which they happened before, and in the same 
orderly course. So that this day (be it what day it will) is 

7 See the bishop of Worcester's Historical Account of Church-government, p. 67, and 
Bede Hist. 1. 5, c. 22, in fin. ' This alteration of the Cycle to find Easter was the 
cause that the Britons, who kept to the old account, differed from the Romans in the 
time of celebrating this festival. For though both kept it on a Sunday, according to 
the rule of the Council of Nice ; yet they differed as to the particular Sunday. This 
upon the coming in of Augustin the monk, first archbishop of Canterbury, caused some 
contests in this island, of which Bede gives a large account, [Hist. Eccl. 1. 3, c. 25, 1. 5, 
c. 22,] where it may be seen that the Britons never were Quartwlecimani, as some 
have imagined them to be. 


the same day of the year, month, moon, and week, that it was 
five hundred and thirty-two years ago, or will be five hun- 
dred and thirty-two years hence ; i. e. if this calculation has 
no defect in it, as it was then thought to have none, or so 
little as would make no considerable variation. And when 
the first full moon after the vernal equinox, or March 21, hap- 
pens on the same day both of the month and week, as it did any 
year before ; Easter-day must also fall on the same day on 
which it happened that year : so that Easter, according to 
this computation, must go through all its variations in five 
hundred and thirty-two years ; forasmuch as the moon and 
the days of the week have all their variations in that space. 

. 3. This calculation was thought to come TWsCydeestab . 
much nearer to the truth (as indeed it did) than lishedtythe 
the former table of eighty-four years : for which Church - 
reason it was generally followed in a little time. And the 
fourth Council of Orleans, A. D. 541, decreed, that 9 "the 
feast of Eastei should be celebrated every year according to 
the table of Victorius ; and that the day whereon it is to be 
celebrated every year should be declared by the bishop in the 
time of divine service on the feast of Epiphany." However 
in a little time it was thought more convenient 
to adapt these tables to the calendar, so that a^apt^toThe 3 
every one, who had a book of the divine offices calendar in the 

i J i i j i J i-i i service book. 

wherein this calendar was placed, might know 

the day whereon Easter should be kept, without any further 


But the whole table being of too great a The occasion of 
length to be inserted into one book of divine the Golden 

n* -A. f j J ui . i iU Numher and Do- 

offices, it was found more advisable to place the m inkai Letters 

Golden Number, or Cycle of the moon, in the being placed in 

, J -. i , n ... the calendar. 

first column of the calendar, cind the Dominical 
Letters in another column ; in such manner that the Golden 
Number should point out the new moons in every month : 
by which means it would be easy to find out the fourteenth 
day of the Easter moon, or the first full moon after the 
twenty-first day of March, and then, by the Dominical Letter 
following that day, to be assured of the day whereon Easter 
must be kept. 

. 4. And from these two columns was drawn The table to fiml 
up a Table to find Easter for ever ; that so at any Easter for ever 

Can. I. Concil. torn. v. col. 381, E. 


erroneou*. New time, by only knowing the Golden Number and 
b y bles the Dominical Letter, it might be seen at one 

view (without any trouble or computation) what 
day Easter would happen on in any year required. But that 
table being founded on this erroneous supposition, viz. that 
the Golden Numbers, as fixed in the calendar, would for ever 
shew the day of the new moon in every month, which they 
have long since failed to do, it is laid aside, and others sub- 
stituted in its place, whereby to find the paschal full moon 
and Easter-day till the year 1900 ; when the Golden Numbers 
must be shifted (according to the tables prepared for that 
purpose 10 ) to make them continue to answer the ends for 
which they stand in the tables and calendar. But it does not 
fall within our present design to consider tables which are 
calculated for so distant a time. 

SECT. III. Of the Golden Number. 

I PASS on now to the Table of movable feasts 
f or Jifty-t years, where it may be expected I 
should speak of three things therein mentioned, 
viz. the Golden Number, the Epact, and the Dominical Letter.- 
and of these the first that offers itself is the Golden Number.- 
of this, therefore, in the first place. 

8. 2. And this, as we have already hinted, 

By whom in- . . j i i_ o f * . 

vented, and why was invented long before our Saviours nativity 
Num d b&c n bv Meton the Athenian, from whence it was 

styled the Metonic Cycle; till afterwards it 
changed its name, being either from its great usefulness in 
ascertaining the moon's age, or else from its being written in 
letters of gold, called the Golden Number,- though sometimes, 
for the first of these reasons, it is called the Cycle of the Moon. 
. 3. The occasion of this Cycle was this : It 
it, snTtow 11 ' having been observed that at the end of nineteen 
cSemiar"" the vears tne moon returned to have her changes on 

the same days of the solar year and month 
whereon they happened nineteen years before ; it was thought 
that by the use of a cycle, consisting of nineteen numbers, 
the time of the new moons every year might be found out, 
without the help of astronomical tables, after this manner : 
viz. they observed on what day of each calendar month the 
new moon fell in each year of the cycle, and to the said days 

10 See the four tot tablet in the Book of Common Prayer. 




they set respectively the number of the said year. And after 
this method they went through all the nineteen years of the 
cycle, as may be seen in the calendar of most Common 
Prayer Books printed before the year 1752. 

. 4. And by this method the new moon could ^ now order . 
be found with accuracy enough at the time of ed to be left out 
the Nicene Council, forasmuch as the Golden fthecalendar - 
Number did then shew the day (i. e. the Nuchthemeron) upon 
which the new moon fell out. And hereupon is founded the 
rule of the Nicene Council for finding Easter, as has been al- 
ready shewed. But here it is to be observed, that the cycle 
of the moon is less than nineteen Julian years, by one hour, 
twenty-seven minutes, and almost thirty- 
two seconds : whence it comes to pass, that 
although the new moons fall again upon 
the same days as they did nineteen years 
before, yet they fall not on the same hour 
of the day, or Nuchthemeron, but one hour, 
twenty-seven minutes, and almost thirty- 
two seconds sooner. And this difference 
arising in about three hundred and twelve 
years to a whole day ; it must follow that 
the new moon, after every three hundred 
and twelve years, would fall a whole day (or 
Nuchthemeron) sooner. So that for this 
reason the new moons were found to fall 
about four days and a half sooner now 
than the Golden Numbers indicated. And 
though this might have been rectified for 
the present, by shifting the Golden Numbers 
to the days on which the astronomical new 
moons now happen ; yet it has been or- 
dered by the late Act for correcting the 
Calendar, that the column of Golden 
Numbers, as they were prefixed to the respective days of all 
the months in the calendar, shall be left out in all future 
editions of the Book of Common Prayer. And accordingly 
the Golden Numbers have now no place in the calendar but 
against the twenty-first of March and the eighteenth of 
April,* and some of the intermediate days, where they stand 

The twenty-first of March and theeighteenth of April are properly the paschal limits, 
because the full moon by which Easter is governed must not fall before the former or 

The Paschal Limits 

answering the Gold- 

en Numbers, accord- 

ing to the new ac- 



The Paschal 




April 13. 


April 2. 


March 22. 


April 10. 


March 30. 


April 18. 


April 7. 


March 27. 


April 15. 


April 4. 


March 24. 


April 12. 


April 1. 


March 21. 


April 9. 
March 29. 


April 17. 


April 6. 


March 26. 


only as the paschal terms, (for a limited time, 11 ) shewing the 
days of the full moons, by which Easter is to be governed 
through all the several years of the moon's cycle ; as is ex- 
pressed in the table annexed. 

TO find the ^* ^ shall a.dd no more on this head, than 

Golden Number to shew how we may find the Golden Number 

of any year. f Qf aQ y y ear> ^nd ^ s j g (J one by adding One" 

to the given year of Christ, and then dividing the sum by 
nineteen. If after the division nothing remains over, then 
the Golden Number is nineteen ; but if any number remains 
over, then the said remaindq^is the Golden Number for that 
year. For instance, I would know the Golden Number for 
the year 1 758, which by this method I find to be 11; for 
1758 and 1 (i. e. 1759) being divided by 19, there will re- 
main 1 1 . And thus much for the cycle of the moon. 

SECT. IV. Of the Epacts. 
THE Lunar Year consists of twelve lunar 
h?wconut e <!d. months, i. e. of twelve months, consisting of 
about twenty-nine days and a half each. In 
which space of time the moon returns to her conjunction 
with the sun ; that is, from one new moon to the next new 
moon are very near twenty-nine days and a half. But, to 
avoid fractions, the computists allow thirty days to one moon, 
and twenty-nine to another : so that in twelve moons six are 
computed to have thirty days each, and the other six but 
twenty-nine days each. Thus beginning the year with March, 
(for that was the ancient custom,) they allowed thirty days 
for the moon in March, and twenty-nine for that in April ; 
and thirty again for May, and twenty-nine for June, &c. 
according to the old verses : 

Impar luna part, parfet in impart tnense ; 
In quo complehir mensi lunatio detur. 

For the first, third, fifth, seventh, ninth, and eleventh months, 
which are called impares menses, or unequal months, have 
their moons according to computation of thirty days each, 
which are therefore called pares tunee, or equal moons ; but 

after the latter day : so that March the twenty-second is the earliest day, and April the 
twenty -fifth (which, if the eighteenth should be full moon and a Sunday, will be the 
Sunday following) the latest day upon which Easter can fall. And upon this is framed 
the Table of the movable featti according to the teveral dayi thai JSatter can poittbly 
fall a i on. 

" Till the year 1899 inclusive. " The reason of adding one is, because the sera of 
Christ began in the second year of the cycle. 


the second, fourth, sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth months, 
which are called pares menses, or equal months, have their 
moons but twenty-nine days each, which are called impares 
lunce, or unequal moons. 

. 2. Now these twelve months of thirty and 
twenty-nine days alternate, making up but three ^t 
hundred and fifty-four days in all ; the whole lunar 
year must consequently be eleven days shorter than the solar 
year, which consists of three hundred and sixty-five days. So 
that supposing the new moon to be on the first day of March 
in any year ; in the next year the new moon will happen 
eleven days before the first of March, viz. on February 
eighteen. Therefore, to know the age of the moon on the 
first of March that year, we add an Epact, i. e. an intercalar 
number of eleven days ; the lunar month being that year 
eleven days before the solar. Then again, at the end of the 
next year, the new moon will fall eleven days sooner than it 
did at the end of the foregoing year, viz. on February the 
seventh ; for which reason we add eleven days more for the 
Epact of the next year, which makes it twenty-two. The 
year after this the moon will again fall short of the time 
whereon it happened in the foregoing year eleven days more ; 
which being added to twenty-two, the Epact of the year past, 
the whole will make thirty-three, that is, one \vhole moon and 
three days over ; so that in that year we compute thirteen 
moons, viz. twelve common moons of thirty and twenty-nine 
days alternate, and an intercalar one of thirty days ; and take 
the odd three days for the Epact of the next year, and then 
proceed in the same manner again, by adding eleven at the 
end of every year : always observing, when the number rises 
above thirty, to add an intercalar moon to that year, and to 
retain the remaining number for the Epact of the next. 

. 3. Thus have we nineteen Epacts, an- How the Epactg 
swering to the Golden Numbers, and following answer to the 
one another in course, by the adding of eleven G lden Number - 
days every year in the following manner; 11. 22. 33. 14. 25. 
36. 17. 28. 39. 20. 31. 12. 23. 34. 15. 26. 37. 18. 29. In 
which cycle of Epacts, as I have noted them in the numbers 

33. 36. 39. 31. 34. 37. the figures that have a dot or tittle 
over them are not put as belonging to the Epact ; but only 
denote that in those years there is an intercalar or thirteenth 



[CHAP. i. 

A Table of Epacts. 































































How to find the 

month of thirty days added to the year 
before ; but the Epacts for those years are 
3. 6. 9. 1. 4. 7. And after the Epact of 
29, (which makes the last intercalar month,) 
the cycle begins again at 11. But this is so 
only in the Julian account ; for according to 
the new reckoning, though the years of the 
Golden Number agree, the Epacts are dif- 
ferent ; as may be seen by the adjoining 
table, in which both are exhibited in one 

. 4. The readiest way to 
find the Julian Epact is by 
the Golden Number; for if 
the Golden Number be 3, or a number to 
be divided by 3, the Epact is the same. If 
it be any other number, as 4, 5, 7, or 8, 
consider how many numbers it is more than 
the last number to be divided by 3, and 
add so many times 11 to it, casting away 30 as often as there 
is occasion, and it gives the Epact. And the Julian Epact 
being known, it is easy from thence to find the Epact accord- 
ing to the New Style : namely, if the Julian Epact be greater 
than 11, subtract 11 from it; if less than 11, add 30 to it, 
and from that sum subtract 11, and the remainder will be the 
Epact required. Or in still fewer words, the difference of the 
Epacts of the Old Style from the New is equal to the number 
of days taken away from the Old. 

The ue of the ** By the Epact we discover the true as- 
Epact to find the tronomical moons very near, i. e. within a day 
over or under, which may be sufficient for com- 
mon use, and no cycle can be found nearer. The method of 
doing which is this : if we would know how old the moon is 
on any day of a month, we must add unto that day the Epact, 
and as many days more as there are months from March to 
that month inclusive ; u which if it be less than 30, shews 
the moon''s age ; if it be greater, subtract 30 from it, and the 
age of the moon remaineth ; i. e. whatever number remains 
after the whole has been divided by 30, so many days old is 

14 The reason of which IB, because the Epact increnieth every year eleven days, 
which being almost one day for every month, therefore we add the number of the month 
from March inclusive. But this is to be understood only of the months that follow 
March, and not those that go before it. 


the moon : if nothing remains, the moon changes that day. 
Thus for instance, if we would know what the age of the 
moon will be the second of November in the year 1758, we 
must inquire after this manner : the Epact for that year is 20 ; 
to 20 therefore we must add 2, the day of the month, and 
nine more, the number of the month inclusive from March ; 
which three numbers being added together, make up the 
number 31 ; from which if we subtract 30 (the moon having 
so many days in November, that being an unequal month) 
there will remain 1, which will appear to be the age of the 
moon on that day. 

. 6. The reason why the Epacts shew the 
moon's age truer than the Golden Number did, 2*2SS5SU 

i i /~i i i "KT i i rt T snew me moon t> 

is because the Golden Number being affixed to age truer than 
the calendar could not be removed to other Number. en 
days than those against which they stood, unless 
by public authority. But the Epacts not being so affixed, 
have been changed from time to time by the computists, as 
they saw occasion to make such alterations, in order to make 
their computations agreeable to the course of the moon in the 
heavens. For though in the space of nineteen years the 
moon returns to have her conjunction with the sun on the 
same days ; yet those conjunctions fall out about an hour and 
a half earlier in the succeeding nineteen years than they did 
in the foregoing ; which, as has been calculated, makes a whole 
day's difference in a little more than three hundred and twelve 
years. Therefore the computists have once in a little more 
than that time changed the old course of the Epacts, and 
substituted another in its room : to which cause it is owing 
that they still notify the new moons to us according to the 
real conjunction of the luminaries in the heavens, and have 
not failed us, as the Golden Numbers have done. 

SECT. V. Of the Cycle of the Dominical Letters, commonly 
called the Cycle of the Sun. 

THE Cycle of the Sun is very improperly so The Cycle of the 
called, since it relates not to the course of the sun improperly 
Sun, but to the course of the Dominical or Sun- sc 
day letter, and ought therefore to be called the Cycle of the 
Sunday Letter. 

. 2. The use of the cycle arises from the 
custom of assigning in the calendar to each day The yci nhe 
of the week one of the first seven letters of the 


alphabet : A being always affixed to January the first, what- 
ever day of the week it be ; B to January the second, C to 
January the third, and so in order, G to January the seventh. 
After which the same letters are repeated again : A being af- 
fixed to January the eighth, and so on. According to this 
method, there being fifty-two weeks in a year, the said letters 
are repeated fifty-two times in the calendar. And were there 
just fifty-two weeks, the letter G would belong to the last 
day of the year, as the letter A does to the first ; and conse- 
quently that letter which was at first constituted the Sunday 
letter (and the same is to be understood of the other days of 
the week) would always have been so ; and there would have 
been no change of the Sunday letter. But one year consist- 
ing of fifty-two weeks and an odd day over ; hence it comes to 
pass that the letter A belongs to the last, as well as to the first 
day of every year. For although every leap-year consists of 
three hundred and sixty-six days, i. e. of two days over fifty- 
two weeks, yet it is not usual to add a letter more, viz. B, at 
the end of the year ; but instead thereof to repeat the letter 
C, which stands against February the twenty-eighth, and 
affix it again to the intercalated day, February the twenty- 
ninth. 15 By which means the said seven letters of the alphabet 
remain affixed to the same days of a leap-year as of a com- 
mon year, through all the whole calendar both before and 
after. The letter A then thus always belonging to the last day 
of the old year, and first of the new, it thence comes to pass, 
that there is a change made as to the Sunday letter in a 
18 backward order ; i. e. supposing G to be the Sunday letter 
one year, F will be so the next, and so on. 

S. 3. Now were there but this single change, 

A single change 0*1 1.1 u J iJU uru 

of the Sunday Sunday would be denoted by each ot the seven 
nio'nye'ar^anTa ' etters every seven years, and so the cycle of the 
double one in Sunday letter would consist of no more than 
seven years. But now there being in every 
fourth or leap-year two days above fifty-two weeks ; hence it 
comes to pass that there is every such year a double change 
made as to the Sunday letter. For as the odd single day 
above fifty-two weeks in a common year, makes the first 

11 In the common almanack* the letter F ii net against the twenty-fourth and twenty- 
fifth, the twenty-fourth having been formerly accounted the intercalary day : but our 
Church at present teems to make the twenty -ninth of February the intercalated day, M 
shall be shewed hereafter, when I treat of the time of keeping St. Matthias's day. 

M Bede expressed the retrograde order of the Dominical Letter in this verse: 
Q randia F rendet E quut, 1) urn C emit B elli^er A arma. 




Sunday in January to shift from that which was the Sunday 
letter in the foregoing year, to the next letter to it in a back- 
ward order ; so a day being intercalated every leap-year at the 
end of February, and the letter C being affixed to the twenty- 
ninth, as well as to the twenty-eighth day of that month, does 
also make the first Sunday in March to shift from that which 
was the Sunday letter in February, to the next letter to it in 
a retrograde order. So that if in a leap-year F be the Sunday 
letter for January and February, E will be the Sunday letter 
for all the rest of the year, and D for the year following. By 
reason of which double change in every fourth _ 

., .i_ . .i_ i P Why the cycle 

or leap-year, it comes to pass that the cycle of consists of 

the Sunday letter consists of four times seven t ^ r n s ty ~ eight 

years, i. e. it does not proceed in the same 

course it did before, till after twenty-eight years : but after 

that number of years, its course or 

order is the same as it was before. 

4. To find out the Ho w to find the 
Sunday letter for any year Dominical 
of the Julian cycle, we Letter - 
must do thus : to the year of our Lord 
we must add 9, (for the aera of Christ 
began in the tenth year of the cycle,) 
and then divide the sum by 28. If 
any of the dividend remains, the said 
remainder shews the year of the cycle 
sought ; if nothing remains of the 
dividend, then it is the last or twenty- 
eighth year of the cycle. And the 
Dominical Letter according to the 
New Style is at present, and will be 
for some years to come, the third in 
a backward order of the letters from 
the Julian : 17 as may be seen by the 
annexed table of the Julian cycle of 
the Sun, and of the corresponding 
Sunday letters in the new account. 

For it is to be observed with respect 

to these two tables or cycles, that the 

former or Julian table would serve for 

. ever , but that the latter will serve 

A TABLE of the Cycle of 

the Sun. 


Year of 


Year of 



























B A 


















A G 






























A G 


































B A 













17 Till the year 1800, when it will be the second. 



[CUAP. i. 

only for the present century.- 1 * to explain the reason of this 
we must take notice again, that as the Julian solar year has 
been found to be too long by about three quarters of an hour 
in four years, or a whole day in about one hundred and thirty- 
three years, or three days in four hundred years ; it hath been 
contrived to suppress three days in every four hundred years ; 
which is ordered to be done by making only those hundredth 
years of our Lord, which may be divided into even hundreds 
by 4, to be bissextile or leap years ; and all other hundredth 
years which cannot be so divided, (which are also leap-years 
in the Julian account,) to be deemed common years. In con- 
sequence of which the year of our Lord 1800, not being 
divisible into even hundreds by 4, will be a common year 
with only one Sunday letter ; and as the like will happen 
three times in every four hundred years, it will require a table 
of four hundred years to shew all the changes of the Dominical 
Letters that can happen according to the new account. 1 ' 




C B 





E. O.C. 

B A 

O.P. E. 

D C 


F E 

D. C.B. 










































>.,,, i 



Shewing, by inspec- 
tion, all the DOMIN- 
have been since the 
correction of the 
Julian Calendar by 
pope Gregory XIII., 
which took place 
from the ides of Oct. 
1582, or that can 
occur in any future 

" See a rule to find the Sunday letter New Style, both for this century and the nest, 
in the table for finding Easter-day till 1899. The editors have been favoured with 
a copy of such a table, drawn up by W. Rivet, of the Inner Temple, Esq., which they 
have printed, believing it will be acceptable to the reader. 


By the Julian calendar the Dominical Letters for the year 
1580 were C B, for 1581 A, and for 1582 (the second year 
after bissextile) the letter G. Consequently as October in that 
year began on a Monday, the fourth of that month must be 
Thursday ; and the next natural day, which was reckoned the 
fifteenth (ten days being then dropped) was Friday ; the six- 
teenth nominal day of course was Saturday, and Sunday falling 
on the seventeenth, the Dominical Letter then changed to C : 
and from that day all subsequent Dominical Letters take their 

On this plan the foregoing table was formed ; wherein ob- 
serve, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900, are not particularly ex- 
pressed, they being accounted as common years, that have 
but one Dominical Letter each ; viz. c for 1700, E for 1800, 
and G for 1900. All the years expressed in the table are bis- 
sextile, or leap-years, and have two Dominical Letters placed 
at the head of their respective columns ; as for the years 1600, 
1628, 1656, and 1684, the Dominical Letters were B A, and 
so of the rest. 

The letters for the first, second, and third years after every 
bissextile, are the three single letters placed under the dou- 
ble letters, in the same column with the bissextile they imme- 
diately follow. For example, as the Dominical Letters for 
1600 were B A, so the Dominical Letter for 1601 was G, for 
1602 F, and for 1603 E. So for 1796 the Dominical Letters 
will be C B; consequently 1797, 1798, and 1799, must have 
A, G, and P : and the letter for 1800 (which is to be account- 
ed a common year) will be E ; therefore 1801, 1802, and 1803, 
must have the subsequent letters D, c, and B ; and then 1804, 
being bissextile, will come under the letters A G : and from 
thence every fourth year will be leap-year to 1896 inclusive. 

The Dominical Letters of each century expressed in the ta- 
ble, will be the same again after a revolution of four hundred 
years ; wherefore, if you divide any given hundredth year by 
4, and nothing remains, it is a bissextile hundred ; and the 
whole century from thence will have the same letters through- 
out as the seventeenth century, beginning from 1600. If one 
remains, it will be governed by the eighteenth century ; if two, 
by the nineteenth ; and if three, by the twentieth century, 
beginning from 1900. 


If the Dominical Letter for 2484 be required, divide 24 by 



4, and nothing will remain ; therefore look in the seventeenth 
century for 1684, and you will find it under B A, which must 
be the Dominical Letters for the year required. 

So for the year 8562 : let 85 be divided by 4, and the re- 
mainder will be 1 ; wherefore the Dominical Letter may be 
found in the eighteenth century, being the same as for 1762, 
viz. c. 

If it be required to know the Dominical Letter for the year 
5400 ; divide 54 by 4, and the remainder will be 2, denoting 
it to be the second after a bissextile hundred, and consequent- 
ly the given year must have the same letter as the year 1800; 
from which the nineteenth century begins, viz. B, the fourth 
single letter after the bissextile year 1796. 

Lastly, if the Dominical Letter for 3503 be required ; as 
35 divided by 4 leaves 3, it will be the same with 1903, which 
will be found to be D by counting from 1896, the bissextile 
next preceding it ; as 1900 will be a common year. 

And since, after dividing the hundreds in any given year of 
our Lord by 4, there will remain either 0, 1,2, or 3, so any 
question of this kind will be resolved by finding in the table 
the Sunday Letter or Letters of the corresponding year in 
such of the four centuries, as is analogous to that of the ques- 
tion proposed. 



I. HAVING said what I thought requisite in order to ex- 
plain the Tables and Rules before and after the Calendar, I 
The column* of 8na ^ now proceed to treat, in as little compass 
days of the as I can, of the Calendar itself. It consists of 
k ' several columns , concerning the first of which, 
as it only shews the days of the month in their numerical 
order, I need say nothing; and of the second, which contains 
the letters of the alphabet affixed to the several days of every 
week, I have already said as much in the former part of this 
chapter as was necessary to shew the use and design of their 
being placed here. 


II. The third column (as printed in the larger 
Common Prayer Books) has the Calends, ^fll ot 
Nones, and Ides, which was the method of 
computation used by the old Romans and primitive Christians, 
instead of the days of the month, and is still useful to those 
who read either ecclesiastical or profane history. But this 
way of computation being now grown into disuse ; and this 
column being also omitted in most small editions of the 
Common Prayer Book, (though without authority,) there is 
no need that I should enter into the particulars of it. 

III. Neither is there occasion that I should 

say any thing here concerning the four last co- The i e c s 1 ^ ns of 
lumns of the calendar, which contain the Course 
of Lessons for morning and evening prayer for ordinary days 
throughout the year ; since the course of lessons both for 
ordinary days and Sundays, &c. will come under consider- 
ation in a more proper place hereafter. 

IV. So that nothing remains to be treated of 

here, but the Column of Holy-days,- and as T ^jgj of 
many of these too as are observed by the Church 
of England, I shall speak to in the fifth chapter. But then 
as to the Popish Holy-days retained in our calendar, I shall 
have no fairer opportunity of treating of them than in this 

Elace. And therefore, since some small account of these 
as been desired by some persons, I shall here insert it, to 
gratify their curiosity. 

Of the Romish Saints-days and Holy-days in general. 
THE reasons why the names of these Saints-days 

i TT i i j i ii i j The reasons why 

and Holy-days were resumed into the calendar the popish holy- 
are various. Some of them being retained upon ? a y s are retained 

_ . ,., 11 m our calendar. 

account of our Courts of Justice, which usually 
make their returns on these days, or else upon the days be- 
fore or after them, which are called in the writs, Vigil. Fest. 
or Crast., as in Vigil. Martin; Fest. Martin ; Crast. Martin; 
and the like. Others are probably kept in the calendar for 
the sake of such tradesmen, handicraftsmen, and others, as 
are wont to celebrate the memory of their tutelar Saints ; as 
the Welshmen do of St. David, the Shoemakers of St. Cris- 
pin, &c. And again, churches being in several places dedi- 
cated to some or other of these Saints, it has been the usual 
custom in such places to have Wakes or Fairs kept upon 


those days ; so that the people would probably be displeased, 
if, either in this, or the former case, their favourite Saint's 
name should be left out of the calendar. Besides, the his- 
tories which were writ before the Reformation do frequently 
speak of transactions happening upon such a holy-day, or 
about such a time, without mentioning the month ; relating 
one thing to be done at Lammas-tide, and another about 
Martinmas, &c., so that were these names quite left out of 
the calendar, we might be at a loss to know when several of 
these transactions happened. But for this and the foregoing 
reasons our second reformers under queen Elizabeth (though 
all those days had been omitted in both books of king Edward 
VI. excepting St. George's Day, Lammas Day, St. Laurence, 
and St. Clement, which were in his second book) thought 
convenient to restore the names of them to the calendar, 
though not with any regard of being kept holy 
But h n oiy kept ty the Church. For this they thought prudent 
to forbid, as well upon the account of the great 
inconveniency brought into the Church in the times of Popery, 
by the observation of such a number of holy-days, to the 
great prejudice of labouring and trading men ; as by reason 
that many of those Saints they then commemorated were 
oftentimes men of none of the best characters. Besides, the 
history of these Saints, and the accounts they gave of the 
other holy-days, were frequently found to be feigned and 
fabulous. For which reason, I suppose, the generality of my 
readers would excuse my giving them or myself any further 
trouble upon this head : but being sensible that there are 
some people who are particularly desirous of this sort of in- 
formation, I shall for their sakes subjoin a short account of 
every one of these holy-days as they lie in their order ; but 
must first bespeak my reader not to think that I endeavour 
to impose all these stories upon him as truths ; but to remem- 
ber that I have already given him warning that a great part 
of the account will be feigned and fabulous. And therefore 
I presume he will excuse my burdening him with testi- 
monies; since though I could bring testimonies for every 
thing I shall say, yet I cannot promise that they will be con- 
vincing. But, however, I promise to invent nothing of my 
own, nor to set down any thing but what some or other of the 
blind Romanists superstitiously believe. 


SECT. I. OftJie Romish Saints-days and Holy-days in January. 
Luoian (to whose memory the eighth day of ,, 

i i 11* i\ i i January o. 

this month was dedicated) is said by some to have Lucian,confess- 
been a disciple of St. Peter, and to have been or and martyr " 
sent by him with St. Dennys into France, where, for preach- 
ing the Gospel, he suffered martyrdom. Though others relate 
that he was a learned presbyter of Antioch, well versed in the 
Hebrew tongue, taking a great deal of pains in comparing and 
amending the copies of the Bible. Being long exercised in 
the sacred discipline, he was brought to the city of the Nico- 
medians, when the emperor Galerius Maximianus was there ; 
and having recited an apology for the Christian religion which 
he had composed, before the governor of the city, he was cast 
into prison ; and having endured incredible tortures, was put 
to death. 20 

. 2. Hilary, bishop of Poictiers in France, 13 Hilary 
(commemorated on the thirteenth of this month,) bishop ana con- 
was a great champion of the catholic doctrine fe 
against the Arians ; for which he was persecuted by their par- 
ty, and banished into Phrygia about the year 356, where, 
after much pains taken in the controversy, and many troubles 
underwent, he died about the year 367. 

. 3. Prisca, a Roman lady, commemorated 18 p risc , Ro _ 
on the eighteenth, was early converted to Chris- man virgin and 
tianity ; but refusing to abjure her religion, and m 
to offer sacrifices when she was commanded, was horribly tor- 
tured, and afterwards beheaded under the emperor Claudius, 
A.D. 47. 

. 4. Fabian was bishop of Rome about four- 20 Faoian) 
teen years, viz. from A. D. 239 to 253, and suf- Hshop and'mar- 
fered martyrdom under the emperor Decius. 

. 5. Agnes, a young Roman lady of a noble 21> Agnes , 
family, suffered martyrdom in the tenth general Roman virgin 

J . j ,1 J Tk- i . * Tk an< i martyr. 

persecution under the emperor Diocletian, A. i). 
306. She was by the wicked cruelty of the judge condemned 
to be debauched in a public stew before her execution ; but 
was miraculously preserved by lightning and thunder from 
heaven. She underwent her persecution with wonderful rea- 
diness, and though the executioner hacked and hewed her 
body most unmercifully with the sword, yet she bore it with 

Euseb. Histor. Eccl. 1. ix. c. 6, p. 351, C. 


incredible constancy, singing hymns all the time, though she 
was then no more than thirteen or fourteen years old. 

About eight days after her execution, her parents going to 
lament and pray at her tomb, where they continued watching 
all night, it is reported that there appeared unto them a vision 
of angels, arrayed with glittering and glorious garments; 
among whom they saw their own daughter appareled after the 
Why painted same manner, and a lamb standing by her as 
with a iamb by white as snow ; (which is the reason why the 
painters picture her with a lamb by her side.) 
Ever after which time the Roman ladies went every year (as 
they still do) to offer and present her on this day the two best 
and purest white lambs they could procure. These they offered 
at St. Agnes's altar, (as they call it,) and from thence the pope 
gives orders to have them put into the choicest pasture about 
the city, till the time of sheep-shearing come ; at which sea- 
son they are clipt, and the wool is hallowed, whereof a fine 
white cloth is spun and woven, and consecrated every year by 
The o .inai the pope himself, for the palls which he useth to 
of archbishops' send to every archbishop; and which till they 
have purchased at a most extravagant price, they 
cannot exercise any metropolitical jurisdiction. 
22 Vincent, a 6. Vincent, a deacon of the church in 
deacon of Spain Spain, was born at Oscard, now Huezza, a town 
***' in Arragon. He was instructed in divinity by 
Valerius, bishop of Saragossa ; but, by reason of an impedi- 
ment in his speech, never took upon him the office of preach- 
ing. He suffered martyrdom in the Diocletian persecution 
about the year 303, being laid all along upon burning coals, 
and, after his body was broiled there, thrown upon heaps of 
broken tiles. 

SECT. II. Of the Bomish Saints-days and Holy-days in February. 

February 3 Blassius was bishop of Sebaste in Armenia, 

Hiassiun, bishop reported to have been a man of great miracles 
and martyr. &n( j p Ower) p ut to { ] ea th in the same city by 

Agricolaus the president, under Diocletian the emperor, in 
the year 289. His name is not put down in some editions 
of the Common Prayer Book, but it occurs in the most 

s. Agatha, a sici- 2 - ^ffolha, & virgin honourably born in 

nn virgin and Sicily, suffered martyrdom under Decius the 

emperor at Catanea. Being very beautiful, 


Quintianus, the praetor or governor of the province, was 
enamoured with her : but not being able to work his ill de- 
sign upon her, ordered her to be scourged, and then im- 
prisoned, for not worshipping the heathen gods. After which, 
she, still persisting constant in the faith, was put upon the 
rack, burnt with hot irons, and had her breast cut off. And 
then being remanded back to prison, she had several divine 
comforts afforded her : but the praetor sending for her again, 
being half-dead, she prayed to God to receive her soul; with 
which petition she immediately expired ; it being the fifth of 
February, A. D. 253. 

.3. Valentine was an ancient presbyter of 14 valentine 
the Church ; he suffered martyrdom under Clau- bishop and 
dius at Rome. Being delivered into the custody ra 
of one Asterius, he wrought a miracle upon his daughter ; 
whom, being blind, he restored to sight ; by which means he 
converted the whole family to Christianity, who all of them 
afterwards suffered for their religion. Valentine, after a 
year's imprisonment at Rome, was beheaded in the Flaminian- 
way about the year 271, and was enrolled among the martyrs 
of the Church ; his day being established before the times of 
Gregory the Great. He was a man of most admirable parts, 
and so famous for his love and charity, that the The original of 
custom of choosing Valentines upon his festival choosing Vaien- 
(vvhich is still practised) took its rise from thence. tj 

SECT. III. Of the Romish Saints-days and Holy-days in March. 

David, to whose memory the first of this March j David 
month was formerly dedicated, was descended archbishop of 
from the royal family of the Britons, being uncle Menevaa - 
to the great king Arthur, and son of Xantus prince of Wales, 
by one Melearia, a nun. He was a man very learned and 
eloquent, and of incredible austerity in his life and conversa- 
tion. By his diligence Pelagianism was quite rooted out, 
and many earnest professors of the same converted unto the 
truth. He was made bishop of Caerleon in Wales, which see 
he afterwards removed to Menevia ; from him ever since 
called St. David's. He sat long, viz. sixty-five years, and 
(having built twelve monasteries in the country thereabouts) 
died in the year 642 : being, as Bale writes out of the British 
histories, a hundred and forty-six years old. He was buried 
in his own cathedral church, and canonized by Pope Calixtus 


11. about five hundred years afterwards. Many things are 
reported of him incredible ; as that his death was foretold 
thirty years beforehand ; and that he was always attended by 
angels, who kept him company ; that he bestowed upon the 
waters of Bath that extraordinary heat they have ; and that 
whilst he was once preaching to a great multitude of people 
at Brony, the ground swelled under his feet into a little hill ; 
with several other such stories not worth rehearsing. 

2. Cedde, or ^- Cedde was, in the absence of Wilfride, 

chad, bishop of archbishop of York, who was gone to Paris for 

LichlK-l'l . j i c f j 

consecration, and gave no hopes 01 a speedy 
return, enforced by Egfrid king of Northumberland to accept 
of that see. But Wilfride being returned, Cedde was per- 
suaded by Theodorus, archbishop of Canterbury, to resign the 
see to him : after which for some time he lived a monastical 
life at Leastingeag ; till, by the means of the same Theodorus, 
he was made bishop of Lichfield, under Wolfhere, king of 
Mercia, whom he is said to have converted. He died March 
2, A. D. 672. 

7 Perpetua,a ^- Pwpeiua was a lady of quality, who 

Mauritanian suffered martyrdom in Mauritania, under the 

emperor Severus, about the year 205. She is 
often very honourably mentioned by Tertullian and St. 
Austin ; the last of whom lets us know that the day of her 
martyrdom was settled into a holy-day in his time; and re- 
marks of her, that she gave suck to a young child at the time 
of her sufferings. 

8. 4. Gregory the Great, who stands next in 

12. Gregory the A , 3 , , y y j j / i i 

Great, bishop of the calendar, was descended from noble parents. 
fo!Sr andCon ^ e Vei 7 ear ty addicted himself to study and 
piety, giving all his estate to the building and 
maintaining of religious houses. He was consecrated pope 
about the year 590, but vigorously opposed the title of uni- 
versal bishop (which the bishops of Constantinople did then, 
and the bishops of Home do now assume) as blasphemous, 
antichristian, and diabolical. Among other his glorious and 
Christian deeds, his memory was annually celebrated here in 
England, for his devout charity to our nation, in sending 
Austin the monk, with forty other missionaries, to convert the 
Saxons, (who had testified their desire to embrace Christi- 
anity,) which in a short time they happily achieved. Having 
held the popedom fourteen years, he died about the year 


604, leaving many learned books behind him, which are still 

. 5. Edward was descended from the West 18 Edward 
Saxon kings, and the son of king Edgar, who king of the West 
first reduced the heptarchy into one kingdom : Saxons - 
after whose death, in the year 975, this Edward succeeded to 
the crown at twelve years of age, but did not enjoy it above 
two or three years. For paying a visit to Elfride his mother- 
in-law at Corfe-castle, in Dorsetshire, he was by her order 
stabbed in the back, (whilst he was drinking a cup of wine,) 
to make way for her son Etheldred, his half-brother. His 
favour to the monks made his barbarous murder to be esteemed 
a martyrdom ; the day of which was appointed to be kept 
festival by pope Innocent IV. A. D. 1245. 

. 6. Benedict was born in Norcia, a town in 
Italy, of an honourable family. Being much 21> ^ot dkt ' 
given to devotion, he set up an order of monks, 
which bears his name, about the year 529. He was very re- 
markable for his mortification; and the monks of his own 
order relate, that he would often roll himself in a heap of 
briers to check any carnal desires that he found to arise in 
himself. St. Gregory 21 tells us of a very famous miracle 
wrought upon his account, viz. That the Goths, when they 
invaded Italy, came to burn his cell; and being set on fire, it 
burnt round him in a circle, not doing him the least hurt : at 
which the Goths being enraged, threw him into a hot oven, 
stopping it up close ; but coming the next day, they found him 
safe, neither his flesh scorched, nor his clothes singed. He 
died on the twenty-first of March, A. D. 542. 

SECT. IV. Of the Romish Saints-days and Holy-days in April. 

Richard, surnamed de Wiche, from a place April 3. Richard 
so called in Worcestershire, where he was born, bishop of CM- 
was brought up at the universities of Oxford cl 
and Paris. Being come to man's estate, he travelled to Bono- 
nia ; where having studied the canon law seven years, he be- 
came public reader of the same. Being returned home, he 
was, in the vacancy of the see of Chichester, chosen bishop 
by that chapter ; which the king opposing, (he having nomin- 
ated another,) Richard appealed to Rome, and had his election 
confirmed by the pope, who consecrated him also at Lyons, 

9 Greg. Dial. lib. iii. 


in the year 1245. He was very much reverenced for his 
great learning and diligent preaching, but especially for his 
integrity of life and conversation. Strange miracles are told 
of him : as that, by his blessing, he increased a single loaf of 
bread to satisfy the hunger of three thousand poor people ; 
and that in his extreme old age, whilst he was celebrating the 
eucharist, he fell down with the chalice in his hand, but the 
wine was miraculously preserved from falling to the ground. 
About seven or eight years after his death, he was canonized 
for a saint by pope Urban IV. A. D. 1261. 

. 2. St. Ambrose was born about the year 

bisho rfmian. 340< His father was P r 3e torian praefect of Gaul, 
in whose palace St. Ambrose was educated. It 
is reported, that in his infancy a swarm of bees settled upon 
his cradle ; which was a prognostication, as was supposed, of 
his future eloquence. After his father's death, he went with 
his mother to Rome, where he studied the laws, practised as 
an advocate, and was made governor of Milan and the neigh- 
bouring cities. Upon the death of Auxentius, bishop of 
Milan, there being a great contest in the election of a new 
bishop, this good father, in an excellent speech, exhorted 
them to peace and unanimity ; which so moved the affections 
of the people, that they immediately forgot the competitors 
whom they were so zealous for before, and unanimously de- 
clared that they would have their governor for their bishop. 
Who, after several endeavours by flight and other artifices to 
avoid that burden, was at last compelled to yield to the 
importunities of the people, and to be consecrated bishop. 
From which time he gave all his money to pious uses, and set- 
tled the reversion of his estate upon the Church. He governed 
that see with great piety and vigilance for more than twenty 
years, and died in the year 396, being about fifty-seven years 
old : having first converted St. Augustin to the faith; at whose 
baptism he is said miraculously to have composed that divine 
hymn, so well known in the Church by the name of Te Dcum. 
19. Alphege, * Alphcge was an Englishman of a most 

archbishop of holy and austere life, which was the more admir- 
ury ' able in him, because he was born of great pa- 
rentage, and began that course of life in his younger years. 
He was first abbot of Bath, then bishop of Winchester, in the 
jear 984, and twelve years afterwards archbishop of Canter- 
bury. But in the year 1012, the Danes being disappointed 


of a certain tribute which they claimed as due to them, they 
fell upon Canterbury, and spoiled and burnt both the city and 
church : nine parts in ten of the people they put to the sword ; 
and after seven months miserable imprisonment, stoned the 
good archbishop to death at Greenwich ; who was thereupon 
canonized for a saint and martyr, and had the nineteenth of 
April allowed him as his festival. 

. 4. St. George, the famous patron of the 
English nation, was born in Cappadocia, andsuf- ^eorgefmartyr. 
fered for the sake of his religion, A. D. 290, un- 
der the emperor Diocletian, (in whose army he had before 
been a colonel,) being supposed to have been the person that 
pulled down the edict against the Christians, which Diocle- 
tian had caused to be affixed upon the church doors. 22 The 
legends relate several strange stories of him, which are so 
common, they need not here be related : I shall only give a 
short account how he came to be so much esteemed of in 

When Eobert duke of Normandy, son to Wil- How he came to 
liam the Conqueror, was prosecuting his victories i>e patron of the 
against the Turks, and laying siege to the famous Enghsh - 
city of Antioch, which was like to be relieved by a mighty 
army of the Saracens ; St. George appeared with an innumer- 
able army coming down from the hills all in white, with a red 
cross in his banner, to reinforce the Christians ; which occa- 
sioned the infidel army to fly, and the Christians to possess 
themselves of the town. This story made St. George extra- 
ordinary famous in those times, and to be esteemed a patron, 
not only of the English, but of Christianity itself. Not but 
that St. George was a considerable saint before this, having 
had a church dedicated to him by Justinian the emperor. 

SECT. V. Of the Romish Saints-days and Holy-days in May. 

THE third of this month is celebrated as a fes- May 3 Inven . 
tival by the Church of Rome, in memory of the turn of the 
Invention of the Cross, which is said to be owing 
to this occasion. Helena, the mother of Constantine the 
Great, being admonished in a dream to search for the cross 
of Christ at. Jerusalem, took a journey thither with that in- 
tent : and having employed labourers to dig at Golgotha, after 
opening the ground very deep, (for vast heaps of rubbish had 

22 See Lactantius de Mortibus Persecutorum. 


purposely been thrown there by the spiteful Jews or hea- 
thens,) she found three crosses, which she presently conclud- 
ed were the crosses of our Saviour and the two thieves who 
were crucified with him. But being at a loss to know which 
was the cross of Christ, she ordered them all three to be ap- 
plied to a dead person. Two of them, the story says, had no 
effect ; but the third raised the carcass to life, which was an 
evident sign to Helena, that that was the cross she looked for. 
As soon as this was known, every one was for getting a piece 
of the cross ; insomuch that in Paulinus's time (who being a 
scholar of St. Ambrose, and bishop of Nola, flourished about 
the year 420) there was much more of the relics of the cross, 
than there was of the original wood. Whereupon that father 
says, " it was miraculously increased ; it very kindly afforded 
wood to men's importunate desires, without any loss of its 

e st John ^- ^he sixth f this month was anciently 

Evang. ante dedicated to the memory of St. John the evan- 
gelist's miraculous deliverance from the persecu- 
tion of Domitian : to whom being accused as an eminent as- 
serter of atheism and impiety, and a public subverter of the 
religion of the empire, he was sent for to Rome, where he was 
treated with all the cruelty that could be expected from so 
bloody and barbarous a prince ; for he was immediately put 
into a caldron of boiling oil, or rather oil set on fire, before 
the gate called Porta Latina, in the presence of the senate. 
But his Master and Lord, who favoured him when on earth 
above all the Apostles, so succoured him here, that he felt no 
harm from the most violent rage ; but, as if he had been only 
anointed, like the athletae of old, he came out more vigorous 
and active than before : the same divine Providence that 
secured the three children in the fiery furnace, bringing the 
holy man safe out of this, one would think, inevitable destruc- 
tion ; and so vouchsafing him the honour of martyrdom, with- 
out his enduring the torments of it. 

19 Dunstan ^- Dunstan, of whom we are next to speak, 

archbishop of was well extracted, being related to king Athel- 

Canterbury. gtan Hg wag yery we jj 8 j^U e( J j n mo8t o f the jj. 

beral arts, and among the rest in refining metals and forging 
them ; which being qualifications much above the genius of 
the age he lived in, first gained him the name of a conjurer, 
and then of a saint. He was certainly a very honest man, 


and never feared to reprove vice irtany of the kings of the 
West Saxons, of whom he was confessor to four successively. 
But the monks (to whom he was a very great friend, applying 
all Ris endeavours to enrich them and their monasteries) have 
filled his life with several nonsensical stories : such as are, his 
making himself a cell at Glastenburg all of iron at his own 
forge ; his harp playing of itself, without a hand ; his taking 
a she-devil, who tempted him to lewdness under the shape of 
a fine lady, by the nose with a pair of red-hot tongs ; and 
several other such ridiculous relations not worth repeating. 
He was promoted by king Edgar, first to the bishopric of 
Worcester, soon after to London, and two years after that to 
Canterbury ; where, having sat twenty-seven years, he died 
May 19, A. D. 988. 

. 4. Augustin was the person we have al- 26 Augugtin( 
ready mentioned, as sent by pope Gregory the first archbishop 
Great to convert the Saxons, from whence he of Canterbur y- 
got the name of the apostle of the English. Whilst he was 
over here, he was made archbishop of Canterbury, A. D. 596. 
He had a contest with the monks of Bangor, about submis- 
sion to the see of Rome, who refused any subjection but to 
God, and the bishop of Caerleon. Soon after this difference, 
Ethelfride, a pagan king of Northumberland, invaded Wales, 
and slaughtered a hundred and fifty of these monks, who came 
in a quiet manner to mediate a peace : which massacre is by 
some writers (but without just grounds) imputed to the in- 
stigation of Austin, in revenge for their opposition to him. 
After he had sat some time in the see of Canterbury, he de- 
ceased the twenty-sixth of May, about the year 610. 

. 5. Pede was born at Yarrow, in North- 
umberland, A. D. 673, and afterwards well 27> j^f* 1 
educated in Greek and Latin studies, in which 
he made a proficiency beyond most of his age. He is author 
of several learned philosophical and mathematical tracts, as 
also of comments upon the Scripture : but his most valuable 
piece is his Ecclesiastical History of the Saxons. Being a 
monk, he studied in his cell ; where spending more hours, and 
to better purpose, than the monks were wont to do, a report 
was raised that he never went out of it. However, he would 
not leave it for preferment at Rome, which the pope had often 
invited him to. 


How be got the His learning and piety gained him the sur- 
name of vener- name of Venerable. Though the common story 
which goes about that title's being given him, 
is this: his scholars having a mind to fix a rhyming title 
upon his tombstone, as was the custom in those times, the 
poet wrote, 


Placing the word OSSA at the latter end of the verse for the 
rhyme, but not being able to think of any proper epithet that 
would stand before it. The monk being tired in this per- 
plexity to no purpose, fell asleep ; but when he awaked, he 
Ibund his verse filled up by an angelic hand, standing thus in 
fair letters upon the tomb : 


SECT. VI. Of the Romish Saints-days and Holy -days in June. 

Nicomede was scholar to St. Peter, and was 

raede, a Roman discovered to be a Christian by his honourably 

burying one Felicula, a martyr. He was beat 

to death with leaden plummets for the sake of 

his religion, in the reign of Domitian. 

s. Boniface, bi- 2< Boniface was a Saxon presbyter, bora 
shop of Ments, in England, and at first called Winfrid. He was 

and martyr. genfc & m j ss i onar y by p O p e Gregory II. into 

Germany, where he converted several countries, and from 
thence got the name of the apostle of Germany. He was 
made bishop of Ments in the year 745. He was one of the 
most considerable men of his time, (most ecclesiastical mat- 
ters going through his hands, as appears by his letters,) and 
was also a great friend and admirer of Bede. Carrying on his 
conversions in Frisia, he was killed by the barbarous people 
near Utrecht, A. D. 755. 

. 3. St. Allan was the first Christian martyr 
in this island about the middle of the third 
century. He was converted to Christianity by 
one Amphialus, a priest of Caerleon in Wales, who, flying 
from persecution into England, was hospitably entertained 
by St. Alban at Verulam, in Hertfordshire, now called from 


him St. Albans. When, by reason of a strict search made 
for Amphialus, St. Alban could entertain him safe no longer, 
he dressed him in his own clothes, and by that means gained 
him an opportunity of escaping. But this being soon found 
out, exposed St. Alban to the fury of the pagans ; who sum- 
moning him to do sacrifice to their gods, and he refusing, 
they first miserably tormented him, and then put him to 
death. The monks have fathered several miracles upon him, 
which it is not worth while here to relate. 

. 4. Edward king of the West Saxons being 
barbarously murdered by his mother-in-law, was of'Edward, a k!ng 
first buried at Warham without any solemnity: f the West 

i , n .1 -t i T i i i Saxons. 

but after three years was carried by duke Al- 
ferus to the minister of Shaftesbury, and there interred with 
great pomp. To the memory of which the twentieth of June 
has been since dedicated. 

SECT. VII. Of the Romish Saints-days and Holy-days in July. 

ABOUT the year 1338 there was a terrible Jul 2 V j gita . 
schism in the Church of Rome between two tionof thebiess- 
anti-popes, Urban VI. and Clement VIL, the ^ virgin Mary, 
first chosen by the Italian, the other by the French faction 
among the cardinals. Upon this several great disorders 
happened. To avert which for the future, pope Urban in- 
stituted a feast to the memory of that famous journey, which 
the mother of our Lord took into the mountains of Judaea, 
to visit the mother of St. John the Baptist ; that by this 
means the intercession of the blessed Virgin might be obtained 
for the removal of those evils. The same festival was con- 
firmed by the decree of Boniface IX., though it was not 
universally observed until the Council of Basil : by decree of 
which Council in their forty-third session, upon July 1, 1441, 
it was ordered that this holy-day, called the Visitation of the 
blessed Virgin Mary, should be celebrated in all Christian 
churches, that " she being honoured with this solemnity, 
might reconcile her Son by her intercession, who is now 
angry for the sins of men ; and that she might grant peace 
and unity among the faithful." 

. 2. St. Martin was born in Pannonia, and 
for some time lived the life of a soldier, but at O f st.Tiartin? 
last took orders, and was made bishop of Tours J? ish P mA con - 

T, , T ' ,... i . r , ,. lessor. 

in .trance. He was very diligent in breaking 



down the heathen images and altars, which were standing in 
his time. He died in the year 400, after he had sat bishop 
twenty-six years. The French had formerly such an esteem 
for his memory, that they carried his helmet with them into 
their wars, either as an ensign to encourage them to bravery, 
or else as a sort of charm to procure them victory. His 
feast-day is celebrated on the eleventh of November. The 
fourth of this month is dedicated only to the memory of the 
translating or removing of his body from the place where it 
was buried, to a more noble and magnificent tomb ; which 
was performed by Perpetuus, one of his successors in the see 
of Tours. 
.. _ S. 3. Smithun was first a monk, and after- 

15. Swithun, a i c ., f -ii" u 

bishop of win- wards a prior, of the convent of Winchester. 
Chester, trans- Upon the death of Helinstan bishop of that see, 
by the favour of king Ethelwolph, he was pro- 
moted to succeed him in that bishopric, A. D. 852, and con- 
tinued in it eleven years, to his death. He would not be 
buried within the church, as the bishops then generally were, 
but in the cemetery, or churchyard. Many miracles being 
reported to be done at his grave, there was a chapel built 
over it ; and a solemn translation made in honour of him, 
which in the popish times was celebrated on the fifteenth 
of July. 

20 Margaret ^- Margaret was born at Antioch, being 

virgin and mar- the daughter of an heathen priest. Olybius, 
ioch - president of the East under the Romans, had an 
inclination to marry her; but finding she was a Christian, 
deferred it till he could persuade her to renounce her re- 
ligion. Exit not being able to accomplish his design, he first 
Eut her to unmerciful torments, and then beheaded her. She 
as the same office among the papists, as Lucina has among 
the heathens ; viz. to assist women in labour. Her holy-day 
is very ancient, not only in the Roman, but also in the Greek 
Church, who celebrate her memory under the name of Marina. 
She suffered in the year 278. 

22. Saint Mary 5. By the first Common Prayer Book of 
Magdalene. ti n g Edward VI., the twenty-second of July 
was dedicated to the memory of St. Mary Magdalene. 
The Epistle and I n ^c service for the day, Prov. xxxi. 10, to 
Gospel. the end, was appointed for the Epistle ; and the 
Gospel was taken out of St. Luke vii. 36, to the end. But 


upon a stricter inquiry, it appearing dubious to our reformers, 
as it doth still to many learned men, whether the woman 
mentioned in the scripture that was appointed for the Gospel, 
were Mary Magdalene or not ; they thought it more proper 
to discontinue the festival. However, as I have mentioned 
the other .parts of the service, I will also give the reader the 
Collect that was appointed, which he will observe was very 
apt and suitable to the Gospel. 
Merciful Father, give us grace that me never 

., ' J -, . , ~ The Collect. 

presume to sin through the example of any 
creature : but if it shall chance us at any time to offend thy 
divine Majesty, that then me may truly repent and lament 
the same, after the example of Mary Magdalene, and by a 
lively faith obtain remission of all our sins, through the only 
merits of thy Son our Saviour Christ. Amen. 

. 6. St. j4nn was the mother of the blessed 
Virgin Mary and the wife of Joachim her father, mother to tie' 
An ancient piece of the sacred genealogy, set wessed Virgin 
down formerly by Hippolitus the martyr, is pre- y ' 
served in Nicephorus. 23 " There were three sisters of Beth- 
lehem, daughters of Matthan the priest and Mary his wife, 
under the reign of Cleopatra and Casopares king of Persia, 
before the reign of Herod, the son of Antipater : the eldest 
was Mary, the second was Sobe, the youngest's name was Ann. 
The eldest being married in Bethlehem, had for daughter 
Salome the midwife : Sobe the second likewise married in 
Bethlehem, and was the mother of Elizabeth ; last of all the 
third married in Galilee, and brought forth Mary the mother 
of Christ." 

SECT. VIII. Of the Romish Saints-days and Holy-days in August. 

THE first day of this month is commonly called 
Lammas-day, though in the Roman Church it is Lamrnas'day. 
generally known by the name of the feast of St. 
Peter in tlie fetters, being the day of the commemoration 
of St. Peter's imprisonment. For Eudoxia, the wife of The- 
odosius the emperor, having made a journey to Jerusalem, 
was there presented with the fetters which St. Peter was 
loaded with in prison : which she presented to the pope, who 
afterwards laid them up in a church built by Theodosius in 
honour of St. Peter. Eudoxia, in the mean time, having ob- 

w Niceph. lib. ii. cap. 3, vol. i. p. 136, A. 
F 2 


served that the first of August was celebrated in memory of 
Augustus Caesar, (who had on that day been saluted Augustus, 
and had upon that account given occasion to the changing of 
the name of the month from Sextilis to August,) she thought 
it not reasonable that a holy-day should be kept in memory 
of a heathen prince, which would better become that of a 
godly martyr ; and therefore obtained a decree of the em- 
peror, that this day for the future should be kept holy in 
remembrance of St. Peter's bonds. 

The reason of its being called Lammas-day, 

some think was a fond conceit the popish people 
had, that St. Peter was patron of the Lambs, from our Sa- 
viour's words to him, Feed my lambs. Upon which account 
they thought the mass of this day very beneficial to make 
their lambs thrive. Though Somner's account of it is more 
rational and easy, viz. that it is derived from the old Saxon 
plapmrr e i- e - Loaf-mass, it having been the custom of the 
Saxons to offer on that day an oblation of loaves made of 
new wheat, as the first-fruits of their new corn. 

.2. The festival of our Lord's transfigura- 
ooJof^ur^d. twn m tne mount is very ancient. In the Church 

of Rome indeed it is but of late standing, being 
instituted by pope Calixtus in the year 1455; but in the 
Greek Church it was observed long before. 

. 3. The seventh of August was formerly 

dedicated to the memory of Afra, a courtezan of 

Crete ; who being converted to Christianity by 
Narcissus, bishop of Jerusalem, suffered martyrdom, and was 
commemorated on this day : how it came afterwards to be 
dedicated to the name of Jesus, I do not find. 

10 Saint Lau- ' 4> ^' ^ aurence was by birth a Spaniard, and 
rence?archdea- treasurer of the Church at Rome, being deacon to 

Sixtus tne PP e about the J ear 25 9. When his 
bishop was haled to death by the soldiers of Va- 
lerian the emperor, St. Laurence would not leave him, but 
followed him to the place of execution, expostulating with 
him all the way, " O father, where do you go without your 
son ? You never were wont to offer sacrifice without me." 
Soon after which, occasion being taken against him by the 
greedy pagans, for not delivering up the church-treasury, 
which they thought was in his custody, he was laid upon a 
gridiron, and broiled over a fire : at which time he behaved 

7. Name of Je- 


himself with so much courage and resolution, as to cry out to his 
tormentors, that " he was rather comforted than tormented ;" 
bidding them withal "turn him on the other side, for that was 
broiled enough." His martyrdom was so much esteemed in after- 
times, that Pulcheria the empress built a temple to his honour, 
which was either rebuilt or enlarged by Justinian. Here was 
the gridiron on which he suffered laid up, where (if we may 
believe St. Gregory the Great, who was too credulous in such 
kind of matters) it became famous for many miracles. 

. 5. St. Augustin was born at Togaste, a town 
in Numidia in Africa, in the year 354. He ap- &g$5*- 
plied himself at first only to human learning, such 
as poetry and plays, rhetoric and philosophy ; being professor 
at Rome first, and afterwards at Milan. At the last of these 
places St. Ambrose became acquainted with him, who instruct- 
ed him in divinity, and set him right as to some wrong notions 
which he had imbibed. He returned into Africa about the 
year 388, and three years afterwards was chosen bishop of 
Hippo. He was a great and judicious divine, and the most 
voluminous writer of all the Fathers. He died in the year 430, 
at seventy-seven years of age. 

. 6. The twenty-ninth of this month, as Du- 29 Beheadin 
rand us says, was formerly called Festum collec- of Saint John 
tionis S. Johan. Baptisteg, or the feast of gather- Ba P tlst - 
ing up St. John the Baptist's Relics ; and afterwards by cor- 
ruption, Festum decollatwnis, the feast of his beheading. For 
the occasion of the honours done to this saint are said to be 
some miraculous cures performed by his relics in the fourth 
century : for which reason Julian the Apostate ordered them 
to be burnt, but some of them were privately reserved. His 
head was found after this, in the emperor Valens's time, and 
reposited as a precious relic in a church at Constantinople. 

SECT. IX. Of the Romish Saints-days and Holy-days in 

Giles, or ^Egidius, was one who was born at Sept j Gileg 
Athens, and came into France, A.D. 715, having abbot and con- 
first disposed of his patrimony to charitable uses. 
He lived two years with Caesarius bishop of Aries, and after- 
wards took to an hermitical life, till he was made abbot of an 
abbey at Nismes, which the king, who had found him in his 


cell by chance as he was hunting, and was pleased with his 
sanctity, built for his sake. He died in the year 795. 
7. Eunurchus, ^- Eunurchus, otherwise called Ecortius, 
bishop of Or-' was bishop of Orleans in France, being present 

at the Council of Valentia, A. D. 375. The cir- 
cumstances of his election to this see were very strange. Be- 
ing sent by the Church of Rome into France, about redeeming 
some captives, at the time when the people of Orleans were 
in the heat of an election of a bishop ; a dove lighted upon 
his head, which he could not, without great difficulty, drive 
away. The people observing this, took it for a sign of his great 
sanctity, and immediately thought of choosing him bishop : 
but not being willing to proceed to election, till they were as- 
sured that the lighting of the dove was by the immediate di- 
rection of Providence, they prayed to God that, if he in his 
goodness designed him for their bishop, the same dove might 
light upon him again, which immediately happening after their 
prayers, he was chosen bishop by the unanimous suffrages of 
the whole city. Besides this, several other miracles are attri- 
buted to him ; as the quenching a fire in the city by his pray- 
ers ; his directing the digging of the foundation of a church, 
in such a place, where the workmen found a pot of gold, almost 
sufficient to defray the charges of the building : his converting 
seven thousand infidels to Christianity within the space of three 
days : and lastly, for foretelling his own death, and in a sort of 
prophetical manner naming Arianus for his successor, 
s Nativity of ' ^* ^ke eighth of thisouonth is dedicated to 
the blessed vir- the memory of the blessed Virgin's nativity, a 

consort of angels having been heard in the air to 
solemnize that day as her birthday. Upon which account the 
day itself was not only kept holy in after-ages ; but it was also 
honoured by pope Innocent IV. with an octave, A. D. 1244, 
and by Gregory XI. with a vigil in the year 1370. 

. 4. The fourteenth of this month is called 
H ' ^ayi" ' 8 Holy -cross -day, a festival deriving its beginning 

about the year 615, on this occasion : Cosroes 
king of Persia having plundered Jerusalem, (after having 
made great ravages in other parts of the Christian world,) 
took away from thence a great piece of the cross, which 
Helena had left there : and, at the times of his mirth, made 
sport with that and the Holy Trinity. Heraclius the emperor 
giving him battle, defeated the enemy, and recovered the 


cross : but bringing it back with triumph to Jerusalem, he 
found the gates shut against him, and heard a voice from 
heaven, which told him, that the King of kings did not enter 
into that city in so stately a manner, but meek and lowly, and 
riding upon an ass. With that the emperor dismounted from 
his horse, and went into the city not only afoot, but bare- 
footed, and carrying the wood of the cross himself. Which 
honour done to the cross gave rise to this festival. 

8. 5. Lambert was bishop of Utrecht in the ,. T , . 

. o . r 17. Lambert, 

time of king Fepm I. But reproving the king's bishop and 
grandson for his lewd amours, he was, by the mart y r - 
contrivance of one of his concubines, barbarously murdered. 
Being canonized, he at first only obtained a commemoration 
in the calendar; till Robert bishop of Leeds in a general 
chapter of the Cistercian order procured a solemn feast to 
his honour, A. D. 1240. 

. 6. St. Cyprian was by birth an African, of 
a good family and education. Before his con- prianjaishop of 
version he taught rhetoric ; but by the persua- c a rtl >ag e > and 

r> ri ! i /f i i martyr. 

sion or one Leecilms, a priest, (from whom he 
had his surname,) he became a Christian. And giving all his 
substance to the poor, he was elected bishop of Carthage in 
the year 248. He behaved himself with great prudence in 
the Decian persecution, persuading the people to constancy 
and perseverance : which so enraged the heathen, that they 
made proclamation for his discovery in the open theatre. He 
suffered martyrdom September 14, A. D. 258, under Valeri- 
anus and Gallienus, having foretold that storm long before, 
and disposed his flock to bear it accordingly. 

But the Cyprian in the Roman calendar cele- 
brated on this day, as appears by the Roman ti^Roman" " 
Breviary, is not the same with St. Cyprian of calendar a differ- 
Carthage, but another Cyprian of Antioch, who 
of a conjurer was made a Christian, and afterwards a deacon 
and a martyr. He happened to be in love with one Justina, 
a beautiful young Christian ; whom trying, without success, 
to debauch, he consulted the Devil upon the matter, who 
frankly declared he had no power over good Christians. 
Cyprian, not pleased with this answer of the Devil, quitted 
his service, and turned Christian. But as soon as it was 
known, both he and Justina were accused before the heathen 
governor, who condemned them to be fried in a frying-pan 


with pitch and fat, in order to force them to renounce their 
religion, which they notwithstanding with constancy persisted 
in. After their tortures they were beheaded, and their bodies 
thrown away unburied, till a kind mariner took them up, and 
conveyed them to Rome, where they were deposited in the 
church of Constantine. They were martyred in the year 272. 
. 7. St. Jerome was the son of one Eusebius, 
romefpriesrcon- born in a town called Stridon, in the confines of 
fessor, and doc- pannonia and Dalmatia. Being a lad of pregnant 
parts, he was sent to Rome to learn rhetoric un- 
der Donatus and Victorinus, two famous Latin critics. There 
he got to be secretary to Pope Damasus, and was afterwards 
baptized. He studied divinity with the principal divines of 
that age, viz. Gregory Nazianzen, Epiphanius, and Didymus. 
And to perfect his qualifications this way, he learned the He- 
brew tongue from one Barraban a Jew. He spent most of 
his time in a monastery at Bethlehem, in great retirement and 
hard study ; where he translated the Bible. He died in the 
year 422, being fourscore years old. 

SECT. X. Of the Romish Saints-days and Holy-days in October. 

October i. Re- Remigius was born at Landen, where he kept 
migius, bishop himself so close to his studies, that he was sup- 
posed to have led a monastic life. After the 
death of Bennadius, he was chosen bishop of Rhemes, for 
his extraordinary learning and piety. He converted to 
Christianity king Clodoveus, and good part of his kingdom ; 
for which reason he is by some esteemed the apostle of 
France. After he had held his bishopric seventy-four 
years, he died at ninety-six years of age, A. D. 535. The 
cruse which he made use of is preserved in France to this 
day, their kings being usually anointed out of it at their 

. 2. Faith, a young woman so called, was 
born at Pais de Gavre in France. She suffered 
martyrdom and very cruel torments under the 
presidentship of Dacianus, about the year 290. 
9. Saint Denyi 3 - St - Denys, or Dionysius the Areopagite^ 
Areop. bishop was converted to Christianity by St. Paul, as is 
recorded in the seventeenth of the Acts. He 
was at first one of the judges of the famous court of the Are- 
opagus, but was afterwards made bishop of Athens, where he 


suffered martyrdom for the sake of the Gospel. There are 
several books which bear his name ; but they seem all of them 
to have been the product of the sixth century. He is claimed 
by the French as their tutelar saint, by reason that, as they 
say, he was the first that preached the Gospel to them. But 
it is plain that Christianity was not preached in that nation till 
long after St. Dionysius's death. Among several foolish and 
incoherent stories, which they relate of him, this is one : that, 
after several grievous torments undergone, he was beheaded 
by Fescennius, the Roman governor at Paris ; at which time he 
took up his head, after it was severed from his body, and 
walked two miles with it in his hands, to a place called the 
Martyr's-hill, and there laid down to rest. 

.4. The thirteenth of this month is dedicated ., _, 

L i_ c i -r> J j .LI n < 1 13> Translation 

to the memory or king Edward the Confessors of king Edward 
translation. He was the youngest son of king the Confessor - 
Ethelred ; but, all his elder brothers being dead, or fled away, 
he came to the crown of England in the year 1042. His 
principal excellency was his gathering together a body of all 
the most useful laws, which had been made by the Saxon and 
Danish kings. The name of Confessor is supposed to have 
been given him by the pope, for settling what was then called 
Rome-scot ; but is now better known by the name of Peter- 
pence. The monks have attributed so many miracles to him, 
that even his vestments are by them reputed holy. His crown, 
chair, staff, spurs, &c., are still made use of in the corona- 
tion of our English kings. 

. 5. Etheldred was daughter of Anna, a king 
of the East-Angles, who was first married to one 17 ' ^gln red> 
Tonbert, a great lord in Lincolnshire, &c., and 
after him to king Egfrid about the year 671, with both which 
husbands she still continued a virgin, upon pretence of great 
sanctity. And staying at court twelve years, and continuing 
this moroseness, she got leave to depart to Coldingham abbey, 
where she was a nun under Ebba, the daughter of king Ethel- 
frida, who was abbess. Afterward she built an abbey at Ely, 
which she was abbess of herself, and there died and was 
buried, being recorded to posterity by the name of St. Audry. 

. 6. Crispinus and Orispianus were brethren, 
and born at Rome : from whence they travelled 
to Soissons in France, about the year 303, in 
order to propagate the Christian religion. But because they 
would not be chargeable to others for their maintenance, 


they exercised the trade of shoemakers. But the governor 
of the town discovering them to be Christians, ordered them 
to be beheaded about the year 303. From which time the 
shoemakers made choice of them for their tutelar saints. 

SECT. XL Of the Romish Saints-days and Holy -days in 

THE second of this month is called All-Souls 
^ouis day. day, being observed in the Church of Rome up- 
on this occasion. A monk having visited Jeru- 
salem, and passing through Sicily as he returned home, had 
a mind to see mount ^Etna, which is continually belching out 
fire and smoke, and upon that account by some thought to be 
the mouth of hell. Being there, he heard the devils within 
complain, that many departed souls were taken out of their 
hands by the prayers of the Cluniac monks. This, when he 
came home, he related to his abbot Odilo, as a true story ; 
who thereupon appointed the second of November to be 
annually kept in his monastery, and prayers to be made there 
for all departed souls : and in a little time afterwards the 
monks got it to be made a general holy-day by the appoint- 
ment of the pope ; till in ours and other reformed churches 
it was deservedly abrogated. 

. 2. Leonard was born at Le Nans, a town 
1 " in France, bred up in divinity under Remigius 
bishop of Rhemes, and afterwards made bishop 
of Limosin. He obtained of king Clodoveus a favour, that 
all prisoners whom he went to see should be set free. And 
therefore whenever he heard of any persons being prisoners 
for the sake of religion, or any other good cause, he presently 
procured their liberty this way. But the monks have improved 
this story, telling us, that if any one in prison had called upon 
his name, his fetters would immediately drop off, and the 
prison doors fly open : insomuch that many came from far 
countries, brought their fetters and chains, which had fallen 
off by his intercession, and presented them before him in 
token of gratitude. He died in the year 500, and has always 
been implored by prisoners as their saint. 

. , t * St. Martin's account has already been 

11. Saint Martin, . 3 J 

buhop and con- given On J Uiy 4. 

. 4. Britius, or St. Price, was successor to St. 

""hj 1 ! 1 "" Martin in the bishopric of Tours. About the 

year 432, a great trouble befell him : for his 


laundress proving with child, the uncharitable people of the 
town fathered it upon Brice. After the child was born, the 
censures of the people increased, who were then ready to stone 
their bishop. But the bishop having ordered the infant to be 
brought to him, adjured him by Jesus the son of the living 
God, to tell him whose child he was. The child being then 
but thirty days old, replied, " You are not my father." But 
this was so far from mending matters with Brice, that it made 
them much worse ; the people now accusing him of sorcery 
likewise. At last, being driven out of the city, he appealed 
to Rome, and, after a seven years' suit, got his bishopric again. 
The story is told of him by Gregory Turonensis, his successor 
in his see at Tours. 

. 5. Machutus, otherwise called Maclacius, 
was a bishop in Bretagne in France, of that place 15 ' b^p. 1118 ' 
which is from him called St. Maloes. He lived 
about the year 500, and was famous for many miracles, if the 
acts concerning him may be credited. 

. 6. Hugh was born in a city of Burgundy, 
called Gratianopolis. He was first a regular 17 KoYn Sh P 
canon, and afterwards a Carthusian monk. Be- 
ing very famous for his extraordinary abstinence and austerity 
of life, king Henry II. having built a house for Carthusian 
monks at Witteham in Somersetshire, sent over Reginald bi- 
shop of Bath to invite this holy man to accept the place of the 
prior of this new foundation. Hugh, after a great many en- 
treaties, assented, and came over with the bishop, and was by 
the same king made bishop of Lincoln : where he gained an 
immortal name for his well governing that see, and new build- 
ing the cathedral from the foundation. In the year 1200, 
upon his return from Carthusia, the chief and original house 
of their order, (whither he had made a voyage,) he fell sick 
of a quartan ague at London, and there died on November 
the seventeenth. His body was presently conveyed to Lin- 
coln, and happening to be brought thither when John king of 
England and William king of Scots had an interview there, 
the two kings, out of respect to his sanctity, assisted by some 
of their lords, took him upon their shoulders, and carried him 
to the cathedral. In the year 1220, he was canonized at 
Rome : and his body being taken up October 7, 1282, was 
placed in a silver shrine. The monks have ascribed several 
miracles to him, which I shall omit for brevity, and only set 


down one story which is credibly related of him, viz. that 
coming to Godstow, a house of nuns near Oxford, and seeing 
a hearse in the middle of the choir covered with silk, and ta- 
pers burning about it, (it being then, as it is still in some parts 
of England, a custom to have such monuments in the church 
for some time after the burial of persons of distinction,) he 
asked who was buried there ; and being informed that it was 
Fair Rosamond, the concubine of king Henry II., who had 
that honour done her for having obtained a great many favours 
of the king for that house, he immediately commanded her 
body to be digged up, and to be buried in the churchyard, 
saying it was a place a great deal too good for a harlot, and 
therefore he would have her removed, as an example to terrify 
other women from such a wicked and filthy kind of life. 
20 Edmund ^' Edmund was a king of the East- Angles, 

king and mar- who, being assaulted by the Danes (after their ir- 
ruption into England) for their possession of his 
country, and not being able to hold out against them, offered 
his own person, if they would spare his subjects. But the 
Danes having got him under their power, endeavoured to 
make him renounce his religion : which he refusing to do, 
they first beat him with bats, then scourged him with whips, 
and afterwards binding him to a stake, shot him to death with 
their arrows. His body was buried in a town where Sigebert, 
one of his predecessors, had built a church ; and where after- 
wards (in honour of this name) another was built more spa- 
cious, and the name of the town, upon that occasion, called 
St. Edmund's Bury. 

22. czciiia, ^' CcecUia was a Roman lady who, refusing 

virgin and mar- to renounce her religion when required, was 
thrown into a furnace of boiling water, and scald- 
ed to death : though others say she was stifled by shutting out 
the air of a bath, which was a death sometimes inflicted upon 
women of quality who were criminals. She lived in the year 

. 9. St. Clement I. was a Roman by birth, 
i S ,'bUno C p e o? eDt and one of the first bishops of that place : which 
Rome, and mr- gee he held, according to the best accounts, from 
the year 64 or 65 to the year 81, or thereabouts ; 
and during which time he was most undoubtedly author of one, 
and is supposed to have been of two, very excellent epistles, 
the first of which was so much esteemed of by the primitive 


Christians, as that for some time it was read in the churches for 
canonical scripture. 24 He was for the sake of his religion first 
condemned to hew stones in the mines ; and afterwards, hav- 
ing an anchor tied about his neck, was drowned in the sea. 
.10. St. Catlierine was born at Alexandria, 25 Catherinei 
and bred up to letters. About the year 305 she virgin and mar- 
was converted to Christianity, which she after- tyr- 
wards professed with great courage and constancy ; openly 
rebuking the heathen for offering sacrifice to their idols, and 
upbraiding the cruelty of Maxentius the emperor to his face. 
She was condemned to suffer death in a very unusual manner, 
viz. by rolling a wheel stuck round with iron spikes, or the 
points of swords, over her body. 

SECT. XII. Of the Romish Saints-days and Holy-days in 

Nicolas was born at Patara, a city of Lycia, Dec 6 Nicolagi 
and was afterwards, in the time of Constantine bishop of Myra ' 
the Great, made bishop of Myra. He was re- ta Lycia< 
markable for his great charity ; as a proof of which this instance 
may serve. Understanding that three young women, daughters 
of a person who had fell to decay, were tempted to take lewd 
courses for a maintenance, he secretly conveyed a sum of 
money to their father's house, sufficient to enable him to pro- 
vide for them in a virtuous way. 

. 2. The feast of the Conception of the Virgin 8 conception of 
Mary was instituted by Anselm, archbishop of the blessed vir- 
Canterbury, upon occasion of William the Con- gm 
queror's fleet being in a storm, and afterwards coming safe to 
shore. But the Council of Oxford, held in the year 1222, left 
people at liberty whether they would observe it or not. But 
it had before this given rise to the question ventilated so 
warmly in the Roman Church, concerning the Virgin Mary's 
immaculate conception ; which was first started by Peter 
Lombard about the year 1160. 

.3. Lucy was a young lady of Syracuse, who, 
being courted by a gentleman, but preferring a ^and^rtyr. 81 " 
religious single life before marriage, gave all her 
fortune away to the poor, in order to stop his further appli- 
cations. But the young man, enraged at this, accused her 
to Paschasius, the heathen judge, for professing Christianity. 

94 Cave's Historia Literaria. 


who thereupon ordered her to be sent to the stews : but she 
struggling with the officers who were to carry her, was, after a 
great deal of barbarous usage, killed by them. She lived in 
the year 305. 

. 4. The sixteenth of December is called O 
16. o sapientia. g a pi en i^ f rom fa c beginning of an anthem in 

the Latin service, which used to be sung in the church (for 
the honour of Christ's advent) from this day till Christmas Eve. 
. 5. Silvester succeeded Miltiades in the pa- 
fiop S of V Rome bi - pacy of Home, A. D. 314. He is said to have 
been the author of several rites and ceremonies 
of the Romish Church, as of asylums, unctions, palls, cor- 
porals, mitres, &c. He died in the year 334. 



HAVING done with the Tables, Rules, and Calendar, I should 
now proceed in order to the daily Morning and Evening Ser- 
vice: but the First Rubric, relating to that service, making 
mention of several things which deserve a particular consider- 
ation, and which must necessarily be treated of some where or 
other ; I think this the properest place to do it in, and shall 
therefore take the opportunity of this rubric to treat of them 
in a distinct chapter by themselves. 

The Rubric runs thus : 

daily to be said and used throughout the year. 
The Morning and Evening flayer shall be used in the accus- 
tomed place of the church, chapel, or chancel ; except it shall 
be otherwise determined by the ordinary of the place ; and 
the chancels shall remain as they have done in times past. 
And here it is to be noted, that such ornaments of the church, 
and the ministers thereof, at all times of their ministration, 
shall be retained and be in use, as were in this Church of 
England, by the authority of parliament, in the second year 
of the reign of king Edward the Sixth. 


These are the words of the rubric, and from thence I shall 
take occasion to treat of these four things, viz. 

I. The prescribed times of public prayer ; Morning and 

II. The place where it is to be used ; in the accustomed 
place of the church, chapel, or chancel. 

III. The Minister, or person officiating. 

IV. The Ornaments used in the church by the minister. 
Of all which in their order. 

SECT. I. Of the prescribed Times of Public Prayer. 

MAN, consisting of soul and body, cannot al- The necessity of 
ways be actually engaged in the immediate prescribing set 

e n J ii_ i i? ii_ -i /> times for the per- 

service of God, that being the privilege of an- formance of DI- 
gels and souls freed from the fetters of mor- vmeworsl p- 
tality. So long as we are here, we must worship God with 
respect to our present state ; and therefore must of necessity 
have some definite and particular time to do it in. Now that 
men might not be left in an uncertainty in a matter of so great 
importance, people of all ages and nations have been guided 
by the very dictates of nature, not only to appoint some cer- 
tain seasons to celebrate their more solemn parts of religion, 
(of which more hereafter,) but also to set apart daily some 
portion of time for the performance of divine worship. To 
his peculiar people the Jews God himself ap- why the Jewish 
pointed their set times of public devotion ; com- sacrifices were 
manding them to offer up two lambs daily, one in tiiiniund ninth 
the morning, and the other at even, 1 which we hours- 
find, from other places of Scripture, 2 were at their third and 
ninth hours, which answer to our nine and three ; that so 
those burnt offerings, being types of the great sacrifice which 
Christ the Lamb of God was to offer up for the sins of the 
world, might be sacrificed at the same hours wherein his death 
was begun and finished. For about the third hour, or nine 
in the morning, he was delivered to Pilate, accused, examined, 
and condemned to die; 3 about the sixth hour, or noon, this 
Lamb of God was laid upon the altar of the cross ; 4 and at 
the ninth hour, or three in the afternoon, yielded up the 
ghost. 5 And though the Levitical law expired together with 

i Exod. xxix. 39. Numb, xxviii. 4. 2 Acts ii. 15, and chap. iii. 1. 3 Matt. 
xxvii. 126. John xix. 14. * Matt, xxvii. 46, 50. 


. . , our Saviour ; yet the public worship of God must 

The primitive ... , ' J . r . , 

Christians ob- still have some certain times set apart for the per- 
hourTof^rayer 6 f rmance f ^ ' an ^ accordingly all Christian 
for the same churches have been used to have their public de- 
votions performed daily morning or evening. 
The Apostles and primitive Christians continued to observe 
the same hours of prayer with the Jews, as might easily be 
shewn from the records of the ancient Church. 6 But the 
Why not enjoin- Church of England cannot be so happy as to ap- 
ed by the church point any set hours when either morning or even- 
ing prayer shall be said : because now people are 
grown so cold and indifferent in their devotions, they would 
be too apt to excuse their absenting from the public worship, 
from the inconveniency of the time : and therefore she hath 
only taken care to enjoin that public prayers be read every 
morning and evening daily throughout the year ; that so all 
her members may have opportunity of joining in public wor- 
ship twice at least every day. But to make the duty as prac- 
ticable and easy both to the minister and people as possible, 
she hath left the determination of the particular hours to the 
ministers that officiate; who, considering every one his own 
and his people's circumstances, may appoint such hours for 
morning and evening prayer, as they shall judge to be most 
proper and convenient. 

AH priests and 2. But if it be in places where congregations 
deacons to say can De had, and the curate of the parish be at 

the morning and , , .-, " f, -, . , , 

evening service, ho)ne, and not otherwise reasonably hindered, 
o all nV atchurch 8 ^ e ex P ects or enjoins that he say the same in the 
orp n rivate C iy U in ' parish church or chapel ivhcre he ministereth, 
their families. an j cause a fan to , tolled thereunto, a con- 
venient time before he begin, that the people may come to hear 
God's mord, and to pray rvith him. But if, for want of a 
congregation, or on some other account, he cannot conveni- 
ently read them in the church ; he is then bound to say them 
in the family where he lives : for by the same rubric, all 
priests and deacons are to say daily the morning and evening 
prayer, either privately or openly, not being let by sickness, 
or some other urgent cause." 1 Of which cause, if it be fre- 
quently pretended, the Scotch Common Prayer requires that 

' Constit. Apost. 1. 8, c. 34. Tertull. de Jcjun. c. 10. Cypr. de Oral. Domin. Basil, 
in Re. fut. Disp. Int. 87. Hieron. in Dan. 6. Rup. de Divin. Offlc. 1. 1, c. 5. ' The 
Rubric at the end of the preface concerning the Service of the Church. 


they make the bishop of the diocese, or tlie bishop of the pro- 
vince, the judge and allorccr. The occasion of our rubric was 
probably a rule in the Roman Church, by which, even before 
the Reformation and the Council of Trent, the clergy were 
obliged to recite what they call the canonical hours, (i. e. the 
offices in the Breviary for the several hours of day and night,) 
either publicly in a church or chapel, or privately by them- 
selves. But our reformers not approving the priests perform- 
ing by themselves what ought to be th6 united devotions of 
many ; and yet not being willing wholly to discharge the 
clergy from a constant repetition of their prayers, thought fit 
to discontinue these solitary devotions ; but at the same time 
ordered, that if a congregation at church could not be had, the 
public service, both for morning and evening, should be re- 
cited in the family where the minister resided. Though, ac- 
cording to the first book of king Edward, this is not meant 
that any man shall be bound to the saying of it, but such as 
from time to time in cathedral and collegiate churches, par- 
ish churches, and chapels to the same annexed, shall serve the 
congregation. Though these words in that book immediately 
follow the first part of the rubric which relates to the language 
in which the service is to be said ; the two other paragraphs 
discoursed of in this section, being the first inserted in the 
book that was published in 1552. 

SECT. II. Of Churches ; or places set apart for the perform- 
ance of Divine Worship. 

THE public worship of God, being to be per- The necessity of 
formed by the joint concurrence of several prilte^ac'es"^ 
people, does not only require a place conve- the public wor- 

il C 11 *U 4 Ul tU shi P of God - 

niently capacious for all that assemble together to 
perform that worship ; but there must be also some deter- 
minate and fixed place appointed, that so all who belong to 
the same congregation may know whither they may repair 
and meet one another. This reason put even The un i versa i 
the heathens, who were guided by the light of practice of the 
nature, upon erecting public places for the hon- 
our of their gods, and for their own conveniency, in meeting 
together to pay their religious services and devotions. And 
the patriarchs, by the same light of nature, and the guidance 
of God's holy Spirit, had altars, 8 mountains, 9 and groves, 10 for 

8 Gen. xii. 7, 8. Gen. xxii. 2. w Gen. xxi. 33. 



Jewj that purpose. In the wilderness, where the 
Israelites themselves had no settled habitation, 
they had, by God's command, a moving tabernacle. 11 And 
as soon as they should be fixed in the land of promise, God 
appointed a temple to be built at Jerusalem, 12 which David 
intended, 13 and Solomon performed. 14 And after that was 
demolished, another was built in the room of it; 15 which 
Christ himself owned for Ms house of prayer 
and which both he and his Apostles frequented 
as well as the synagogues. And that the Apostles after him 
had churches fixed, and appropriate places for the joint per- 
formance of divine worship, will be beyond all dispute, if we 
take but a short survey of the first ages of Christianity. In 
the sacred writings we find more than probable footsteps of 
some determinate places for their solemn conventions, and 
peculiar only to that use. Of this nature was that vTrepyov, or 
upper room, into which the Apostles and disciples (after their 
return from our Saviour's ascension) went up, as into a place 
commonly known, and separate to divine use. 17 Such a one, 
if not the same, was that one place wherein they were all as- 
sembled with one accord upon the day of Pentecost, when 
the Holy Ghost visibly came down upon them. 18 And this 
the rather, because the multitude (and they too strangers of 
every nation under heaven) came so readily to the place upon 
the first rumour of so strange an accident ; which could 
hardly have been, had it not been commonly known to be 
the place where the Christians used to meet together. And 
this very learned men take to be the meaning of the forty- 
sixth verse of the second chapter of the Acts : They con- 
tinued daily roith one accord in the temple, and breaking 
bread, (car* oK-ov, (not, as we render it, from house to house, 
but) at home, as it is in the margin, or in the house, they eat 
their meat with gladness of heart ; i. e. when they had per- 
formed their daily devotions at the temple, at the accustomed 
hours of prayer, they used to return home to this upper room, 
there to celebrate the holy eucharist, and then go to their 
ordinary meals. And Mr. Gregory proves that the upper 
rooms, so often mentioned in Scripture, were places in that 
part of the house which was highest from the ground, set 
apart by the Jews as well as Christians for the performance of 

" Exod. XXT. ws. Deut. xii. 10, 11. 1 Chron. xvil. 1. 2. chap. xxii. 7. 
chap, xxviil. 2. H 1 Kings vi. Ecn lii. 8, tc. " Matt. xxi. IS. " Act* i. 13. 
ta Acti 11. 1. 


public worship and devotions. 19 However, this interpretation 
of the text seems to be clear and unforced, and the more 
probable, because it follows the mention of their assembling 
together in that one place on the day of Pentecost, which 
room is also called by the same name of house, at the second 
verse of that chapter. And it is not at all unlikely, but that, 
when the first believers sold their houses and lands, and laid 
tlie money at the Apostles' feet, is supply the necessities of the 
Church ; some of them might give their houses (at least some 
eminent room in them) for the Church to meet in, and to per- 
form their sacred duties. Which also may be the reason why 
the Apostle so often salutes such and such a person, and the 
Church in his house; which seems clearly to intimate, that 
in such cr such a house (probably in the inrepuov, or upper 
room of it) was the constant and solemn convention of the 
Christians of that place for their joint celebration of divine 
worship. For that this salutation is not used merely because 
their families were Christians, appears from other salutations 
of the same Apostle, where Aristobulus and Narcissus, &c. are 
saluted with their household. 21 And this will be further cleared 
by that famous passage of St. Paul, 22 where taxing the Co- 
rinthians for their irreverence and abuse of the Lord's sup- 
per, one greedily eating before another, and some of them even 
to excess ; What ! says he, have you not Jiotises to eat and 
drink in ? or despise ye the church of God? Where, that by 
church is not meant the assembly meeting, but the place in 
which they used to assemble, is evident partly from what went 
before, (for their coming together in the church is explained 
by their coming together into one place plainly arguing that 
the Apostle meant not the persons, but the place,} partly from 
the opposition which he makes between the church and their 
own private houses : if they must have such irregular banquets, 
they had houses of their own, where it was much fitter to have 
their ordinary repasts, than in that place which was set apart 
for the common exercises of religion, and therefore not to be 
dishonoured by such extravagant and intemperate feastings, 
which was no less than despising it. For which reason he 
enjoins them in the close of the chapter, that if any man hun- 
ger, he should eat at home. And in this sense was this text 
always understood by the ancient Fathers. 25 

w Observations upon Scripture, chap. 23. M Rom. xvi. 3, 5. 1 Cor. xvi. 19. Col. 

iv. 15. Philem. ver. 1, 2. Rom. xvi. 10, 11, 14. 2 Tim. iv. 19. ** 1 Cor. xi. 22. 
1 Cor. xi. 18. * 4 1 Cor. xi. 20. August. Quzest. 57, in Leviticum, torn. iii. 

G 2 


Thus stood the case during the times of the 
An cVri r sul!ns Ve Apostles : as for the ages after them, we find that 
the primitive Christians had their fixed and de- 
finite places of worship, especially in the second century ; as, 
had we no other evidence, might be made good from the 
testimony of the author of that dialogue in Lucian, (if not 
Lucian himself,) who expressly mentions that house or room 
wherein the Christians were wont to assemble together.** 
And Justin Martyr expressly affirms, that " upon Sunday all 
Christians (whether in town or country) used to assemble to- 
gether in one place;" 27 which could hardly have been done, 
had not that place been fixed and settled. The same we find 
afterwards in several places of Tertullian, who speaks " of their 
coming into the church and house of God;" 1 * which he else- 
where- 3 calls the liouse of our Dove, i. e. of the Holy Spirit; 
and there describes the very form and fashion of it. And in 
another place, 30 speaking of their going into the water to be 
baptized, he tells us, " They were wont first to go into the 
church, to make their solemn renunciation before the bishop." 
About this time, in the reign of Alexander Severus, the em- 
peror, (who began his reign about the year 222,) the heathen 
historian tells us, 31 that when there was a contest between the 
Christians and vintners about a certain public place, which the 
Christians had challenged for theirs ; the emperor gave the 
cause for the Christians against the vintners, saying, "It was 
much better that God should be worshipped there any ways, 
than that the vintners should possess it." If it be said, that 
" the heathens of those times generally accused the Christians 
for having no temples, and charged it upon them as a piece of 
atheism and impiety ; and that the Christian apologists did not 
deny it ;" the answer depends upon the notion they had of a 
temple ; by which the Gentiles understood the places devoted 
to their gods, and wherein the deities were enclosed and shut 
up ; places adorned with statues and images, with fine altars 
and ornaments. 32 And for such temples as these, they freely 
confessed they neither had nor ought to have any, for the 
TBUE GOD did not (as the heathens supposed theirs did) dwell 

col. 516, F. Basil. Moral. Reg. SO, c. 1, torn. il. p. 4S7, A. Chryrost. in 1 Cor. xi. 2J. 
"loin. 27, torn. iii. p. 419, lin. 40. Theodoret. in eundem locum, torn. iii. p. 175, A. 
*> Philopatr. vol. ii. p. 776. Amstelod. 1687. " Apol. 1. }. 87, p. 131. * De 

Hum. 27, torn. iii. p. 419, lin. 40. Theodoret. in eundem locum, torn. iii. p. 175, A. 

*> Philopatr. vol. ii. p. 776. Amstelod. 1687. " Apol. 1. $. 87, p. 131. _ 
Idol. c. 7, p. 88, D. ' Adv. Valentin, c. 3, p. 251, B. De Corona Milit. c. 3, p. 

102, A. JEl. Lamprid. in Vita Alex. Sever, c. 49, apud HUt. August. Scriptor. p. 
575. Lujfd. BaUv. 1661. Minutius Felix, c. 10, p. 61. Arnob. adv. Gentes, ad in- 
iliuui 1. 6, p. 189, &c. Lactant. Inttitut. 1. 2, c. 2. p. ) 18 


in temples made with hands ; he neither needed, nor could 
possibly be honoured by them : and therefore they purposely 
abstained from the word temple, which is not used by any 
Christian writer for the place of the Christian assemblies, for 
the best part of the first three hundred years. But then those 
very writers, who deny that Christians had any temples, do at 
the same time acknowledge that they had their meeting places 
for divine worship ; their conventicula, as Arnobius calls 
them, 33 when he complains of their being furiously demolished 
by their enemies. 

.2. It cannot be thought that in the first ages, Their churches 
while the flames of persecution raged, the Chris- sumptuous and 
tian churches should be very stately and magnifi- magmfi 
cent : it were sufficient if they were such as the condition of 
those times would bear ; their splendour increasing according 
to the entertainment Christianity met withal in the world ; 
till, the empire becoming Christian, their temples rose up into 
grandeur and stateliness : as, amongst others, may appear by 
the particular description which Eusebius gives of the church 
of Tyre, 34 and of that which Constantine built at Constantino- 
ple in honour of the Apostles : 35 both which, the historian tells 
us, were incomparably sumptuous and magnificent. 

. 3. I shall not undertake to describe at large 
the several parts and dimensions of their churches, The t h e f 
(which varied according to the different times and 
ages,) but only briefly reflect upon such as were most common 
and remarkable, and are still retained amongst us. For the 
form and fashion of their churches, it was for the most part 
oblong, to keep the better correspondence with the fashion of 
a ship : the common notion and metaphor by which the Church 
was wont to be represented, to remind us that we are tossed 
up and down in the world, as upon a stormy and tempestuous 
sea, and that out of the Church there is no safe passage to 
heaven, the country we all hope to arrive at. It was always 
divided into two principal parts, viz. the nave or body of the 
church, and the sacrarium, since called chancel, 
from its being divided from the body of the church ^h^caited. 
by neat rails, called in Latin cancelli. The nave 
was common to all the people, and represented the visible 
world ; the chancel was peculiar to the priests and sacred 

33 Arnobius adv. Gentes, ad finem 1. 4, p. 152. M Eccles. Histor. 1. 10, c. 4, p. 377. 
3 De Vita Const, lib. 4, c. 58, 59, p. 555. 


persons, and typified heaven : for which reason they always 
stood at the east end of the church, towards 
thlTeMt"^ of which part of the world they paid a more than 
the church, and ordinary reverence in their worship ; wherein, 
Clemens Alexandrinus 36 tells us, they had respect 
to Christ ; for as the east is the birth and womb of the natural 
day, from whence the sun (the fountain of all sensible light) 
does arise and spring ; so Christ, the true Sun of Righteous- 
ness, who arose upon the world with the light of truth, when 
it sat in the darkness of error and ignorance, is in Scripture 37 
styled the EAST : and therefore since we must in our prayers 
turn our faces toward some quarter, it is fittest it should be 
towards the east ; especially since it is probable, even from 
Scripture itself, that the majesty and glory of God is in a pe- 
culiar manner in that part of the heavens, and that the throne 
of Christ and the splendour of his humanity has its residence 
there. 38 In this chancel always stood the altar or communion 
table : which none were allowed to approach, but such as were 
in holy orders, unless it were the Greek emperors at Constan- 
tinople, who were allowed to go up to the table to make their 
offerings, but were immediately to return back again. 39 

. 4. But though the Christians of those times 
ages forbiddenTn spared no convenient cost in founding and adorn- 
tie primitive ing public places for the worship of God ; yet 
they were careful not to run into a too curious 
and over-nice superstition. No images were worshipped, or 
so much as used, in churches for at least four hundred years 
after Christ : and therefore certainly, might things be carried 
by a fair and impartial trial of antiquity, the dispute about this 
point would soon be at an end. Nothing can be more clear 
than that the Christians were frequently challenged by the 
heathens for having no images nor statues in their churches, 
and that the Christian apologists never denied it, but indus- 
triously defended themselves against the charge, and rejected 
the very thoughts of any such thing with contempt and scorn ; 
as might be abundantly shewn from Tertullian, Clemens Alex- 
andrinus, Origen, Minutius Felix, Arnobius, and Lactantius. 
But I shall only cite one of them, and that is Origen, who, 

N Strom. 1. 7, p. 724, C. " In Zechariah ill. 8. and chap. vi. 12, the Messiah is 
called the BRANCH; and in Luke i. 78, the DAY SIMUNC ; in all which places the 
original words signify the EAST, and are so rendered in all other versions of the Bible. 
*See Mr. Gregory's Notes and Observations upon Scripture, chap. 18, p. 71, &c.. and p. 
4, 5, of his preface, with some other parts of his works printed at London, 1665. 
Concil. Trull, can. 09, torn. vl. col. 1174, B. 


amongst other things, plainly tells his adversary (who had 
objected this to the Christians) that the images, that were to 
be dedicated to God, were not to be carved by the hands of 
artists, but to be formed and fashioned in us by the word of 
God ; viz. the virtues of justice and temperance, of wisdom 
and piety, &c., that conform us to the image of his only Son. 
" These," says he, " are the only statues formed in our minds ; 
and by which alone we are persuaded it is fit to do honour to 
him, who is the image of the invisible God, the prototype and 
archetypal pattern of all such images." 40 Had Christians then 
given adoration to them, or but set them up in their places of 
worship, with what face can we suppose they could have told 
the world, that they so much abhorred them ? But more than 
this, the Council of Illiberis, that was held in Spain some time 
before Constantine, expressly provides against them ; decree- 
ing, 41 that " no pictures ought to be in the church, nor that 
any thing that is worshipped and adored should be painted 
upon the walls: " words too clear to be evaded by the little 
shifts and glosses which the expositors of that canon would 
put upon it. The first use of statues and pictures in the 
churches was merely historical, or to add some beauty and 
ornament to the place, which after-ages improved into super- 
stition and idolatry. The first we meet with upon good au- 
thority is no older than the times of Epiphanius, and then too 
met with no very welcome entertainment; as may appear from 
Epiphanius's own Epistle to John, then Bishop of Jerusalem : ^ 
where he says, that coming to Anablatha, a village in Pales- 
tine, and going into a church to pray, he espied a curtain 
hanging over the door, whereupon was painted the image of 
Christ, or of some saint ; which when he had looked upon, 
and saw the image of a man hanging up in the church, con- 
trary to the authority of the holy Scriptures, he presently rent 
it, and ordered the churchwardens to make use of it as a wind- 
ing-sheet for some poor man's burying. This instance is so 
home, that the patrons of image-worship are at. a loss what to 
say to it, and after all are forced to cry out against it as sup- 
posititious : though the famous Du Pin, who is himself of the 
Romish communion, and doctor of the Sorbon, allows it to be 
genuine, and owns that one reason of its being called in ques- 
tion, is because it makes so much against that doctrine. 43 

40 Contr. Cels. 1. 8, part 2, p. 521, E. Can. 36, torn. i. col. 974. Epiphan. 
torn. ii. p. 317. Hist, of Ecclesiast. Writers, vol. ii. p. 236. 


More might be produced to this purpose : but by this, I hope, 
it is clear enough, that the primitive Christians, as they 
thought it sufficient to pray to God without making their ad- 
dresses to saints and angels, so they accounted their churches 
fine enough without pictures and images to adorn them. 

. 5. And though these afterwards crept in 
churches requi- again, and became the occasion of idolatry in the 
site and neces- times of popery ; yet our Church at the Reform- 
ation not only forbad the worshipping them, 
but also quite removed them ; as thinking them too false a 
beauty for the house of God. But though she would not let 
religion be dressed in the habit of a wanton, yet she did not 
deny her that of a matron : she would have her modest in her 
garb, but withal comely and clean ; and therefore still allowed 
her enough, not only to protect her from shame and con- 
tempt, but to draw her some respect and reverence too. And 
no man surely can complain, that the ornaments now made 
use of in our churches are too many or too expensive. Good 
men would rather wish that more care was taken of them, 
than there generally seems to be. For sure a decency in this 
regard is conformable to every man's sense, who professes to 
retain any reverence for God and religion. The magnificence 
of the first Jewish temple was very acceptable to God ; u and 
the too sparing contributions of the people towards the second 
was what he severely reproved : * 5 from whence we may at 
least infer, that it is by no means agreeable to the Divine 
Majesty, that we turn pious clowns and slovens, by running 
into the contrary extreme, and worshipping the Lord, not in 
the beauty, but in the dirt and deformity of holiness. Far 
from us be all ornaments misbecoming the worship of a Spirit, 
or the gravity of a church ; but surely it hath a very ill aspect 
for men to be so sordidly frugal, as to think that well enough in 
God's house, which they could not endure even in the mean- 
est offices of their own. But to return to my first design, 
churches to b . 6. When churches are built, they ought to 
forma"ddica? a ^ ave a greater value and esteem derived upon 
tion of them to them by some peculiar consecration : for it is not 
enough barely to devote them to the public ser- 
vices of religion, unless they are also set apart with the solemn 
rites of a formal dedication. For by these solemnities the 
founders surrender all the right they have in them to God, 

44 1 Kings ix. 3. Haggai i. and U. 


and make God himself the sole owner of them. And formerly, 
whoever gave any lands or endowments to the service of God, 
gave it in a formal writing, sealed and witnessed, (as is now 
usual between man and man,) the tender of the gift being 
made upon the altar, by the donor on his knees. The an- 
tiquity of such dedications is evident, from its being an uni- 
versal custom amongst Jews and Gentiles : and it is observ- 
able that amongst the former, at the consecration of both the 
tabernacle and temple, it pleased the Almighty to give a 
manifest sign that he then took possession of them. 46 When 
it was first taken up by Christians is not easy to determine ; 
though there are no footsteps of any such thing to be, met 
with, in any approved writer, till the reign of Constantine ; in 
whose time, Christianity being become more prosperous and 
flourishing, churches were every where erected and repaired ; 
and no sooner were so, but, as Eusebius tells us, 47 they were 
solemnly consecrated, and the dedications celebrated with 
great festivity and rejoicing. The rites and ceremonies used 
upon these occasions (as we find in the same author 48 ) were a 
great confluence of bishops and strangers from all parts, the 
performance of divine offices, singing of hymns and psalms, 
reading and expounding the Scriptures, sermons and orations, 
receiving the holy sacrament, prayers and thanksgivings, 
liberal alms bestowed on the poor, and great gifts given to the 
church ; and, in short, mighty expressions of mutual love 
and kindness and universal rejoicing with one another. And 
these dedications were always constantly com- 
memorated from that time forward once a year, Jdimt^akes! 
and solemnized with great pomp, and much con- 
fluence of people ; the solemnity usually lasting eight days 
together : 49 a custom observed with us till the twenty-eighth 
year of Henry VIII. , when, by a decree of convocation con- 
firmed by that king, the feast of dedication was ordered to be 
celebrated in all places throughout England on one and the 
same day, viz. on the first Sunday of October. Whether 
that feast be continued now in any parts of the kingdom, I 
cannot tell ; for as to the wakes which are still observed in 
many country villages, and generally upon the next Sunday 
that follows the saint's day whose name the church bears, I 
take them to be the remains of the old church holidays, which 

Exod. xl. 34. 1 Kings viii. 10, 11. Hist. Eccl. 1. 10, c. 3, p. 370. Ibid, 
et de Vita Const. 1. 4, c. 42, 43, p. 546, &c. Niceph. Cal. Hist. Eccl. 1. 8, c. 50, torn, 
i. p. 653, B. w See Bp. Gibson's Codex, p. 276. 


were feasts kept in memory of the saints to whose honour the 

churches were dedicated, and who were therefore called the 

patrons of the churches. 41 For though all 

The name of an- r , , j j- ,. j j. !_.. r~< j 

gels or saints churches were dedicated to none but God, as 
given to appears by the grammatical construction of the 

churches. r J 6 . , 

word church, which signifies nothing else but 
the Lord's house ; 53 yet at their consecration they were gener- 
ally distinguished by the name of some angel or saint ; chiefly 
that the people, by frequently mentioning them, might be ex- 
cited to imitate the virtues for which they had been eminent ; 
and also that those holy saints themselves might by that means 
be kept in remembrance. 

S. 7. Though I have already been so long up- 
Great respect 3 . . , , 6 T J , , -11 TI 
and reverence on this head, yet 1 cannot conclude it, till 1 have 

churches by^he OD8erve d what respect and reverence those primi- 
primitive Chris- live Christians used to shew in the church, as the 
solemn place of worship, and where God did 
more peculiarly manifest his presence. And this we find to 
have been very great. " They came into the church (saith 
St. Chrysostom 53 ) as into the palace of the great King, with 
fear and trembling ; " upon which account he there presses 
the highest modesty and gravity upon them. Before their 
going into the church they used to wash, at least their hands, 
as Tertullian probably intimates, 51 and Chrysostom expressly 
tells us,* 5 carrying themselves while they were there with the 
profoundest silence and devotion. Nay, so great was the 
reverence they bore to the church, that the emperors them- 
selves, (who otherwise never went without their guard about 
them,) when they went into the church, used to lay down 
their arms, to leave their guard behind them, and to put off 
their crowns ; reckoning that the less ostentation they made 
of power and greatness there, the more firmly the imperial 
majesty would be entailed upon them. 56 Examples, one would 
think, sufficient to excite us to use all such outward testimo- 
nies of respect as are enjoined by the Church, and established 
by the custom of the age we live in, as marks of honour and 
reverence : a duty recommended by Solomon, who charges us 
to look to our feet, when me ffo into the house of God ;" be- 

41 See the constitution of Simon Islip, 1362, in Bishop Gibson, p. 280, or in Mr. John- 
son's Collection of Ecclesiastical Laws. M From Kvpioxif (which signifies the Lord's 
house) comes Kyre, and by adding letters of aspiration, Chyrch or Church. :>:1 In I-'.p. 
ad liebr. c. ix. Horn. 15, torn. iv. p. SIS, lin. ult. '' De Oratione, c. 11, p. 133, C. 

14 In Johan. 13, Horn. 72, torn. ii. p. 861, lin. 23. M Codex Theodos. lib. tf, tit. , 

leg. 4, torn. ill. p. 363. " Eccles. v. 1. 


ing an allusion in particular to the rite of pulling off the shoes 
used by the Jews, and other nations of the East, when they 
came into sacred places ; 59 and is as binding upon us to look 
to ourselves by uncovering our heads, and giving all other ex- 
ternal testimonies of reverence and devotion. 

SECT. III. Of the Ministers, or persons officiating in Divine 

ANOTHER thing mentioned in this rubric are The necessity of 
the Ministers ; by whom we are to understand divine commis- 

,1 i i . . ,7 ,. sion to qualify a 

those who, being taken from among men, are or- person for any 
dained for men, in things pertaining to God; an p^ e e d ffice> 
honour which no man taketh to himself, but he that 
is called of God, as mas Aaron ,- 59 for the ministerial office is of 
so high a nature, that nothing but a divine commission can quali- 
fy any person for the execution of it. The minis- First from the 
ters of religion are the representatives of God Al- dignity of the of- 
mighty : they are to publish his laws, and to pass fice ltself ' 
his pardons, and to preside in his worship. God has committed 
to them the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whosesoever 
sins they remit, they shall be remitted ,- whosesoever sins they 
retain, they shall be retained. They are the stewards of the 
mysteries of God, and the dispensers of his holy word and sa- 
craments : in a word, they are the ambassadors of heaven : 
and on their ministrations the assistances of the Holy Spirit 
and all the graces of a good life depend. All these characters 
and powers are ascribed to them in Scripture ; and consequent- 
ly do sufficiently demonstrate the dignity of their office, and 
are a plain argument that none but God himself can give them 
their commission. For who dares, without the express orders 
of Heaven, undertake an office which includes so many and 
such great particulars ? Should any one take upon him the 
character of an ambassador ; should he offer terms of peace 
to enemies, pretend to naturalize foreigners, and grant par- 
dons, without a commission from the supreme magistrate ; as 
all his acts would be null and void, so he would be highly 
criminal, and liable to the severest punishment. The applica- 
tion is so easy, that the very heathens would never venture to 
officiate in religious matters, without a supposed inspiration 
from heaven, or a previous initiation by those, whom they 
thought intrusted by the Deity for that purpose. 

58 Exod. iii. 5. Josh. v. 15. Heb. v. 1, 4. 


Among the Jews none could approach the pre- 

Secondly, from c ~ , , . . r 

the constant sence of God but such as were particularly ap- 

pointed by him. When God instituted offerings 
and sacrifices, and the other positive parts of his 
worship, he at the same time set apart a peculiar order of men 
to be the administrators of them. So that the persons who 
were to minister were equally of divine institution with the 
ministrations themselves. Thus Aaron and his sons, and the 
Levites, were consecrated by the express command of God to 
Moses, 60 and had all of them their distinct commissions from 
heaven : and no less than death was the penalty of invading 
their office. 81 Nay, God was more than ordinary jealous of 
this honour, and vindicated it even at the expense of several 
miracles. Thus, when Korah and his company (though Le- 
vites, and consequently nearer to the Lord in holy matters 
than the rest of the congregation) usurped the priest's office ; 
God Almighty miraculously destroyed both them and their as- 
sociates : and their censers were ordered to be beaten into 
broad plates, and fixed on the altar, to be everlasting monu- 
ments of their sacrilege, and a caution to all the children of 
Israel, that none should presume to offer incense before the 
Lord but the seed of Aaron, who alone were commissioned to 
this office. 62 So also Uzzah was by the immediate hand of 
God struck dead on the spot for touching the ark, though he 
did it out of zeal to hinder it from falling ; to shew that no 
pretence of doing God service can justify meddling in holy 
things. 63 Saul, for offering sacrifice, (though he thought him- 
self under a necessity of doing so,) lost his kingdom ;** and 
king Uzziah, attempting to burn incense before the Lord, was 
judicially smitten with leprosy, and so excluded for ever after, 
not only from all sacred, but even civil society.** A plain ar- 
gument, that the sacerdotal is not included in the regal office, 
nor derived from thence, but that, on the contrary, it is of a 
distinct nature and institution. 

And, as St. Jerome rightly observes,** " What Aaron and 
his sons and the Levites were in the temple ; such are the 
bishops, presbyters, and deacons in the Christian church." 
These are appointed by God, as those were ; and therefore it 
can be no less sacrilege to usurp their office. Nay, it must 
be far greater ; because the honour of the ministry rises in 
proportion to the dignity of their ministration ; and therefore 

UY. viil. Numb. 111. 5. rc. ' Numb. ill. 10, and xviii. 7. Numb. xvi. 
J Sara. vl. 6, 7. * 1 Sam. xlH. 2 Chron. xxvL 16, Sec. Sub fine Epi- 
tolc ad Evagrium. 


as it cannot be denied, but that realities are more valuable 
than types, and that heaven is better than the land of Canaan ; 
so the sacraments of the Gospel are certainly to be preferred 
before all the offerings and expiations of the law. 

And if we would but consider our Saviour's Th j rd ] y from 
example, we should find that, though he wanted the example of 
no gift to qualify him for this office, as having ourSaviour - 
the divine nature inseparably united to his human, and giving 
sufficient evidence of his abilities, when but twelve years old; 
and though the necessities of mankind called loudly for such 
an instructor, yet he would not enter upon his office till he 
was externally commissioned thereto by the visible descent of 
the Holy Ghost upon him, and by an audible voice from 
heaven, proclaiming him to be the Messiah, when he was 
about thirty years old. All the former part of his life he spent 
in a private capacity ; doubtless to teach us, that no internal 
qualifications, no good end nor intention, can warrant a man's 
exercising any holy function, without a divine commission. 

And we may observe that, though our Saviour Fourt hi y , from 
had many followers, yet none of them presumed the practice of 
to preach, or baptize, or perform any other sa- the Apost 
cred office, till they were particularly commissioned by him. 
He first ordained twelve, that they might be with him ; and 
that he might send them forth to preach, and to have power 
to heal sicknesses, and to cast out devils ; 67 and afterwards 
the other seventy, which went out upon a like errand, were 
especially appointed by him. 68 So likewise, after his resur- 
rection, when he advanced the eleven to be Apostles, he did 
it in a most solemn manner : first breathing on them, and com- 
municating to them the Holy Ghost ; and then, after he had as- 
sured them of his own authority, he gave them the power of the 
keys, and authority to exercise all the holy offices in the Chris- 
tian Church, and to convey the same authority to others ; 
promising them that he mould be always with them and their 
successors, even to the end of the world ; and ratify and con- 
firm what was done in his name, and agreeable to this com- 
mission. From whence it is plain, that it was our Saviour's 
express will and intention, that all those, who are ministers in 
his Church, should either mediately or immediately derive 
their authority from him. And accordingly we may observe, 
that, in the beginning of Christianity, all those who officiated 

" Mark iii. 14, 15. M Luke x. 1. 


in divine matters received their commission either from Christ 
himself, or from apostolical hands, and very commonly from 
both. The seven deacons were constituted by the Apostles ; 69 
and St. Paul and St. Barnabas ordained elders in every church 
which they planted. 70 The other Apostles used the same 
method, as did also their successors after them, as is suffi- 
ciently evident from Scripture and antiquity ; which abund- 
antly proves the necessity of a divine commission, in order 
to the being a minister in the Christian Church. 

The necessity of , ' 2 " . l{ ^ be asked . W . h mftV be ^ 8a , id to 

episcopal oniina- have this divine commission ? we need not doubt 
to affirm, that none but those who are ordained 
by such as we now commonly call bishops, can have any au- 
thority to minister in the Christian Church. For that the power 
of ordination is solely lodged in that order, shall be proved 
from the institution of our Saviour, and the constant practice 
of the Apostles. That the power of ordination lodged in the 
Apostles was of divine institution, I suppose no one will ques- 
tion, who reads these words of our Saviour to them, after his 
resurrection ; As my Father sent me, so send I you ,- 71 and 
Lo, lam with you always, even unto the end of the world: "' 
from whence it is evident, first, That it was by a divine com- 
mission, that our Saviour ordained or sent his Apostles. Se- 
condly, That, by virtue of the same commission, the Apostles 
were at that time empowered to ordain or send others. And, 
thirdly, That this commission to ordain was always to continue 
in the Christian Church, and to remain in such hands as the 
Apostles should convey it to. From whence it naturally fol- 
lows, that whoever has a power to ordain, must derive it from 
the commission which our Saviour received from God, and 
gave to his Apostles, and was by them conveyed to their suc- 
cessors. The only way then to know in whose hands this 
commission is now lodged, is to inquire what persons were 
appointed by the Apostles to succeed them in this office. Now 
it is plain to any one who will read the Scripture 
ordew wV'a^art without prejudice, that there were three distinct 
to the ministry orders of ministers in the Christian Church, in 
the Apostles' days, which were designed to con- 
tinue to the end of the world. For besides those two which 
our adversaries allow, viz. deacons, and presbyters or elders, 
(which latter are also sometimes called bishops,) we read of 

Act* vi. 0. Acts xlv. 23. " John xx. 21. Matt. xxviii. 20. 


another order, which were superior to, and had authority over, 
both these: such as were the Apostles, and Timothy and 
Titus, and others. For it is plain from the epistles St. Paul 
wrote to the two last mentioned, that they presided over the 
presbyters. They had power to enforce them to their duty, 
to receive accusations against them, and judicially to pass 
sentence upon them: which abundantly proves their supe- 
riority. And several others were constituted by the Apostles 
to the same office : such were St. James surnamed the Just, 
and Epaphroditus, who were termed Apostles or bishops by all 
antiquity : such doubtless were those whom St. Paul calls 
Apostles of the Churches, and joins with Titus: 73 and such 
also were those Angels of the Churches, mentioned in the 
book of the Revelation. 

Some indeed have been pleased to tell us, that " these 
were extraordinary officers, and so of temporary institution 
only." But this is said without any ground or plausible pre- 
tence. That they were sometimes sent upon extraordinary 
messages, and had a power, upon an occasion, to do extra- 
ordinary things, such as miracles, &c., is very true : but then 
the same is to be said of the other orders as well as this. 
Philip was only a deacon, and yet God employed him in 
several extraordinary matters. And working of miracles was 
so common in the beginning of Christianity, that ordinary 
Christians were frequently endued with this power. 14 So that, 
if this were an argument for the temporary institution of one 
order, it must be so too for all the rest ; which they, who 
make the objection, dare not say, and therefore acknowledge 
there is no force in it. 

But they further urge, that " Timothy was an evangelist ; 
because St. Paul bids him do the work of an evangelist" ' 5 
But to this we answer, that an evangelist was no distinct 
officer at any time in the Christian Church. For the proper 
notion of an evangelist in the Acts and St. Paul's Epistles is, 
one who was eminently qualified to preach the Gospel, and 
had taken great pains therein. Thus Philip was called an 
evangelist, 76 who was no more than a deacon ; and could 
only preach and baptize, and had not the power of laying on 
of hands, which Timothy had : and therefore the office of 
Philip was far inferior to that of Timothy. Whence it is 

n 2 Cor. viii. 23. . '* Mark xvi. 17, 18. Acts x. 46, and xix. 6. 1 Cor. xii. 10, 28. 
2 Tim. iv. 5. Acts xxi. 8. 


evident, that allowing Timothy to be an evangelist, yet his 
power over presbyters did not accrue to him upon that ac- 
count. Nor does Timothy's being an evangelist prove the 
office of ruling and ordaining presbyters to be peculiar to an 
evangelist, any more than Philip's being called an evangelist 
proves the office of preaching and baptizing to be so. 

From what has been said therefore it plainly appears, that 
there were three distinct orders set apart to the ministry by 
the Apostles. Our next inquiry then is, to how many, or to 
which of these, the power of ordination was committed. 
Now that the lowest order (viz. that of deacons) had not this 
power, is by all confessed : and that the highest order (of 
which Timothy and Titus were) had it, we are assured by the 
express testimony of St. Paul. The only ques- 
MveHnvesteT tion then is, whether the second order (viz. that 
with the power o f presbyters) was ever invested with this power. 

of ordination. mi r tv * i_ i * 

1 he affirmative of which question can never be 
proved from Scripture or antiquity. For, 

First, It is frivolous to argue from the community of names, 
to the sameness of office. For any reasonable man will grant, 
that the words bishop and presbyter being promiscuously used, 
and mere presbyters being frequently called bishops in Scrip- 
ture, does not prove, that therefore all the powers, which be- 
long to those we now call bishops, were ever lodged in those 
presbyters. The only method, then, to prove that the power 
of ordination belongs to presbyters, is to shew, that whoever 
were in Scripture called by the name of presbyters or bishops 
were invested with that power: which can never be done. 
For if presbyters or elders had the power of ordination lodged 
in them, for what reasons can we suppose that St. Paul should 
leave Titus in Crete on purpose to ordain elders in every city, 
(as he tells him he did, 77 ) when we know that that island had 
been converted to Christianity long before Titus came thither; 
and therefore doubtless had many presbyters among them, to 
preach and administer the sacraments to the inhabitants ? Nor, 

Secondly, Can this be proved from that often quoted pas- 
sage, 78 where St. Paul exhorts Timothy not to neglect the gift 
that was in him, which was given him by propltecy, with the 
laying on of the hands of the presbytery. For, allowing that 
Timothy's ordination is here spoken of, (which yet many learn- 
ed men have questioned,) it is manifest that the Apostles 

" Tituii. 5. 1 Tim. IT. 14. 


themselves were often called by the name of presbyters. And 
so the presbyters here mentioned may very probably be the 
Apostles. We are sure that St. Paul was one of them, and that 
he ascribes the whole of Timothy's ordination to his own lay- 
ing on of hands: 79 and therefore the utmost that can be de- 
duced from this text is this, viz. That one or more of such as 
were mere presbyters might lay on their hands in concurrence 
with him, to testify their consent and approbation ; as is the 
custom at this day in the ordination of a presbyter, and has 
been sometimes done at the consecration of a bishop. 80 Nor, 
Thirdly, Can it be inferred from any of the charges or di- 
rections given by St. Paul in his epistles to either bishops or 
presbyters, that they had ever any thing like the power of or- 
dination : which makes it more than probable, that wherever 
the word bishop is found in Scripture, as applied to an eccle- 
siastical officer after our Saviour, the middle order is always 
meant. 81 For though the Apostles are sometimes called pres- 
byters and deacons, yet they are never called bishops. Their 
office is once indeed called tiriaKo-n-ri, i. e. a bishopric : 83 but 
wherever we meet with tiriaKoiroi, i. e. bishops, either in the 
Acts of the Apostles, or the Epistles, we may very well un- 
derstand the middle order, which we now call presbyters. 
And as for those whom we now call bishops, they were, in the 
first age of the Church, styled Apostles. For so St. Paul, 
speaking to the Philippians concerning Epaphroditus, 83 calls 
him his brother and companion in labour, vpwv Se aTrooroXov, 
but your apostle , (for so the word ought to be rendered, and 
not messenger, as in our translation ;) an office which it is 
probable St. Paul ordained him to, when he sent him with 
this Epistle ; for which reason, he charges them to receive him 
in the Lord with all gladness, and to hold such in reputa- 
tion.^ And Epaphroditus is accordingly, by all antiquity, 
reckoned the first bishop of Philippi. So that the apostolical 
office was not temporary, but designed to continue in the 
Church of Christ. And therefore the Apostles took care to 
ordain some to succeed them, who were at first called by the 
same name, though they afterwards in modesty declined so 
high a title ; as is expressly affirmed by Theodoret, who tells 

79 2 Tim. i. 6. so yid. Bevereg. in Can. Apost. l,p. 11, ad fin. col. 2. And 
therefore in the Syriac version of the New Testament, the word ewio-Koiroc is usually 
rendered by presbyter, and etrtanovn by presbyteratus. Vide Bevereg. in Can. Apost. 
2, p. 13, col. 1. < Acts i. 20. " Chap. ii. 25. See also 2 Cor. viii. 23. Gal. i. 19. 
in both which places, by the original word aTtooToXoi, are to be understood those we 
now call bishops. ** Phil. ii. 29. 


us, 84 " That formerly the same persons were called both pres- 
byters and bishops ; and those now called bishops were then 
called Apostles : but in process of time the name of Apostle 
was left to those Apostles strictly so called, and the name of 
bishops ascribed to all the rest." And Pacianus, a writer in 
the fourth century, affirms the same thing. 86 So that granting 
mere presbyters to be Scripture bishops, which some have so 
earnestly contended for ; yet nothing can from thence be in- 
ferred, to prove them to have equal power with those we now 
call bishops, who are successors of a higher order. 

And to what has been said, we might, for further proof, add 
the joint testimony of all Christians for near fifteen hundred 
years together ; and challenge our adversaries to produce one 
instance of a valid ordination by presbyters in all that time. 
It seems therefore very strange, that, if presbyters ever had 
the power of ordination, they should so tamely give- up their 
right, without any complaint, or so much as leaving any thing 
upon record, to witness their original authority to after ages. 
In short, we have as much reason to believe that the power 
of ordination is appropriated to those we now call bishops, as 
we have to believe the necessary continuance of any one posi- 
tive ordinance in the Gospel. 

And now, (to sum up all that has been said in a few words,) 
a commission to ordain was given to none but the Apostles, 
and their successors. And to extend it to any inferior order, 
is without warrant in Scripture or antiquity. For every com- 
mission is naturally exclusive of all persons, except those to 
whom it is given. So that, since it does not appear, that the 
commission to ordain, which the Apostles received from our 
Saviour, was ever granted to any but such as must be acknow- 
ledged to be of a superior order to that of presbyters, which 
superior order is the same with that of those we now call 
bishops; therefore it follows, that no others have any pre- 
tence thereunto ; and consequently none but such as are 
ordained by bishops can have any title to minister in the 
Christian Church. 

SECT. IV. Of the Ministerial Ornaments. 

what ornaments THE 8econ ^ P ai * f this rubric is concerning 

are meant in the the ornaments of the church, and the ministers 

thereof, at all times of their ministrations.- 

* Tn 1 Tim. iii. 1. torn. ill. p. 473, D. M Paclan. Episc. Barcelonens. ad Serapro- 
nianuin de Catholico Nomine. Ep. 1. apud Bibliothec. 8. 8. Patrum torn. iii. col. 431. 
Paris. 1589. 


and to know what they are, we must have recourse to the 
Act of Parliament here mentioned, viz. in the second year of 
the reign of king Edward the Sixth : which enacts, That 
all and singular ministers, in any cathedral or parish 
church, $., shall, after the feast of Pentecost next coming, 
be bounden to say the mattens, evening song, Sfc., and the 
administration of the sacraments, and all the common and 
open prayer, in such order and form as is mentioned in the 
said book, (viz. first book of Edward VI.) and not other or 
otherwise. So that by this Act we are again referred to the 
first Common Prayer Book of king Edward VI. for the habits 
in which ministers are to officiate ; where there are two ru- 
brics relating to them, one prescribing what habits shall be 
worn in all public ministrations whatsoever, the other relating 
only to the habits that are to be used at the Communion. 
The first is in the last leaf of the book, and runs thus : 

In the saying or singing of mattens, or even-song, baptizing 
and burying, the minister in parish churches and chapels an- 
nexed to the same shall use a surplice. And in all cathedral 
churches and colleges, archdeacons, deans, provosts, masters, 
prebendaries, and fellows, being graduates, may use in the 
choir, besides their surplices, such hoods as pertain to their 
several degrees which they have holden in any university 
within this realm, but in all other places every minister shall 
be at liberty to use any surplice or no. It is also seemly that 
'graduates, when they do preach, should use such hoods as per- 
taineth to their several degrees. 

And whenever the bishop shall celebrate the holy Commu- 
nion in the church, or execute any other public ministration ; 
he shall have upon him, beside his rochette, a surplice, or alb, 
and a cope, or vestment, and also his pastoral staff in his 
hand, or else borne or holden by his chaplain. 

The other rubric that relates to the habits that are to be 
worn by the minister at the Communion, is at the beginning 
of that office, and runs thus : 

Upon the day, and at the time appointed for the ministra- 
tion of the holy Communion, the priest that shall execute the 
holy ministry, shall put upon him the vesture appointed for 
that ministration, that is to say, a white alb plain, with a 
vestment or cope. And where there be many priests or 
deacons, there so many shall be ready to help the priest in the 

H 2 


ministration, as shall be requisite. And shall have upon them 
likeicise the vestures appointed for the ministry, that is to say, 
albes with tunicles. 

These are the ministerial ornaments enjoined by our pre- 
sent rubric. But because the surplice is of the most general 
use, and what is most frequently objected against; I shall 
therefore speak more largely of that, and only give a short 
account of the rest. 

I. As to the name of surplice, which comes 
why so "called from the Latin superpellieeum, I can give no 
better account of it, than what I can put to- 
gether from Durand, who tells us it was so called, because 
anciently this garment was put super tunicas pellicas de pel- 
libus mortuorum animalium factas, upon leathern coats, 
made of the hides of dead beasts ; symbolically to represent 
that the offence of our first parents, which brought us under 
a necessity of wearing garments of skin, was now hid and 
covered by the grace of Christ, and that therefore we are 
clothed with the emblem of innocence. 87 But whencesoever 
came the name, the thing certainly is good. 
The antiquity, ^ or ^ ** ^ e thought necessary for princes and 
lawfulness, and magistrates to wear distinct habits, in the ex- 

sncyofu. ecu tion of their public offices, to preserve an 
awful respect to their royalty and justice ; there is the same 
reason for a different habit when God's ambassadors publicly 
officiate. And accordingly we find that, under the Law, the 
Jewish priests were, by God's own appointment, to wear de- 
cent sacred vestments at all times ; M but at the time of public 
service, they were to have, besides those ordinary garments, 
a nthite linen ephod. m From the Jews it is probable the 
Egyptians learned this custom to wear no other garments but 
only of white linen, looking on that to be the fittest, as being 
the purest covering for those that attended on divine service. 90 
And Philostratus tells us, that the Brachmans, or Indian priests, 
wore the same sort of garments for the same reasons." From 
so divine an original and spreading a practice, the ancient 
Christians brought them into use for the greater decency and 
solemnity of divine service. St. Jerome at one and the same 
time proves its ancient use, and reproves the needless scruples 

* Durand Rational.!. 3, c. 1, numb. 10, 11,12. B" Exod. xxriii. and xxlx. 

89 Exod. xxviii. 4. I Sam. 11. 18. Apul. in Apol. pan 1, p. 64. ParU. 1635. Vid. 
Hferon. in Ezek. xliv. 17, torn. ir. p. 476, D. Philostr. Vit. Apol. Tyan. 1. 3, c. 15, 
p. IOC. Lipsiz 170D. 


of such as oppose it. "What offence," saith he, "can it be 
to God, for a bishop or priest, &c. to proceed to the com- 
munion in a white garment ? " 93 The antiquity of it in the 
Eastern Church appears from Gregory Nazianzen, who ad- 
viseth the priests to purity, because " a little spot is soon seen 
in a white garment." 93 And it is very probable that it was 
used in the Western Church in the time of S. Cyprian ; for 
Pontius, in his account of that Father's martyrdom, says, that 
" there was a bench by chance covered with a white linen 
cloth, so that at his passion he seemed to have some of the en- 
signs of the episcopal honour." 91 From whence we may gather, 
that a white garment was used by the clergy in those times. 

. 2. The colour of it is very suitable ; for it 
aptly represents the innocence and righteousness T why "white!' ^ 
wherewith God's ministers ought to be clothed. 95 
And it is observable, that the Ancient of Days 96 is represent- 
ed as having garments white as snow ; and that when our 
Saviour was transfigured, his raiment was white as the light ; m 
and that whenever angels have appeared to men, they have 
always been clothed in white apparel. 98 

. 3. The substance of it is linen, for woollen 
would be thought ridiculous, and silk would ^ n adec 
scarce be afforded : and we may observe, that 
under the Jewish dispensation God himself ordered that 
the priests should not gird themselves with anything that 
caused sweat 99 to signify the purity of heart that ought 
to be in those that were set apart to the performance of 
divine service ; for which reason the Jewish ephods were 
linen, 100 as were also most of the other garments which the 
priests wore during their ministrations. 1 The Levites also 
that were singers were arrayed in white linen, 2 and the armies 
that followed the Lamb were clothed in fine linen ,- 3 and to 
the Lamb's wife was granted, that she should be arrayed in 
fine linen white and clean ; for the fine linen is, i. e. repre- 
sents, the righteousness of saints ^ 

. 4. As for the shape of it, it is a thing so Theghapeofit . 
perfectly indifferent, that it admits of no dispute. 
The present mode is certainly grave and convenient, and, in 


the opinion of Durand, significant ; who observes, that as the 
garments used by the Jewish priesthood were girt tight about 
them, to signify the bondage of the law ; so the looseness of 
the surplices, used by the Christian priests, signifies the free- 
dom of the gospel. 8 

. 5. But neither its significancy nor decency 
b iwered 8 *" will protect it from objections : for first, some 
tell us, " it is a rag of popery : " an objection 
that proves nothing but the ignorance of those that make it : 
for white garments (let them be called what they will) were of 
use amongst the most primitive Christians. Nor need our 
adversaries do the Church of Rome a greater kindness, or 
wound the protestant religion more deeply, than by granting 
that white garments and popery are of the same antiquity. 

They tell us, secondly, that " it has been abused by the 
papists to superstitious and idolatrous uses." But to this we 
answer, That it is not the priest's using a surplice, that either 
makes their worship idolatrous or superstitious, or increases 
the idolatry or superstition of it. For the worship of the Ro- 
man Church is idolatrous and superstitious, whether the priest 
be clothed in white, or black, or any other colour. All there- 
fore that our adversaries can mean is this, viz. that the sur- 
plice has been worn by the papists, when they have practised 
idolatry and superstition : and this we grant : but then it does 
not follow, that a surplice of itself is either unlawful or inex- 
pedient. For white garments had, in this sense, been abused 
to superstitious and idolatrous uses, before Daniel represented 
God himself as wearing such garments ; and before our 
Saviour wore them ; and before the angels and saints were 
represented as clothed with them ; and before they became 
the ministerial ornaments of the primitive times. But surely, 
if such an abuse made them unlawful or inexpedient, it can- 
not be conceived, that the primitive Church, and the inspired 
writers, nay, God himself, would so plainly countenance 

II. Next to the surplice, that which is of most 
frequent use in the celebration of divine service 
is the hood, or the habit denoting the degree which the person 
officiating has taken in the university. This in Latin is called 
caputium or cucullus ; though of the two names the latter 
seems to be the more proper and ancient. For the cucullus 

* Rational Divln. Offic. 1. 3, c. 3, numb. 3, fol. 67. 


was a habit among the ancient Romans, being a 

coarse covering for the head, broad at one end B y^om first 

for the head to go in, and then lessening gradually 

till it ended in a point. 6 

. 2. From the Romans the use of it was taken 
up by the old monks and ascetics ; who, as soon 
as they began in the church, made choice of this 
habit as suitable to that strict reserved ness which they pro- 
fessed. For when this was drawn over their faces, it at once 
prevented them from gazing at others, or being stared at 
themselves. And as the several orders of monks grew up, 
there was hardly any one of them but had the hood or cowl, 
only a little varied in the cut or fashion of it. But generally 
it was contrived so, that in cold or wet weather it might be a 
covering to the head ; or at other times, when they pleased, 
they might let it fall back behind them, hanging upon their 
neck by the lower end, after the same manner as it now is 
generally used with us. 

. 3. After this it came to be used by the ^T, yil8edin 
several members of cathedral churches and col- cathedrals and 
leges, though they were not allowed to have the universities - 
same sort of hoods as the monks. And from these the uni- 
versities took the use of it, to denote the difference of degrees 
among their members ; varying the materials, colour, and 
fashion of it, according to the degree of the person that wears 
it. And that these academical honours (which always entitle 
those they are conferred upon to the greater respect and esteem 
of the people) might be known abroad as well as in the univer- 
sities; the Church enjoins (both by this rubric and her 
canons 7 ) that every minister, who is a graduate, shall wear 
his proper hood during the time of divine service, but forbid- 
ding all that are not graduates to wear it, under pain of sus- 
pension ; allowing them, in the room of it, to wear upon their 
surplices some decent tippet of black, so it be not silk. 8 

III. The next ministerial ornament the rubric Of the rochette 
above cited enjoins is the rochette, a linen habit 
peculiar to the bishop, and worn under what we call the chi- 
mere. The author of the acts of St. Cyprian's martyrdom says, 
that the Father went to his execution in his pontifical habit ; 9 
but whether this seems probable, I shall leave the reader to 

8 Martial, lib. 5, Epigr. 14, lin. 0. Juvenal. Sat. 8, v. 145. 7 Can. 1 / , 25, 58. 

Can. 58. ' Vid. Baronius's Annals, ann. 261, . 40, 41. 


judge : however, it is certain the use of it is ancient, it being 
described by Bede in the seventh century. 10 In the follow- 
ing ages the bishops were obliged, by the canon law, to wear 
their rochettes whenever they appeared in public : ll which 
practice was constantly kept up in England till the Reforma- 
tion ; but since that time the bishops have not used to wear 
them at any place out of the Church, except in the parliament 
house, and there always with the chimere, or up- 
per robe, to which the lawn sleeves are generally 
sewed ; which before and after the Reformation, till queen 
Elizabeth's time, was always of scarlet silk; but bishop 
Hooper scrupling first at the robe itself, and then at the colour 
of it, as too light and gay for the episcopal gravity, it was 
changed for a chimere of black satin. 1 ' 1 

IV. The other things prescribed and enjoined 

Of the alb. i ^i < - j i /,.u i 

by the iorementioned rubrics (though now grown 
obsolete and out of use) are the alb, the cope, the tunicle, 
and the pastoral staff. The alb was a very ancient habit worn 
by ministers in the administration of the communion, and 
appears by the description given of it by Durand, 13 to have 
been a kind of linen garment, made fit and close to the body 
like a cassock, tied round the middle with a girdle, or sash, 
with the sleeves either plain like the sleeves of a cassock, or 
else gathered close at the hands like a shirt sleeve ; being 
made in that fashion, I suppose, for the conveniency of the 
minister, and to prevent his being hindered in the consecra- 
tion and delivery of the elements, by its being too large and 
open. They were formerly embroidered with various colours, 
and adorned with fringes ; 14 but these our Church does not 
admit of, though it still enjoins a white alb plain. 

V. Over this alb, the priest that shall execute 
f OT%o e i ment *te h l y ministry, (i. e. consecrate the elements,) 

is to wear a vestment or cope; 15 which the bishop 
also is to have upon him when he executes any public minis- 
tration. This answers to the colobium used by the Latin, and 
the ffaKKoc used by the Greek Church. It was at first a com- 
mon habit, being a coat without sleeves, but afterwards used 
as a church vestment, only made very rich by embroidery and 
the like. The Greeks say it was taken up in memory of that 

" Bede de Tabernac. citat. ab Almario, In Blblioth. Pair. 1. 10, p. 389. De- 

cretal. 1. 3, tit. 1, cap. 15. See Hody's History of Convocat. p. 141. Durand 
Rational, lib. 3, cap. 3, fol. 67. See also Dr. Watts, in his Glossary at the end of his 
edition of Matthew Paris. '* Durand, ut supra. u gee also Can. 24. 


mock robe which was put upon our Saviour. How true this 
may be I shall not inquire, but only observe, that it seems 
prescribed to none but the bishop, and the priest that conse- 
crates the elements at the sacrament. Thus the 

c , , ,. /-,, i , j Copes, when and 

twenty-fourth canon of our Church only orders, by whom to be 
that the principal minister (when the holy com- worn- 
munionis administered in all cathedral and collegiate churches) 
use a decent cope, and be assisted with an epistler and gos- 
peler agreeably, according to the advertisements published, 
anno 7 Elizabethae : which advertisements order, that at all 
other prayers no copes be used, but surplices. 

VI. The priests and deacons that assist the 
minister in the distribution of the elements, in- 

stead of copes, are to wear tunicles, which Durand 17 describes 
to have been a silk sky-coloured coat made in the shape of a 

VII. The pastoral staff (though now grown 

out of use) is yet another thing expressly enjoined th< staff. tt>ral 
by the above-cited rubric. It is peculiar indeed 
to the bishop alone, but expressly ordered to be used by him, 
as an ensign of his office, at all public administrations. It was 
made in the shape of a shepherd's crook, and was for many 
ages, even till after the Reformation, 18 constantly given to the 
bishop at his consecration, to denote that he was then consti- 
tuted a shepherd over the flock of Christ. 19 

These are the ministerial ornaments and habits These habits,&c. 
enjoined by our present rubric, in conformity to offensive to Cai- 
the first practice of our Church immediately after 
the Reformation ; though at that time they were so very offen- 
sive to Calvin and Bucer, that the one in his letters to the 
Protector, and the other in his censure of the English Liturgy, 
which he sent to archbishop Cranmer, urged very vehemently 
to have them abolished ; not thinking it tolerable to have any 
thing in common with the papists, but esteeming every thing 
idolatrous that was derived from them. 

However, they made shift to accomplish the 

j , i_ 3 M. / ii c And disconti- 

end they aimed at, in procuring a further reform nue d in the se- 
of our Liturgy : for in the review that was made ^J.^ b y^ k of Ed ' 
of it in the fifth of Edward VI., amongst other 
ceremonies and usages, these rubrics were left out, and the 
following one put in their place, viz. 

u Bp. Sparrow's Collection, p. 125. Rational. 1. 3, c. 10, fol. 73. > 8 See the 
first ordinal, compiled A. D. 1549. " Durand, 1. 3, c. 15, fol. 77, &c. 


And here it is to be noted, that the minister, at the time of 
the Communion, and at all other times in his ministration, shall 
use neither alb, vestment, or cope ; but being archbishop or 
bishop, he shall have and wear a rochette ; and being a priest 
or deacon, he shall have and wear a surplice only? 
But restored ^ u * ' n * ne next review under queen Elizabeth, 

again by queen the old rubrics were again brought into authority, 
and so have continued ever since ; being estab- 
lished by the Act of Uniformity that passed soon after the 

VIII. I must observe still further, that among 
up7n*he g aUar. other ornaments of the church then in use, there 

were two lights enjoined by the injunctions of 
king Edward VI. (which injunctions were also ratified by the 
act of parliament here mentioned) to be set upon the altar, as 
a significant ceremony to represent the light which Christ's 
Gospel brought into the world. And this too was ordered by 
the very same injunction which prohibited all other lights and 
tapers, that used to be superstitiously set before images or 
shrines, 21 &c. And these lights, used time out of mind in the 
Church, are still continued in most, if not all, cathedral and 
collegiate churches and chapels, so often as divine service is 
performed by candle-light ; and ought also, by this rubric, to 
be used in all parish churches and chapels at the same times. 

IX. To this section we might also refer the 
menu h ened. pulpit-cloth, cushions, coverings for the altar, &c. , 

and all other ornaments used in the church, and 
prescribed by the first book of king Edward VI. 

SECT. V. Of the place appointed for the reading of Morning 

and Evening Prayer. 

or the place THE reader may observe, that, in the second 

r n h d er e e ve I nh ing section of this chapter, I have only treated of 
prayer is to be churches in general, and the necessity of having 
appropriate places for the performance of divine 
worship, and have not taken any notice of the particular place 
in the church where morning and erening prayer is to be used. 
The appointment of which was yet the chief design of the 
AH divine - nr8 ' P ar * ^ our present rubric. For in the first 
vice performed at book of king Edward VI. all the rubric relating 
10 ' to this matter was only one at the beginning of 

*> Rubric before the beginning of Morning Prayer, in the second Common Prayer 
Book of king Edward VI. fl Sparrow'* Collection, p. 2, 3. 


morning prayer, which ordered the priest, being in the choir, 
to begin, with a loud voice, the Lord's Prayer, called the 
Pater-noster, with which the morning and evening service 
then began. So that then it was the custom for the minister 
to perform divine service (i. e. morning and evening prayer, 
as well as the communion-office) at the upper end of the choir 
near the altar ; towards which, whether standing or kneeling, 
he always turned his face in the prayers ; though whilst he 
was reading the lessons he turned to the people. This practice cla . 
Against this, Bucer, by the direction of Calvin, moured against 
most grievously declaimed ; urging, that " it was y Bucer - 
a most antichristian practice for the priest to say prayers only 
in the choir, as a place peculiar to the clergy, and not in the 
body of the church among the people, who had as much right 
to divine worship as the clergy themselves." He therefore 
strenuously insisted, " that the reading divine service in the 
chancel was an insufferable abuse, and ought immediately to 
be amended, if the whole nation would not be guilty of high 
treason against God." 22 This terrible outcry And altered 
(however senseless and trifling) prevailed so far, upon MS com- 
that when the Common Prayer Book was altered p amt ' 
in the fifth year of king Edward, this following rubric was 
placed in the room of the old one ; viz. The Morning and 
Evening Prayer shall be used in such places of the church, 
chapel, or chancel, and the minister shall turn him, as the 
people may best hear. And if there be any controversy 
therein, the matter shall be referred to the ordinary, and he 
or his deputy shall appoint the place. 

This alteration caused great contentions, some 7^^ cause d 
kneeling one way, some another, though still great conten- 
keeping in the chancel : whilst others left the tlons ' 
accustomed place, and performed all the services in the body 
of the church amongst the people. For the appeasing of this 
strife and diversity, it was thought fit, when the English ser- 
vice was again brought into the church, at the accession of 
queen Elizabeth to the throne, that the rubric _. 

TI-II ,, . . ,, Till the custom 

should be corrected, and put into the same form was again restor- 
in which we now have it ; viz. That the Morning JUj^gJyf 
and Evening Prayer shall be used in the accus- 
tomed place of the church, chapel, or chancel ; by which for 

Vide Bucer, Cens. c. 1, p. 457. Rubric before the beginning of Morning 

Prayer, in the second book of king Edward. 


the generality must be meant the choir or chancel, which was 
the accustomed place before the second Common Prayer 
Book of king Edward. For it cannot be supposed, that this 
second book, which lasted only one year and a half, could 
establish a custom. However, a dispensing power was left 
to the ordinary, who might determine it otherwise, if he saw 
just cause. 

The original of Pursuant to this rubric, the morning and 
reading pews or evening service was again, as formerly, read in 
the chancel or choir. But because in some 
churches the too great distance of the chancel from the body 
of the church, occasioned sometimes by the interposition of a 
belfry, hindered the minister from being heard distinctly by 
the people ; therefore the bishops, at the solicitations of their 
inferior clergy, allowed them in several places to supersede 
their former practice, and to have desks, or reading pews, in 
the body of the church, where they might, with more ease to 
themselves, and greater convenience to the people, perform 
the daily morning and evening service. Which dispensation, 
begun at first by some few ordinaries, and recommended by 
them to others, grew by degrees to be more general, till at 
last it came to be an universal practice : insomuch that the 
convocation, in the beginning of king James the First's reign, 
ordered, that in every church there should be a convenient 
seat made for tJie minister to read service in. And this 
being almost threescore years before the restoration of king 
Charles II., (at which time the last review of the Common 
Prayer was made,) it is very probable, that when they con- 
tinued this rubric, they intended the desk or reading pew 
should be understood by the accustomed place for reading 
prayers. And what makes this the more likely, is a rubric 
at the beginning of the communion, which expressly mentions 
a reading pew, and seems to suppose one in every church. 
It is true, indeed, another rubric at the beginning of the 
Communion-office (which orders the table, at the communion- 
time, to stand in the body of the church or chancel, where 
morning and evening prayer are appointed to be said) 
seems to have an eye to the old practice of reading prayers in 
the choir. But this rubric being the same that we have in 
king Edward's second Common Prayer Book, may perhaps 
have slipt into the present book through the inadvertency of 

* See Canon 82. 


the reviewers, who might not probably just then consider, 
that custom had shifted the place for the performance of the 
daily service into another part of the church. Though were 
it certain that this rubric was continued in the last review, to 
authorize the old way of reading the prayers in the choir, in 
such places as had still retained that custom ; yet since the 
ordinaries have a dispensing power, and they have approved 
of the alteration that has been made in the introducing of 
desks ; it seems as regular now to perform divine service in 
them, as it was formerly to do it in the chancel or choir. 

. 2. The occasion of the latter part of this 
rubric relating to chancels, was also another of main as S they re ~ 
Bucer's cavils ; who in his censure of our Liturgy, h . ave done in 

,, i .ii j. i i /> ii j tunes past. 

in the same place that he complains of the read- 
ing prayers in the choir, inveighs as vehemently against the 
separation of the choir from the body of the church. This too 
he calls " an antichristian practice, tending only to gain too 
great reverence to the clergy, who would hereby seem nearer 
related to God than the laity. That in ancient times churches 
were built in a round form, and not in a long one like ours, 
and that the place for the clergy was always in the middle ; 
and that therefore our division of the chancels from the 
churches was another article of treason against God." This 
objection, discovering an equal share of ignorance and ill- 
nature, seems to have obtained no greater regard than the 
raillery deserved. For in the review of the Liturgy of the 
fifth of king Edward, instead of an order to pull down the 
chancels, as undoubtedly this mighty reformer expected, a 
clause was added at the end of the first rubric to prevent any 
alteration, expressly enjoining, that the chancels should re- 
main as they had done in times past. There was afterwards 
indeed a greater occasion for the continuance of this rubric ; 
when a tumultuous rabble, encouraged by the complaints that 
they had found had been made by this same Bucer, and his 
director Calvin, 25 proceeded to demolish both chancels and 
altars, pulling down the rails and frames that divided them 
from the rest of the church, and divesting them of all the 

25 Mr. Calvin (who was before thought by some to have offered his assistance too 
officiously for carrying on the Reformation in England, and who with relation to our 
Church had used some very hard expressions, not so well becoming the mouth of a 
divine) warns Martin Bucer, in a letter he sent to him just before his coming into 
England, against being the author or approver of middle counsels : by which words he 
plainly strikes at the moderation observed in the English Reformation. Dr. Nichols's 
Introduction to his Defence of the Doctrine and Discipline of the Church of England. 


ornaments that but seemed to intimate them to be more than 
ordinary sacred. But this will fall more directly under my 
consideration hereafter, when I come to treat of the situation 
of the altar, to which the rubric in the beginning of the com- 
munion-office will lead me. 




THAT the primitive Christians, besides their 
solemn service on Sundays, had public prayers 
service in the every morninff and evening daily, has already 
chSrc e been hinted upon a former occasion : * but a 

learned gentleman is of the opinion, that this 
must be restrained to times of peace ; and that during the 
time of public persecution they were forced to confine their 
religious meetings to the Lord's day only. 3 And it is certain 
that Pliny 3 and Justin Martyr, 4 who both describe the manner 
of the Christian worship, do neither of them make mention 
of any assembly for public worship on any other day : so that 
their silence is a negative argument that in their time there 
was no such assembly, unless perhaps some distinction may 
be made between the general assembly of both city and 
country on the Lord's day, and the particular assemblies of 
the city Christians (who had better opportunities to meet) on 
other days : which distinction we often meet with in the fol- 
lowing ages, when Christianity was come to its maturity and 
perfection. However, it was not long after Justin Martyr's 
time, before we are sure that the Church observed the cus- 
tom of meeting solemnly on Wednesdays and Fridays, to 
celebrate the communion, and to perform the same service as 
on the Lord's day itself, unless perhaps the sermon was 
wanting. 4 The same also might be shewed from as early 
authorities in relation to the festivals of their martyrs and the 

1 Chap. 2, Sect. 1, p. 80, 81. ' Mr. Bingliama Antiquities, book 13, ch. 9, sect. i. 
vol. v. p. 281, tec. 3L.10.ep. 97. * Apol. 1, c. 87, p. 131, and c. 89, p. 132. 
4 Orat. c. H. 


whole fifty days between Easter and Whitsuntide. 6 Nor need 
we look down many years lower, before we meet with express 
testimony of their meeting every day for the public worship 
of God. For St. Cyprian tells us, that in his time it was 
customary to receive the holy eucharist every day : a plain 
demonstration that they had every day public assemblies, 
since we know the eucharist was never consecrated but in 
such open and public assemblies of the Church. 7 
S. 2. That these daily devotions consisted of 

11 The order of 

an evening as well as a morning service, even their morning 
from St. Cyprian's time, the learned author I and evening 

J K. , , service. 

just now referred to" endeavours to prove. 
However, in a century or two afterwards, the case is plain ; 
for the author of the Constitutions not only speaks of it, but 
gives us the order of both the services. 9 The morning ser- 
vice, as there described, began with the sixty-third, which 
was therefore called the morning psalm. Immediately after 
which followed the prayers for the catechumens, for those 
that were possessed, for the candidates for baptism, and the 
penitents, which made the general service on the Lord's day, 
and which were partly performed by the deacon's 7rpoo-0wvr?<rie, 
or bidding of prayer, something like our present Litany, but 
only directed to the people, and instructing them for what 
and for whom they were to offer their petitions ; and partly 
by the bishop's invocation over them, pronounced as they 
bowed down to receive his blessing before their dismission. 
After these were dismissed, followed prayers for the peace of 
the whole world, and for all orders of men in the Church, 
with which the communion-service was begun on the Lord's 
day ; and at which none but those who had a right to com- 
municate were allowed to be present. After this followed 
another short bidding prayer for peace and prosperity the en- 
suing day ; which was immediately succeeded by the bishop's 
commendatory prayer, or morning thanksgiving ; 10 which 
being ended, the deacon bid them bow their heads, and re- 
ceive the bishop's solemn benediction ; which after they had 
done, he dismissed the congregation with the usual form, De- 
part in peace: the word for dismissing every Church assembly. 
This is the order of the morning service, as described by 

Tertul. de Idololat. c. 14, de Coron. Mil. c. 3. * Cypr. de Orat. Domin. p. 147. 
s Bingham, ut supra, . 7. p. 302. 9 Const. Apost. 1. 8, c. 37. w Eixap"a 'Optyuvif, 
Const. 1.6, c. 38. 


the Constitutions ; to which the evening service, as there also 
set down, is in most things conformable. The prayers for 
the catechumens, the possessed, the candidates for baptism, 
and the penitents, were all the same ; so also were those for 
the peace of the world, and the whole state of the Catholic 
Church. So that all the difference between them was this, 
viz. that they used the hundred and forty-first psalm at even- 
ing instead of the sixty-third, which they used in the morning ; 
and instead of the bidding prayer for peace and prosperity, 
and the bishop's commendatory prayer in the morning ser- 
vice, two others were used in the afternoon more proper to 
the evening, and which for that reason were called the 
evening bidding prayer, and the evening thanksgiving. The 
bishop's benediction, too, at the conclusion of the whole, 
was different from that which was used in the forenoon : but 
excepting in these two or three particulars, both services 
were one and the same ; and in the evening, as well as the 
morning, the congregation was dismissed with the constant 
form pronounced by the deacon, Depart in peace. The 
reader, that is curious to see more of these forms, may consult 
the learned Mr. Bingham, who transcribes most of them at 
large, and compares the several parts of them with the memo- 
rials and accounts that are left us by other ancient writers of 
the Church : in which place he also takes occasion to shew, 
that though in the form in the Constitutions there is but one 
psalm appointed either at morning or evening ; yet from other 
rituals it is plain, that it was customary in most places to re- 
cite several of the psalms, and to mix lessons along with them, 
both out of the Old Testament and the New, for the edifica- 
tion of the people. 11 But this is what I have not room to do 
here ; and indeed there is the less occasion, as it will come in 
my way to speak of these points more largely hereafter, as the 
order of the service I am now entering upon will lead me. 

SECT. I. Of the Sentences. 

why placed at PRAYER requires so much attention and seren- 
the beginning of ity of mind, that it can never be well performed 
without some preceding preparation : for which 
reason, when the Jews enter into their synagogues to pray, 
they remain silent for some time, and meditate before whom 
they stand : " and the Christian priest, in the primitive ages, 

See Mr. Bingham's Antiquities, vol. v. book 13, chap. 11, 12. " Buztorf. Synag. 
Judaic, cap. 10, p. 194. Basil. 1661. 


prepared the people's hearts to prayer by a devout preface. 13 
The first book of kiqg Edward indeed begins with the Lord's 
prayer : but when they came to review it afterwards, and to 
make alterations, they thought that too abrupt a beginning, and 
therefore prefixed these sentences, with the following exhort- 
ation, confession, and absolution, as a proper introduction, to 
bring the souls of the congregation to a spiritual frame, and to 
prepare them for the great duty they are just entering upon. 
The sentences are gathered out of Scripture, that so we may 
not dare to disobey them ; since they come from the mouth of 
that God whom we address ourselves to in our prayers, and who 
may justly reject our petitions, if we hearken not to his word. 

.2. As to the choice of them, the reverend 
compilers of our Liturgy have selected such as The them Ce f 
are the most plain and the most likely to bring all 
sorts of sinners to repentance. There are variety of disposi- 
tions, and the same man is not always in the same temper. 
For which reason they have collected several, and left it to 
the discretion of him that ministereth, to use such one or more 
of them every day, as he shall judge agreeable to his own, or 
his people's circumstances. 

SECT. II. Of the Exhortation. 
THE design of the exhortation is to apply and 
set home the preceding sentences, and to direct the^xhorStion. 
us how to perform the following confession. It 
collects the necessity of it from the word of God ; and when 
it hath convinced us of that, it instructeth us in the right man- 
ner, and then invites us to that necessary duty, for which it 
hath so well prepared us. And for our greater encouragement, 
the minister (who is God's ambassador) offers to accompany 
us to the throne of grace, knowing his Master will be glad to 
see him with so many penitents in his retinue. And he 
promises that he will put words in our mouths, and speak with 
us and for us ; only we must express the humility of our 
minds by the lowliness of our bodies, and declare our assent 
to every sentence by repeating it reverently after him. 

SECT. III. Of the Confession. 

THE holy Scriptures assure us, that sin unre- The confession, 
pented of hinders the success of our prayers; 14 why placed at the 

w Cypr. de Oral. Dom. p. 152. u Isa. i. 15. John be. 31. 


beginning of the and therefore such as would pray effectually have 
always begun with confession ; 15 to the end that, 
their guilt being removed by penitential acknowledgments, 
there might no l>ar be left to God's grace and mercy. For 
which reason the Church hath placed this confession at the 
"beginning of the service, for the whole congregation to re- 
peat after the minister, that so we may first be witnesses of 
each other's confession, before we unite in the following ser- 
vice. And this, as we learn from St. Basil, is consonant to 
the practice of the primitive Christians ; " who (he tells us) 
in all churches, immediately upon their entering into the house 
of prayer, made confession of their sins to God, with much 
sorrow, concern, and tears, every man pronouncing his own 
confession with his own mouth." 1( 

. 2. As to the form itself, it is blamed by 
A uiwlred 0n our sectaries for being too general: and yet it 
is so particular, as to contain all that can be ex- 
pressed. It begins with an acknowledgment of our original 
corruption in the wicked devices and desires of our hearts, 
and then descends to actual guilt, which it divides into sins 
of omission and commission, under which two heads all sins 
whatever must necessarily be reduced. So that every single 
person, who makes this general confession with his lips, may 
at the same time mentally unfold the plague of his own heart, 
his particular sins, whatever they be, as effectually to God, 
who searches the heart, as if he enumerated them in the most 
ample form. And indeed had this form been more particular 
or express, it would not so well have answered the end for 
which it was designed : for a common confession ought to be 
so contrived, that every person present may truly speak it as 
his own case; whereas a confession drawn up according to 
the mind of the objectors, would be but little less than an in- 
quisition, forcing those, that join in it to accuse and condemn 
themselves of those sins daily, which perhaps they never 
committed in their lives. 

SECT. IV. Of the Absolution. 
THE congregation being now humbled by the 
H ued' l here bly preceding confession, may justly be supposed to 
stand in need of consolation. And therefore 

Exr U. 5, 6. Dan. ix. 4,5. ' Bwil. *d Clenun Neocteiarieni. En. 63. torn. U. 
p. 843, D. 


since God has committed to his ambassadors the ministry of 
reconciliation, 11 they can never more seasonably exercise it 
than now. For this reason the priest immediately rises from 
his knees, and standing up, as with authority, declares and 
pronounces for their comfort and support, that God, who de- 
sires not the death of a sinner, but rather that he may turn 
from his wickedness and live, pardoneth and absolveth all 
them that truly repent, and unfeignedly believe his holy 

. 2. Now whether this be only a declaration 
of the condition, or terms, whereupon God is ^^gffec" 6 ^ 
willing to pardon sinners ; or whether it be an 
actual conveyance of pardon, at the very instant of pro- 
nouncing it, to all that come within the terms proposed, is a 
question that is often the subject of dispute. With the ut- 
most deference therefore to the judgment of those who are 
of a different opinion, I beg leave to declare for the last of 
these senses : not that I ascribe any judicial power or au- 
thority to the priest to determine the case of a private man, 
so as to apply God's pardon or forgiveness directly to the 
conscience of any particular or definite sinner ; (my notion 
as to this will be seen hereafter ; 18 ) nor do I suppose that the 
priest, when he pronounces this form, can apply the benefit 
of it to whom he pleases ; or that he so much as knows upon 
whom, or upon how many, it shall take effect ; but all that I 
contend for is only this, viz. that since the priest has the 
ministry of reconciliation 19 committed to him by God, and 
hath both power and commandment (as it is expressed in 
this form) to declare and pronounce to his people, being 
penitent, the absolution and remission of their sins ; there- 
fore, when he does, by virtue of this power and command- 
ment, declare and pronounce such absolution and remission 
regularly in the congregation ; those in the congregation that 
truly repent and unfeignedly believe God's holy Gospel, 
(though the priest does not know who or how many they are 
that do so,) have yet their pardon conveyed and sealed to 
them at that very instant through his ministration ; it being 
the ordinary method of God with his Church, to commu- 
nicate his blessings through the ministry of the priest. 

17 2 Cor. v. 18, 19. See chap. 2, concerning the Order for the Visitation of the 
Sick, sect. 5. For the consistency of my notions in both these places, I must beg the 
reader to turn at the same time to what I have said in the preface. w 2 Cor. v. 18, 19. 

I 2 


I am sensible that this is carrying the point higher than 
many that have delivered their judgments before me. Even 
the learned translator of St. Cyprian's works, who contends 
that this is an authoritative form, yet explains himself to 
mean nothing more by authoritative, than that it is " an act 
of office warranted by God, and pursuant to the commission 
which the priest hath received for publishing authoritatively 
the terms of pardon at large and in general, and then for pro- 
nouncing by the same authority, that when those terms are 
fulfilled, the pardon is granted." w But this explanation 
seems only to make it an authoritative declaration, and not 
to suppose (as, with submission to this gentleman, I take both 
the rubric and form to imply) that it is an effective form, 
conveying as well as declaring a pardon to those that are duly 
qualified to receive it. My reasons for this I shall have 
another occasion to give immediately : for though what this 
learned gentleman asserts does not come up to my notion of 
the form ; yet it is a great deal more than another learned 
author is willing to allow ; who does not seem to think the 
form to be authoritative in any sense at all, or that there is 
any need of a commission to pronounce it. For " it may be 
asked," saith the Rev. Dr. Beunet upon this place, " whether 
a mere deacon may pronounce this form of absolution : and 
to this," saith he, " I answer, that in my judgment he may." 
The reason that he gives for it is, that he cannot but think it 
manifest, that this form of absolution is only declaratory . that 
it is only saying, That all penitent sinners are pardoned by God 
upon their repentance : and consequently that a mere deacon 
has as much authority to speak every part of this form, as he 
has to say, When tlie nicked man turneth away from his 
wickedness, Sec., which is the first of the sentences appointed 
to be read before morning prayer : nay, that a mere deacon 
has as much authority to pronounce this form, as he has to 
preach a sermon about repentance. And that therefore it 
seems to be a vulgar mistake, which makes the deacons devi- 
ate from their rule, and omit either the whole, or else a part 
of this form, or perhaps exchange it for a collect taken out of 
some other part of the Liturgy."* 1 

But now, with submission to the learned 

IKsiffned by the , _ , , , . 

church to be doctor, I beg leave to observe, that tnis form is 

*' See Dr. Marshal'* preface to hU translation of St. Cyprian. Dr. Bcnnet on 

the Common Prayer, p. 27. 


expressly called by the rubric, The Absolution more than de- 
or Remission of Sins. It is not called a De- clarative - 
claration of Absolution, as one would think it should have 
been, if it had been designed for no more ; but it is positively 
and emphatically called THE Absolution, to denote that it is 
really an absolution of sins to those that are entitled to it by 
repentance and faith. 

Again, the terms used to express the priest's delivering or 
declaring it, is a very solemn one : it is to be pronounced 
(saith the rubric) by the priest alone. A word which signifies 
much more than merely to make known, or declare a thing ; 
for the Latin pronuncio, from whence it is taken, signifies 
properly to pronounce or give sentence : and therefore the 
word pronounced^ here used, must signify that this is a sen- 
tence of absolution or remission of sins, to be authoritatively 
uttered by one who has received commission from God. 

But further, if the repeating this Absolution be no more 
than saying, That all penitent sinners are pardoned by God 
upon their repentance, as the learned doctor affirms ; I can- 
not conceive to what end it should be placed just after the 
Confession ; for as much as this, the doctor himself tells us, 
is said before it, viz. in the first of the sentences appointed to 
be read before morning or evening prayer, When the wicked 
man turneth away from his wickedness, &c., and there I 
think indeed more properly : for such a declaration may be a 
great encouragement to draw men to confession and repent- 
ance; but after they have confessed and repented, the use of 
it, I think, is not so great. It is indeed a comfort to us to 
know that God will pardon us upon our repentance : but then 
it must be supposed that the hope of this pardon is one chief 
ground of our repentance ; and therefore it cannot be imagin- 
ed that the Church should tell us that after the Confession, 
which it is necessary we should know before it, as being the 
principal motive we have to confess. 

All that I know can be said against this (though the doctor 
indeed does not urge so much) is, that " after the minister has 
declared the absolution and remission of the people's sins, he 
goes on to exhort them to pray and beseech God to grant 
them true repentance, &c., which repentance is necessary, it 
may be said, beforehand, in order to their pardon ; because 
God pardoneth and absolveth none but those who truly re- 
pent. And therefore since the minister here exhorts the peo- 


pie to pray for repentance after he has pronounced the abso- 
lution and remission of their sins ; it may be thought that the 
absolution does not convey a pardon, but only promises them 
one upon their repentance." But in answer to this, we may 
grant in the first place, that one part of repentance, viz. the. 
acknowledging and confessing of our sins, must be performed 
before we are pardoned ; since, unless we acknowledge that 
we have transgressed God's laws, we do not own that we 
stand in need of his pardon. And for this reason the Church 
orders the people to make their confession, before she directs 
the priest to pronounce the Absolution. But then there are 
two other parts of repentance, which are as necessary after 
our sins are forgiven us, as they are before ; and they are 
contrition and amendment of life : for first, contrition (by 
which I mean the lamenting or looking back with sorrow upon 
our sins) is certainly necessary even after they are forgiven 
us : since to be pleased with the remembrance of them, would 
be (as far as lies in our power) to act those sins over again, 
and consequently, though God himself should at any time have 
declared them pardoned with his own mouth, yet such repe- 
tition of them would render even that absolution ineffectual. 
And, secondly, as to endeavours after amendment of life, if 
there be any difference, they are certainly more necessary 
after our former sins are forgiven than before ; because God's 
mercy in pardoning us is a new obligation upon us to live 
well, and is what will enhance our guilt, if we offend after- 
wards. And therefore our being pardoned ought to make us 
pray the more vehemently for repentance, and God's holy 
Spirit; lest, if we should return to our sins again, a worse 
thing should happen unto us. From all which it appears, that 
though repentance be a necessary disposition to pardon, so as 
that neither God will, nor man can, absolve those that are 
impenitent; yet, in some parts of it, it is a necessary conse- 
quent of pardon, insomuch as that he who is pardoned ought 
still to repent, as well as he who seeks a pardon : and if so, then 
the praying for repentance after the minister has declared a 
pardon, is no argument that such declaration does not convey 
a pardon. 

But, secondly, the design of the Church in this place is, not 
only to exhort the congregation to repentance, by declaring 
to them that God will forgive and pardon their sins when they 
shall repent, but also to convey an instant pardon from God, by 


the mouth of the priest, to as many as do, at that time, truly 
repent, and unfeignedly believe his holy Gospel; seems evident 
from the former part of the Absolution, where the priest reads 
his commission before he executes his authority. For this 
part would be wholly needless, if no more was intended by 
the Absolution than what Dr. Bennet tells us, viz. " a bare 
declaration, that all penitent sinners are pardoned by God upon 
their repentance ; " for since, as he himself confesses, there is 
no more contained in such a declaration than what is implied 
in the first of the sentences before morning prayer, it will be 
very difficult to account why the Church should usher it in 
with so solemn a proclamation of what power and command- 
ment God has given to his ministers. But since the Church 
has directed the priest to make known to the people, that God 
has given power and commandment to his ministers to de- 
clare and pronounce to his people, being penitent, the absolu- 
tion and remission of their sins ; it is very reasonable to sup- 
pose that, when in the next words the priest declares that 
God pardoneth and absolveth all those who truly repent, and 
unfeignedly believe his holy Gospel, he does, in the intent of 
the Church, exercise that power, and obey that commandment, 
which God has given him. 

But, lastly, the persons to whom this absolution must be 
pronoxmced, is another convincing proof that it is more than 
merely declarative. For if it implied no more than that all 
sinners are pardoned by God upon their repentance ; it might 
as well be pronounced to such as continue in their sins, as to 
those that have repented of them: nay, it would be more pro- 
per and advantageous to be pronounced to the former than 
to the latter ; because, as I have observed, such a declaration 
might be a great inducement to forward their conversion. 
But yet we see that this form is not to be pronounced to such 
as the Church desires should repent, but to those who have 
repented. The absolution and remission of sins, which the 
priest here declares and pronounces from God, is declared 
and pronounced to his people being penitent, \. e. to those 
who are penitent at the very time of pronouncing the absolu- 
tion. For as to those who are impenitent, the priest is not 
here said to have any power or commandment relating to 
them : they are quite left out, as persons not fit or proper to 
have this commission executed in their behalf. From all 
which it is plain, that this absolution is more than declarative, 


that it is truly effective ; insuring and conveying to the proper 
subjects thereof the very absolution or remission itself. It is 
as much a bringing of God's pardon to the penitent member 
of Christ's Church, and as effectual to his present benefit, as 
an authorized messenger bringing a pardon from his sovereign 
to a condemned penitent criminal, is effectual to his present 
pardon and release from the before appointed punishment. 

It is indeed drawn up in a declarative form ; and consider- 
ing it is to be pronounced to a mixed congregation, it could 
not well have been drawn up in any other. For the minister, 
not knowing who are sincere, and who are feigned penitents, 
is not allowed to prostitute so sacred an ordinance amongst 
the good and bad promiscuously ; but is directed to assure 
those only of a pardon rvho truly repent, and unfeignedly 
believe God's holy Gospel. But then to these, as may be 
gathered from what has been said, I take it to be as full and 
effective an absolution as any that can be given. 

Not to be pro- ^' ^ nc ^ ^ 8O t ^ len ^ e 9i ue8 ti on * ne learned 
nouncedbya doctor here introduces, must receive a different 
answer from what he has given it. For deacons 
were never commissioned by the Church to give absolution in 
any of its forms : and therefore when a deacon omits the whole 
or part of this form, he does not deviate from his rule, as the 
doctor asserts, but prudently declines to use an authority which 
he never received ; and which he is expressly forbid to use in 
this place by the rubric prefixed, which orders the Absolution 
to be pronounced by the priest alone. I am very readily in- 
clined to acknowledge with the doctor, that the word alone 
was designed to serve as a directory to the people, not to re- 
peat the words after the minister, as they had been directed to 
do in the preceding Confession ; but silently to attend till the 
priest has pronounced it, and then, by a hearty and fervent 
Amen, to testify their faith in the benefits conveyed by it. 
But then as to what the doctor goes on to assert, that " the 
word priest does in this place signify, not one that is in priest's 
orders, as we generally speak, but any minister that officiates, 
whether priest or deacon ;" I think I have very good reason 
to dissent from him. For the signification of a word is cer- 
tainly to be best learnt from the persons that impose it. Now 
though it be true that in king Edward's second Common 
Prayer Book, (which was the first that had the Absolution in 
it,) and in all the other books till the restoration of king 


Charles, the word in the rubric was minister, and not priest ; 
yet in the review that followed immediately after the Restora- 
tion, priest was inserted in the room of minister, and that 
with a full and direct design to exclude deacons from being 
meai?t by it. For at the Savoy Conference, the presbyterian 
divines (that were appointed by the king to treat with the 
bishops about the alterations that were to be made in the Com- 
mon Prayer) had desired that, as the word minister was used 
in the Absolution, and in divers other places ; it 
might also be used throughout the whole book, SiJtotaiSS 
instead of the word priest. 32 But to this the stood exclusive of 
bishop's answer wjis very peremptory and full, 
viz. It is not reasonable that the word minister should be 
only used in the Liturgy : for since some parts of the Li- 
turgy may be performed by a deacon, others by none under 
the order of a priest, viz. Absolution, Consecration ; it is Jit 
that some such word as priest should be used for those offices, 
and not minister, which signifies at large every one that mi- 
nisters in the holy office, of what order soever he be.- 3 And 
agreeable to this answer, when they came to make the neces- 
sary alterations in the Liturgy, they not only refused to change 
priest for minister, but also threw out the word minister, and 
put priest in the room of it, even in this rubric before the 
Absolution. So that it is undeniably plain, that by this rubric 
deacons are expressly forbid to pronounce this form ; since 
the word priest in this place (if interpreted according to the 
intent of those that inserted it) is expressly limited to one in 
priest's orders, and does not comprehend any minister that 
officiates, whether priest or deacon, as Dr. Bennet asserts. I 
therefore could wish that the doctor would take some decent 
opportunity to withdraw that countenance, which I know some 
deacons are apt to take from his opinion, which has much 
contributed to the spreading of a practice which was seldom 
or never known before. The doctor indeed, in the conclusion 
of the whole, declares that " he is far from desiring any per- 
son to be determined by him : and entreats the deacons to 
consult their ordinaries, and to follow their directions, which 

M See the exceptions against the Book of Common Prayer, . 11, p. 6, in a quarto 
treatise, entitled, An Account of all the Proceedings of the Commissioners of both 
Persuasions, appointed by his sacred Majesty, according to Letters Patent, for the Re- 
view of the Book of Common Prayer, &c. London, printed in the year 16G1 ; and in 
Mr. Baxter's Narrative, p. 318. *> See the papers that passed between the commis- 
sioners appointed by his Majesty for the alteration of the Common Prayer, (annexed 
to the aforesaid account,) p. 57, 58. 


in such disputable matters (as these) are the best rule of con- 
science." But as to this it should be considered, that the 
rubric being established by act of parliament, the ordinaries 
themselves (whom the doctor advises the deacons to consult 
about it) have no power to authorize them to use this form, 
any otherwise than by giving them priest's orders : since their 
authority reaches no further than to doubtful cases, 24 and this, 
I think, appears now to be a clear one. 

The priest to ^- ^ ne P^est ia required to pronounce the 

stand, and the Absolution standing, because it is an act of his 
people to kneel. authority in declaring the will of God, whose 
ambassador he is. But the people are to continue kneeling, 
in token of that humility and reverence witB which they ought 
to receive the joyful news of a pardon from God. 

SECT. V. Of the Rubric after the Absolution. 

IMMEDIATELY after the Absolution in the morning service, 
follows this general rubric : 

^f The people shall answer here, and at the end of all other 
prayers, Amen. 

The word here enjoined to be used is origin- 
A ?iifies at U a % Hebrew, and signifies the same in English 
as So be it. But the word itself has been retained 
in all languages, to express the assent of the person that pro- 
nounces it, to that to which he returns it as an answer. As it 
is used in the Common Prayer Book, it bears different signi- 
fications, according to the different forms to which it is an- 
nexed. At the end of prayers and collects, it is addressed to 
God, and signifies, " So be it, Lord, as in our prayers we 
have expressed." But at the end of Exhortations, Absolu- 
tions, and Creeds, it is addressed to the priest, and then the 
meaning of it is either, " So be it, this is our sense and mean- 
ing: " or, " So be it, we entirely assent to and approve of what 
has been said." 

HOW regarded by . 2 - When this assent was given by the primi- 
the primitive tive Christians at their public offices, they pro- 
nounced it so heartily that St. Jerome compares 
it to thunder : " They echo out the Amen," saith he, " like a 
thunder-clap : " M and Clemens Alexandrinus tells us, that " at 
the last acclamations of their prayers, they raised themselves 

14 See the preface concerning the Service of the Church. *> Hieron. in 2 Proecm. 
Com. In Galat. 


upon their tip-toes, (for on Sundays and on all days between 
Easter and Whitsuntide they prayed standing,) as if they de- 
sired that that word should carry up their bodies as well as 
their souls to heaven." 26 

. 3. In our present Common Prayer Book it 
is observable, that the Amen is sometimes printed 
in one character and sometimes in another. The man and some - 
reason of which I take to be this : at the end of " 
all the collects and prayers, which the priest is to repeat or 
say alone, it is printed in Italic, a different character from the 
prayers themselves, to denote, I suppose, that the minister is 
to stop at the end of the prayer, and to leave the Amen for 
the people to respond : but at the end of the Lord's Prayer, 
Confessions, Creeds, &c., and wheresoever the people are to 
join aloud with the minister, as if taught and instructed by him 
what to say, there it is printed in Koman, i. e. in the same cha- 
racter with the Confessions and Creeds themselves, as a hint to 
the minister that he is still to go on, and by pronouncing the 
Amen himself, to direct the people to do the same, and so to 
set their seal at last to what they had been before pronouncing. 

.4. By the people being directed by this ru- Thepeoplenot 
brie to answer Amen at the end of the prayers, to repeat the 
they might easily perceive that they are expected prayers aloud - 
to be silent in the prayers themselves, and only to go along 
with the minister in their minds. For the minister is the ap- 
pointed intercessor for the people, and consequently it is his 
office to offer up their prayers and praises in their behalf: in- 
somuch that the people have nothing more to do than to at- 
tend to what he says, and to declare their assent by an Amen 
at last, without disturbing those that are near them by mut- 
tering over the collects in a confused manner, as is practised 
by too many in most congregations, contrary to common 
sense, as well as decency and good manners. 

SECT. VI. Of the Lord's Prayer. 

WHAT hath hitherto been done is, for the most L ord - s p ray er, 
part, rather a preparation to prayer, than prayer how proper at 
itself: but now we begin with the Lord's Prayer, " 
with which the office itself began in the first book of king 
Edward VI. But our reformers at the review of it (as has 
already been observed) thought it proper to add what now 

86 Stromat. 1. 7. 


precedes it, as judging it perhaps not so decent to call God 
Our Father ', before we repent of cur disobedience against him. 
The necessity of using it I have already proved ; " and shall 
now only observe, that its being drawn up by our glorious 
Advocate, who knew both his Father's sufficiency and our 
wants, may assure us, that it contains every thing fit for us to 
ask, or his Father to grant. For which cause it is, and ought 
to be, added to all our forms and offices to make up their de- 
fects, and to recommend them to our heavenly Father ; who, 
if he cannot deny us when we ask in his Son's name, can 
much less do so when we speak in his rcords also. 49 

. 2. The Doxology was appointed by the last 
wily ^meunves review to be used in this place, partly, I suppose, 
used, and some- because many copies of St. Matthew have it, and 

the Greek Fathers expound it ; and partly, be- 
cause the office here is a matter of praise, it being used im- 
mediately after the Absolution. But since St. Luke leaves it 
out, and some copies of St. Matthew, and most of the Latin 
Fathers ; therefore we also omit it in some places, where the 
offices are not direct acts of thanksgiving. 

. 3. Here, and wherever else this prayer is 
peat ?he P Lord's e use d, tne whole congregation is to join with the 
Prayer aloud minister in an audible voice ; partly that people 
irith the minis- jg norant iy educated may the sooner learn it ; and 

partly to signify how boldly we may approach 
the Father, when we address him with the Son's words. 
Though till the last review there was no such direction ; it 
having been the custom till then, for the minister to say the 
Lord's prayer alone, in most of the offices, and for the people 
only to answer at the end of it, by way of response, Deliver 
us from evil. And the better to prepare and give them no- 
tice of what they were to do, the minister was used to elevate 
and raise his voice, when he came to the petition, Lead us 
not into temptation, just as it is done still in the Roman 
Church, where the priest always pronounces the conclusion 
of every prayer with a voice louder than ordinary, that the 
people may know when to join their Amen. 

SECT. VII. Of the Responses. 

The deS(rn of IT was a very ancient practice of the Jews to 
reponte. rec j te faeir public hymns and prayers by course: 

7: Introduction, p. 3, 4, tie. Cyprian, de Oral. p. 139, 140. 


and many of the Fathers assure us, that the primitive Chris- 
tians imitated them therein : so that there is no old Liturgy 
wherein there are not such short and devout sentences as 
these, which, from the people's answering the priests, are 
called responses. The design of them is, by a grateful va- 
riety, to quicken the people's devotions, and engage their at- 
tention : for since they have their share of duty, they must ex- 
pect till their turn come, and prepare for the next response : 
whereas, when the minister does all, the people naturally grow 
sleepy and heedless, as if they were wholly unconcerned. 

. 2. The responses here enjoined consist of 
prayers and praises: the first, O Lord, open thou, &c rd> pen 
thou our lips, and our mouth shall shew forth R - And our 

.7 * ' c . , T -i mouth shall, &c. 

thy praise, are very frequent in ancient Litur- 
gies, particularly in those of St. James and St. Chrysostom, 
and are fitly placed here with respect to those sins we lately 
confessed : for they are part of David's penitential psalm, 29 
who looked on his guilt so long, till the grief, shame, and fear, 
which followed thereupon, had almost sealed up his lips, and 
made him speechless ; so that he could not praise God as he 
desired, unless it pleased him, by speaking peace to his soul, 
to remove those terrors, and then his lips would be opened, 
and his mouth ready to praise God. And if we were as sens- 
ible of our guilt as we ought to be, it will be needful for us 
to beg such evidences of our pardon, as may free us from the 
terrors which seal up our lips, and then we shall be fit to 
praise God heartily in the following psalms. 

. 3. The words that follow, viz. God, make 
speed to save us , O Lord, make haste to help sp ' e ed, &c.' "' 
us, are of ancient use in the Western Church. * as ^ e L ^ d ' make 
When with David we look back to the innumer- 
able evils which have taken hold of us, we cry to God to save 
us speedily from them by his mercy ; and when we look for- 
ward to the duties we are about to do, we pray as earnestly, 
in the words of the same Psalmist, 30 that he will make haste 
to help us by his grace ; without which we can do no accept- 
able service. 

. 4. And now having good confidence that Tt 

, . . , p. o -. . , .,, y. Glory be to 

our pardon is granted ; like David, we turn our the Father, &c. 
petitions into praises : standing up to denote the ^ e ' J |nn\nf l & c the 
elevation of our hearts, and giving glory to the 

Psalm li. 15. Psalm Ixx. 1. Psalm vi. 9. cxxx. 1. 


whole Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, for the hopes 
we entertain. 

In the primitive times almost every Father had his own 
Doxologies, which they expressed as they had occasion in 
their own phrases and terms ; ascribing glory and honour, &c. 
sometimes to the Father only, and sometimes only to the Son ; 
sometimes to the Father through the Son, and sometimes to 
the Father with the Son : sometimes to the Spirit jointly 
with both, and sometimes through or in the Spirit to either ; 
sometimes through the Son to the Father with the Holy 
Ghost, and sometimes to the Father and Holy Ghost with 
the Son. For they all knew that there were three distinct, 
but undivided Persons, in one eternal and infinite essence ; 
and therefore whilst they rendered glory from this principle 
of faith, whatever the form of Doxology was, the meaning and 
design of it was always the same. But when the Arians be- 
gan to wrest some of these general expressions in countenance 
and vindication of their impious opinions, and to fix chiefly 
upon that form, which was the most capable of being abused 
to an heretical sense, viz. Glory to the Father, by the Son, in 
the Holy Ghost , this and the other forms grew generally into 
disuse ; and that which ascribes glory to the Holy Ghost, as 
well as to the Father and the Son, from that time became the 
standing form of the Church. So that the Doxology we meet 
with in the ancient Liturgies is generally thus : Glory be to 
the FatJier, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, now and 
ever, world without end . and so it continues still in the offices 
of the Greek Church : but the Western Church soon after- 
wards added the words, As it was in the beginning, not only 
to oppose the poison of the Arians, who said, there was a 
beginning of time before Christ had any beginning, but also 
to declare that this was the primitive form, and the old ortho- 
dox way of praising God. 32 

8. 5. Having now concluded our penitential 

y. Praise ye the ? e 

Lord. R. The office, we begin the office ot praises; as an m- 

tr duction to which the priest exhorts us to 
Praise the Lord: the people, to shew their 
readiness to join with him, immediately reply, let the Lord's 
name be praised ; though this answer of the people was first 
added to the Scotch Liturgy, and then to our own, at the last 

a Concil. Vasens. c. 3, torn. ii. col. 727, E. 


The first of these versicles, viz. Praise ye the 
Lord, is no other than the English of Hallelujah ,- Of S alle - 
a word so sacred, that St. John retains it, 33 and 
St. Austin saith the Church scrupled to translate it ; ^ a word 
appointed to be used in all the Liturgies I ever met with : in 
some of them upon all days in the year except those of fast- 
ing and humiliation ; but in others only upon Sundays and 
the fifty days between Easter and Whitsuntide, in token of 
the joy we express for Christ's resurrection. 35 In our own 
Church, notwithstanding we repeat the sense of it every day 
in English ; yet the word itself was retained in the first book 
of king Edward VI., where it was appointed to be used im- 
mediately after the versicles here mentioned, from Easter to 
Trinity Sunday. How it came to be left out afterwards I 
cannot tell ; except it was because those who had the care of 
altering our Liturgy, thought the repetition of the word itself 
was needless, since the sense of it was implied in the forego- 
ing versicles : though the Church always took it for something 
more than a bare repetition of Praise ye the Lord. For in 
those words the minister calls only upon the congregation to 
praise God ; whereas in this he was thought to invite the holy 
angels also to join with the congregation, and to second our 
praises below with their divine Hallelujahs above. 

. 6. Some have objected against the dividing 
of our prayers into such small parts and versi- Obj s e wer ed. an 
cles : but to this we answer, That though there 
be an alteration and division in the utterance, yet the prayer 
is but one continued form. For though the Church requires 
that the minister speak one portion, and the people the other; 
yet both the minister and the people ought mentally to offer 
up and speak to God, what is vocally offered up and spoken 
by each of them respectively. 

SECT. VIIL Of the Ninety-fifth Psalm. 

THE matter of this psalm shews it was designed 
at first for the public service ; on the feast of ta- ^ 
bernacles, as some, M or on the Sabbath-day, as 
others think ; 37 but St. Paul judges it fit for every day, while 
it is called to-day, 3S and so it has been used in all the Chris- 

M Rev. xix. 1, 3, 4, 6, &c. >* De Doctrina Christiana, lib. ii. cap. 11, torn. iii. col. 
25, B. August. Ep. 119, ad Jan. cap. 15, et 17. Isidor. de Eccl. Offic. lib. i. c. 13. 
36 Grotius in Psalm xcv. s ' Calvin in Psalm xcv. M Heb. iii. 7, 15. 


tian world ; as the Liturgies of St. Chrysostom and St. Basil 
witness for the Greek Church, the testimony of St. Augustin 
for the African, 39 and all its ancient offices and capitulars for 
the Western. St. Ambrose saith, that it was the use of the 
Church in his time to begin their service with it: 40 for which 
reason in the Latin services it is called the Invitatory Psalm ; 
it being always sung with a strong and loud voice, to hasten 
those people into the church, who were in the cemetery or 
churchyard, or any other adjacent parts, waiting for the be- 
ginning of prayers : 41 agreeable to which practice, in the first 
book of king Edward it is ordered to be said, or sung, with- 
out any (i. e. I suppose without any other) invitatory. 

. 2. Our reformers very fitly placed it here 
^ hyi p 8 kce mthl8 as a proper preparatory to the following psalms, 
lessons, and collects. For it exhorts us, first, to 
praise God, shewing us in what manner and for what reasons 
we ought to do it ; 42 secondly, it exhorts us to pray to him, 
shewing us also the manner and reasons. 43 Lastly, it exhorts 
us to hear God's word speedily and willingly, 44 giving us a 
caution to beware of hardening our hearts, by an instance of 
the sad event which happened to the Jews on that account, 45 
whose sin and punishment are set before us, that we may not 
destroy our souls, by despising and distrusting God's word as 
they did. 46 For which warning we bless the holy Trinity, 
saying, Glory be to the Father, &c. 

SECT. IX. Of the Psalms. 

AND now, if we have performed the foregoing parts of the 
Liturgy as we ought, we shall be fitly disposed to 
T]7 sing the Psalrns of David with his own spirit. For 

ext. , 111 j i i 

all that hath been done hitherto was to tune our 
hearts, that we may say, O God, our hearts are ready, me mill 
inr/ and give praise" For having confessed humbly, begged 
forgiveness earnestly, and received the news of our absolution 
thankfully ; we shall be naturally filled with contrition and 
lowliness, and with desires of breathing up our souls to heaven. 
And this, St. Basil tells us, 4 * was a rite that in his time had 
obtained among all the Churches of God : " After the Confes- 
sion," saith he, " the people rise from prayer, and proceed to 

Serm. 17(i. de Verb. Apoat.c. 1, torn. v. col. 839, E. Serm. de Deip. *' Durand. 
de Dlvin. Oflic. Rational. 1. 5, c. 3. numb. II, fol. ^27. Ver. 15. Ver. 6. 7. 
Ver. 8. >Ver. 8 II. Ver. 10, 11. ' Psalm cviii. 1. ** Basil, Ep. 63, 
torn. il. p. 843. 


psalmody, dividing themselves into two parts, and singing by 
turns." For the performance of which we can have no greater 
or properer assistance than the Book of Psalms, which is a 
collection of prayers and praises indited by the Holy Spirit, 
composed by devout men on various occasions, and so suited 
to public worship, that they are used by Jews as well as Chris- 
tians. And though the several parties of Christians differ in 
many other things ; yet in this they all agree. They contain 
variety of devotions, agreeable to all degrees and conditions 
of men ; insomuch that, without much difficulty, every man 
may, either directly or by way of accommodation, apply most 
of them to his own case. 

. 2. For which cause the Church useth these trsedoftenerthan 
oftener than any other part of Scripture. Nor any other pan of 
can she herein be accused of novelty : since it is Ba * ttiafc 
certain the temple-service consisted chiefly of forms taken out 
of the Psalms; 49 and the prayers of the modern Jews also 
are mostly gathered from thence. 50 The Christians undoubt- 
edly used them in their public service in the times of the 
Apostles ; 51 and in the following ages they were repeated so 
often at the church, that the meanest Christians could rehearse 
them, by heart at their ordinary work. 52 

. 3. But now it is objected, that " it cannot whether an the 
reasonably be supposed that all the members of mfx^congTega- 
mixed congregations can be fit to use some ex- tion may properly 

. , , a ,-. 1,1 , , . use some expres- 

pressions in the Psalms, so as to make them their ttons in the 
own words ; because very few have attained to Psalms - 
such a degree of piety and goodness as David and the other 
Psalmists make profession of : and that therefore the Book of 
Psalms is not now a proper part of divine service." 

To which it is answered : That so long as men continue in 
a wicked course of life, they are not only unfit for the use of 
the Psalms, but of any other devotions : they are not only 
incapable of applying such passages in the Psalms to their own 
persons ; but they cannot so much as repeat a penitential 
Psalm, or even the confession of sins in the Liturgy, in a 
proper and agreeable manner : since he that does this as he 
ought, must do it with resolutions of amendment. But then 
as to those who have sincerely repented, and in earnest begun 

* 1 Chron. xvi. 137. xxv. 1, 2. *> Buxtorf. Synag. Judaic, cap. 10. 1 Cor. 
xiv. 26. Col. in. 16. James v. 13. & Vid. Chrys. Horn. 6, de Pceniten. torn. v. col. 
741, D. in a Latin edition printed at Paris, 1588. 



a virtuous course of life ; no reason can be given why they 
may not unite their hearts and voices with the Church, in re- 
hearsing these Psalms. For we may very aptly take a great 
part of the Psalter as the address of the whole Church to 
Almighty God ; and then no doubt but every sincere member 
of this body may perform his part in this pious consort. Every 
true Christian may, and must say, that the Church, whereof 
he professes himself a member, w all glorious within, (i. e. 
adorned with all manner of inward graces and excellences,) 
though no Christian that is humble will presume to say so of 
himself. Perhaps the very best men do not think such ele- 
vated expressions fit to be applied to their single lives, or per- 
sonal performances : but yet any sincere Christian may very 
well join in the public use of these parts of the Psalter, when 
he considers that what he says, or sings, is the voice of the 
Church universal ; and that, as he has but a small share of 
those virtues and perfections, which are the ornament of the 
Church, the body of Christ ; so his tongue is but one, amongst 
those innumerable choirs of Christians throughout the world. 
And there is no reason to doubt but that David did in some 
Psalms speak as the representative of the Church, as in others 
he expresses himself in the person of Christ : and therefore a 
devout man may also as well use these Psalms in his closet as 
in the church ; if so be he consider himself, notwithstanding 
his retirement, as one of that large and vast body, who serve 
and worship God, according to these forms, night and day. 
But to return : 

. 4. The custom of singing or repeating the 
^course* 1 * 7 P 8 ^ 8 alternately, or verse by verse, seems to 
be as old as Christianity itself. Nor is there 
any question to be made but that the Christians received it 
from the Jews ; for it is plain that several of the Psalms, 
which were composed for the public use of the temple, were 
written in amoebfeick, or alternate verse. 63 To which way of 
singing used in the temple, it is probable the vision of Isaiah 
alluded, which he saw of the seraphim crying one to another, 
Holy, holy, holy, &c." That it was the constant practice of 
the Church in the time of St. Basil, we have his own testi- 
mony : for he writes," that the people in his time, " rising 
before it was light, went to the house of prayer, and there, 

" As the cxtvth and ci vitith, 8cc. " Iiaiah viii. 3. Ep. ad Clcrura Neocaes. 
Ep. 63, torn. ii. p. 843, D. Vide et Const. Ap. 1. ii. c. 57. 


in great agony of soul, and incessant showers of tears, made 
confession of their sins to God : and then rising" from their 
prayers, proceeded to singing of psalms, dividing themselves 
into two parts, and singing by turns." Ever since which time 
it has been thought so reasonable and decent, as to be uni- 
versally practised. What Theodoret writes, 56 that Flavianus 
and Diodorus were the first that ordered the Psalms of David 
to be sung alternately at Antioch, seems not to be meant of 
the first institution of this custom, but only of the restoring 
of it, or else of the appointing some more convenient way of 
doing it. Isidore says, 57 that St. Ambrose was the first that 
introduced this custom among the Latins ; but this too must 
be understood only in relation to some alterations that were 
then made ; for pope Cselestine, as we read in his life, applied 
the Psalms to be sung alternately at the celebration of the 
eucharist. This practice, so primitive and devout, our Church 
(though there is no particular rubric to enjoin it) still con- 
tinues in her service either by singing, as in our cathedral 
worship ; or by saying, as in the parochial. For in the former, 
when one side of the choir sing to the other, they both pro- 
voke and relieve each other's devotion : they provoke it (as 
Tertullian * 8 remarks) by a holy contention, and relieve it by 
a mutual supply and change ; for which reasons, in the paro- 
chial service, the reading of the Psalms is also divided be- 
tween the minister and the people. And indeed did not the 
congregation bear their part, to what end does the minister 
exhort them to praise the Lord? or what becomes of their 
promise, that their mouths shall shew forth his praise ? To 
what end again is the invitatory (O come, let tis sing unto the 
Lord, &c.) placed before the Psalms, if the people are to have 
no share in praising him in the Psalms that follow ? 
. 5. Nor does the use of musical instruments 

/.i ill i Musical instru- 

mtne singing of psalms appear to be less ancient me ntsusedin 
than the custom itself of sinking them. The first singing of 

T> i j p j.- i_ i psalms. 

Psalm we read of was sung to a timbrel, viz. 
that which Moses and Miriam sang after the deliverance of 
the children of Israel from Egypt. 59 And afterwards at Jeru- 
salem, when the temple was built, musical instruments were 
constantly used at their public services. 60 Most of David's 

M Hist. Eccl. 1. U. c. 24. " Isidor. de Offic. 1. i. c. 7. <* Sonant inter duos psalmi 
et hymni, et mutuo provocant quis melius Deo suo cantet : Talia Christus videns et 
audiens gaudet. Tert. ad nnem.1.2, p. 172, B. M Exod. xv. 20. 

<w 2 Sam. vi. 5. 1 Chron. xv. 1C. 2 Chron. v. 12. and xxix. 25. 

K 2 


Psalms, we see by the titles of them, were committed to 
masters of music to be set to various tunes : and in the hun- 
dred and fiftieth Psalm especially, the prophet calls upon 
the people to prepare their different kinds of instruments 
wherewith to praise the Lord. And this has been the con- 
stant practice of the Church, in most ages, as well since as 
before the coming of Christ. 61 

When organs were first brought into use, is 
rg ch n urches to not clearl J known : but we find it recorded that 
about the year 766, Constantius Copronymus, 
emperor of Constantinople, sent a present of an organ to king 
Pepin of France : 62 and it is certain that the use of them has 
been very common now for several hundred of years ; Durand 
mentioning them several times in his book, but giving no inti- 
mation of their novelty in divine service. 

The psalm* to ' 6 " When W6 re P Cat the P 8alm8 and hvmnS 

be repeated we stand ; that, by the erection of our bodies, 
we may express the elevation or lifting up of our 
souls to God. Though another reason of our standing is, be- 
cause some parts of them are directed to God, and others are 
not : as therefore it would be very improper to kneel at those 
parts which are not directed to him ; so it would be very in- 
decent to sit, when we repeat those that are. And therefore 
because both these parts, viz. those which are and those which 
are not directed to God, are so frequently altered, and mingled 
one with another, that the most suitable posture for each of 
them cannot always be used, standing is prescribed as a pos- 
ture which best suits both together ; which is also consonant 
to the practice of the Jewish Church recorded in the Scrip- 
ture. For we read, 63 that while the priests and Levites were 
offering up praises to God, all Israel stood. And we learn 
from the ritualists of the Christian Church, 64 that when they 
came to the Psalms, they always shewed the affection of their 
souls by this posture of their bodies. 

. 7. At the end of every Psalm, and of every 

^platedat^ P art f the hundred and nineteenth Psalm* 

end of all the and all the Hymns, (except the Te Deum; 

hymns'. * nd which, because it is nothing else almost but the 

Gloria Patri enlarged, hath not this doxology 

'' Basil, in Psalm, i. torn. i. p. 126, B. Euseb. Hlstor. Eccles. lib. 2, c. 17, p. 57. C. 

, A. 

s. Areop. de Eccles. Hier. c. 3, p. 89, D. laid. Peleus. 1. 1, Ep. 90, p. 29, . 
43 Aventin. Anna!. Bojorum, 1. 3, f. 300, as cited in Mr. Gregory's Posthumous Works, 
P- 49. 2 Chron. vii. 6. * Vide Amal. Fort. lib. 3, cap. 3. Durand. Rational, lib. 
5, cap. 1. See the order how the Psalter is appointed to be read. 


annexed,) we repeat Glory be to the Father, Sac., a custom 
which Durandus would have us believe was instituted by 
Pope Damasus, at the request of St. Jerome ; 66 but for this 
there appears to be but little foundation. In the Eastern 
Churches they never used this glorification, but only at the 
end of the last Psalm, which they called their Antiphona, or 
Allelujah, as being one of those Psalms which had the Alle- 
lujah prefixed to it ; fi7 but in France, and several other of the 
Western Churches, it was used at the end of every Psalm ; C8 
which is still continued with us, to signify that we believe 
that the same God is worshipped by Christians as by Jews ; 
the same God that is glorified in the Psalms, having been 
from the beginning Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, as well as 
now. So that the Gloria Patri is not any real addition to the 
Psalms, but is only used as a necessary expedient to turn the 
Jewish Psalms into Christian Hymns, and fit them for the use 
of the Church now, as they were before for the use of the 

. 8. The present division of the Book of The ctmrse ob _ 
Psalms into several portions (whereby two separ- served in reading 
ate portions are affixed to each day, and the circle the Psalms - 
of the whole to the circuit of the month) seems to be more 
commodious and proper than any method that had been used 
before. For the division of them into seven portions, called 
nocturns, which took up the whole once a week, (as practised 
in the Latin Church,) seemed too long and tedious. And the 
division of them into twenty portions, to be read over in so 
many days, (as in the Greek Church,) though less tedious, is 
too uncertain, every portion perpetually shifting its day: 
whereas in our Church, each portion being constantly fixed to 
the same day of the month, (except there be proper Psalms 
appointed for that day, as all the former Common Prayer 
Books expressed it,) the whole course is rendered certain and 
immovable : and being divided into threescore different por- 
tions, (i. e. one for every morning, and one for every even- 
ing service,) none of them can be thought too tedious or 
burdensome. In all the old Common Prayer Books indeed, 
because January and March have one day above the number 
of thirty, (which, as concerning this purpose, mas appointed 
to every month,} and February, which is placed between them 

Durand. Rational. 1. 5, c. 2, n. 17, fol. 214. *i Cassian. Institut. 1. 2, c. 8. Strabo 
de Reb. Eccles. c. 25. Cassian. ut supra. 


both, hath only twenty-eight days , it was ordered, that Feb- 
ruary should borrow nf eit/ier of the montlis (of January 
and March) one day .- and so tlie Psalter which was read in 
February began at the last day of January and ended tJie 
first day of March. And to know what Psalms were to be 
read every day, there was (pursuant to another rubric) a 
column added in the calendar, to shew the number that was 
appointed for tJie Psalms ; and another table, where the same 
number being found, shewed what Psalms were to be read at 
morning and evening prayer. But this being found to be 
troublesome and needless, it was ordered, first in the Scotch 
Liturgy and then in our own, that in February the Psalter 
should be read only to the twenty-eighth or twenty -ninth day 
of the month. And January and March were inserted into 
the rubric, which before ordered that in May, and the rest of 
the months that had one and thirty days apiece, the same 
Psalms should be read the last day of the said months, 
which were read the day before : so that the Psalter may 
begin again t/te first day of the next month ensuing. 

. 9. The Psalms we use in our daily service 

be^ed^cord- are nOt teken Ollt f eithel> f the tw last tran8 - 

ing to the trans- lations of the Bible, but out of the great English 
SSrtBM?" Bible, translated by William Tyndal and Miles 
Coverdale, and revised by archbishop Cranmer : 
for when the Common Prayer was compiled in 1548, neither 
of the two last translations were extant. 

It is true indeed, that at the last review the Epistles and 
Gospels were taken out of the new translation : and the Les- 
sons too, since that time, have been read out of king James 
the First's Bible. But in relation to the Psalms it was noted, 
that t/te Psalter followeth tJie division of the Hebrews, and 
the translation of the great English Bible set forth and used 
in the time of king Henry the Eighth, and king Edward the 
Sixth. The reason of the continuance of which order is 
the plainness and smoothness of this translation : for the He- 
braisms being not so much retained in this as in the late trans- 
lations, the verses run much more musical and fitter for devo- 
tion. Though, as the old rubric informs us, this translation, 
from the ninth Psalm unto the hundred and forty-eighth 
Psalm, doth vary in numbers from the common Latin trans- 

*> See the order how the Psalter is appointed to be read. 


SECT. X. Of the Lessons. 
OUR hearts being now raised up to God in T 

. . - i i i -r i Ine Lessons, 

praising and admiring him in the Psalms ; we are why they follow 
in a fit temper and disposition to hear what he the Psalins - 
shall speak to us by his word. And thus too a respite or 
intermission is given to the bent of our minds : for whereas 
they were required to be active in the Psalms, it is sufficient 
if in the Lessons they hold themselves attentive. And there- 
fore now follow two chapters of the Bible, one out of the Old 
Testament, the other out of the New, to shew the harmony 
between the Law and the Gospel : for what is the Law, but the 
Gospel foreshewed ? what the Gospel, but the Law fulfilled ? 
That which lies in the Old Testament, as under a shadow, is 
in the New brought out into the open sun : things there pre- 
figured are here performed. And for this reason the first 
Lesson is taken out of the Old Testament, the second out of 
the New, that so the minds of the hearers may be gradually 
led from darker revelations to clearer views, and prepared by 
the vails of the Law to bear the light breaking forth in the 

. 2. And here it may not be amiss to observe 
the great antiquity of joining the reading of The L a ^ s Uyof 
Scriptures to the public devotions of the Church. 
Justin Martyr says, " It was a custom in his time to read 
Lessons out of the Prophets and Apostles in the assembly of 
the faithful." 70 And the Council of Laodicea, held in the 
beginning of the fourth century, ordered " Lessons to be min- 
gled with the Psalms." 71 And Cassian tells us, that " It was 
the constant custom of all the Christians throughout Egypt to 
have two Lessons, one out of the Old Testament, another out 
of the New, read immediately after the Psalms ; a practice," he 
says, " so ancient, that it cannot be known whether it wa 
founded upon any human institution." 72 Nor has this prac- 
tice been peculiar to the Christians only, but constantly used 
also by the Jews : who divided the books of Moses into as 
many portions as there are weeks in the year ; that so, one of 
those portions being read over every sabbath-day, the whole 
might be read through every year. 73 And to this answers that 
expression of St. James, 74 that Moses mas read in the syna- 

' Apol. 1, cap. 87, p. 131. Can. 17, Concil. torn. i. col. 1500, B. Cassian. 
de Inst. Mon. lib. 2, cap. 4. See Ainsworth on Gen. vi. 9. "* Acts xv. 21. 

136 OF THE ORDER FOR [CHA*. in. 

gogues every sabbath-day. And that to this portion of the Law 
they added a Lesson out ofthe Prophets, we may gather from 
the thirteenth ofthe Acts, where we find it mentioned that the 
Law and the Prophets were both read in a synagogue where 
St. Paul was present, 75 and that the Prophets mere read at 
Jerusalem every sabbath-day. 16 

The order of the ' ^* ^ or ^ e c hoice of these Lessons and their 
first Lessons for order, the Church observes a different course, 
linarydays. p or the first Les8On8 on or dinary days she ob- 
serves only this ; to begin at the beginning of the year with 
Genesis, and so to continue on till all the books of the Old 
Testament are 'read over ; only omitting the Chronicles (which 
are for the most part the same with the books of Samuel and 
Kings, which have been read before) and other particular 
chapters in other books, which are left out, either for the same 
reason, or else because they contain genealogies, names of 
persons or places, or some other matter less profitable for 
ordinary hearers. 

The Song of Solomon, or the book of Canti- 
SO why omittTd 0n ' cles, is wholly omitted ; because, if not spiritu- 
ally understood, (which very few people are 
capable of doing, especially so as to put a tolerably clear sense 
upon it,) it is not proper for a mixed congregation. The 
Jews ordered that none should read it till they were thirty 
years old, for an obvious reason, which too plainly holds 
amongst us. 

Very many chapters of Ezekiel are omitted, 
EZ omUted. h)r upon account of the mystical visions in which 
they are wrapt up. Why some others are omitted 
does not so plainly appear, though doubtless the compilers of 
our Liturgy thought there was sufficient reason for it. 
Isaiah, why re- After all the canonical books of the Old Tes- 
erved to the tament are read through, (except Isaiah, which 
being the most evangelical prophet, and con- 
taining the clearest prophecies of Christ, is not read in the 
order it stands in the Bible, but reserved to be read a little 
before, and in Advent, to prepare in us a true faith in the 
mystery of Christ's incarnation and birth, the commemora- 
tion of which at that time draws nigh ;) after all the rest, I 
say, to supply the remaining part of the year, several books of 

Act* xiil. 15. Ver. 27. See also Prideaux'* Connexion, vol. it. p. 172, 251. 

Oxf. edit. 1838. 


the Apocrypha are appointed to be read, which, . 

r 11. . v. ii j i Apocryphal 

though not canonical, have yet been allowed, by books, upon what 
the judgment of the Church for many ages past, * 7 L u e "|: on 7 d 
to be ecclesiastical and good, nearest to ^divine 
of any writings in the world. For which reason the books of 
Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Tobit, Judith, and the Maccabees, 
were recommended by the Council of Carthage" to be pub- 
licly read in the church. And Ruffinus testifies, 78 that they 
were all in use in his time, though not with an authority equal 
to that of the canonical books. And that the same respect 
was paid to them in latter ages, Isidore Hispalensis 79 and Ra- 
banus Maurus 80 both affirm. 

In conformity to so general a practice, the Church of Eng- 
land still continues the use of these books in her public ser- 
vice ; though not with any design to lessen the authority of 
canonical Scripture, which she expressly affirms to be the 
only rule of faith : declaring, 81 that the Church doth read the 
oilier books for example of life and instruction of manners, 
but yet doth not apply them to establish any doctrine. Nor is 
there any one Sunday in the whole year, that has any of its 
Lessons taken out of the Apocrypha. For as the greatest 
assemblies of Christians are upon those days, it is wisely or- 
dered that they should then be instructed out of the undis- 
puted word of God. And even on the week-days, the second 
Lessons are constantly taken out of canonical Scripture, which 
one would think should be enough to silence our adversaries ; 
especially as there is more canonical Scripture read in our 
churches in any two months (even though we should except 
the Psalms, Epistles, and Gospels) than is in a whole year in 
the largest of their meetings. But to return : 

. 4. The course of the first Lessons appointed 
for Sundays is different from that which is or- Th fo f sl^ 0118 
dained for the week-days. For from Advent 
Sunday to Septuagesima Sunday, some particular chapters out 
of Isaiah are appointed, for the aforesaid reason. But upon 
Septuagesima Sunday Genesis is begun ; because then begins 
the time of penance and mortification, to which Genesis suits 
best, as treating of the original of our misery by the fall of 
Adam, and of God's severe judgment upon the world for sin. 
For which reason the reading of this book was affixed to Lent, 

" Cap. 27. Ruffin. in Symb. ' De Eccles. Offic. lib. 1, c. 11. M De Instit. 
Eccles. 1. 2, c. 53. ' In her sixth Article. 

138 OF THE ORDER FOR [cm*. HI. 

even in the primitive ages of the Church. 62 Then are read for- 
ward the books as they lie in order ; not all the books, but 
(because more people can attend the public worship of God 
upon Sundays than upon other days) such particular chapters 
are selected, as are judged most edifying to all that are pre- 
sent. And if any Sunday be (as some call it) a privileged 
day, i. e. if it hath the history of it expressed in Scripture, 
such as Easter-day, Whitsunday, &c., then are peculiar and 
proper Lessons appointed. 

. 5. Upon saints-days another order is ob- 
for < iaint8 I <iay n8 served : for upon them the Church appoints Les- 
sons out of the moral books, such as Proverbs, 
Ecclesiastes, Ecclesiasticus, and Wisdom, which, containing 
excellent instructions of life and conversation, are fit to be 
read upon the days of saints, whose exemplary lives and deaths 
are the causes of the Church's solemn commemoration of them, 
and commendation of them to us. 

. 6. Other holy-days, such as Christmas- 
\>r other holy- day> circumcision, Epiphany, &c., have proper 
and peculiar Lessons appointed suitable to the 
occasions, as shall be shewn hereafter, when I speak of those 
several days. I shall only observe here, that there have been 
proper Lessons appointed on all holy-days, as well saints-days 
as others, ever since St. Austin's time : 83 though perhaps they 
were not reduced into an exact order till the time of Musaeus, 
a famous priest of Massilia, who lived about the year 480. 
Of whom Gennadius writes, that he particularly applied him- 
self, at the request of St. Venerius, a bishop, to choose out 
proper Lessons for all the festivals in the year. 84 

. 7. As for the second Lessons, the Church ob- 
^econ^Lessons 6 serves the same course upon Sundays as she doth 
upon week-days ; reading the Gospels and Acts 
of the Apostles in the morning, and the Epistles at evening, in 
the same order they stand in the New Testament ; except up- 
on saints-days and holy-days, when such Lessons are appointed, 
as either explain the mystery, relate the history, or apply the 
example to us. 

The Revelation 8- The Revelation is wholly omitted, except 

omitted, and the first and last chapters (which are read upon 

the day of St. John the Evangelist, who was 

Chry*ot. torn. i. Horn. 7, p. 106, et toin. ii. Horn. 1, p. 10, edit. Paris, 1609. 
*> August, in Prooem. Ep. Jolian. * Gennadius de Viris Ulustribus, cap. 79. 


the author) and part of the nineteenth chapter (which con- 
taining the praises and adoration paid to God by the angels 
and saints in heaven, is very properly appointed to be read on 
the festival of All-Saints). But, except upon these occasions, 
none of this book is read openly in the church for Lessons, by 
reason of its obscurity, which renders it unintelligible to 
meaner capacities. 

. 9. And thus we see, by the prudence of the The antiquity 
Church, the Old Testament is read over once, and usefulness of 
and the New thrice (i. e. excepting some less this method - 
useful parts of both) in the space of a year, conformable to the 
practice of the ancient Fathers : who (as our reformers tell us 86 ) 
so ordered the matter, that all the whole Bible, or the greatest 
part thereof, should be read over once every year : intending 
thereby that the clergy, and especially such as were ministers 
in the congregation, should (by often reading and meditating 
in God's ivord) be stirred up to godliness themselves, and be 
more able to exhort others by wholesome doctrine, and to con- 
fute them that were adversaries to the truth: and further, that 
the people (by daily hearing the holy Scriptures read in the 
church) might continually profit more and more in the know- 
ledge of God, and be more inflamed with the love of his true 
religion. Wliereas in the Church of Rome this godly and de- 
cent order was so altered, broken, and neglected, by planting 
in uncertain stories and legends,* with multitudes of responds,^ 
verses,^ vain repetitions, commemorations,^ and synodals ;j| 

s In the preface concerning the service of the Church. 

* Uncertain stories and legends.] By these are to be understood those le- L JK m * > 
gendary stories, which the Roman breviaries appoint to be read on their saints- *JJJf they 
days : which being almost as numerous as the days in the year, there is hardly 
a day free from having idle tales mixed in its service. Nor is this remarkable 
only in their Lessons upon their modern saints ; but even the stories of the 
Apostles are so scandalously blended with monkish fictions, that all wise and 
conscientious Christians must nauseate and abominate their service. 

t Responds.] A respond is a short anthem, interrupting the middle of a HeTx>n<K 
chapter, which is not to proceed till the anthem is done. The long responses ^*" 
are used at the close of the Lessons. 

J Verms.} By the verses here mentioned are to be understood either the Vce, 
versicle that follows the respond in the breviary, or else those hymns which 
are proper to every Sunday and holy-day ; which (except some few) are a 
parcel of despicable monkish Latin verses, composed in the most illiterate 
ages of Christianity. 

Commemorations.'] Commemorations are the mixing the service of some Comnn"- 
holy-day of lesser note, with the service of a Sunday or holy-day of greater t 1 n *' 
eminency, on which the less holy-day happens to fall. In which case it is 
appointed by the ninth general rule in the breviary, that only the hymns, 
verses, &c., and some other part of the service of the lesser holy-day, be an- 
nexed to that of the greater. 

|| Synodals.] These were the publication or recital of the provincial con- s r l "' l! |'"- 
stitutions in the parish-churches. For after the conclusion of every provincial *" 


that, commonly, when any book of the Bible was begun, after 
three or four chapters were read out, all the rest were unread. 
And in this sort the book of Isaiah was begun in Advent, and 
the book of Genesis in Septuagesima ; but they were only be- 
gun, and never read through : after like sort were other books 
of holy Scripture used. Moreover, the number and hardness 
of the rules called the Pie,* and the manifold changings of the 
service, was the cause, that to turn the book only was so hard 
and intricate a matter, that many times there was more busi- 
ness to find out what should be read, than to read it when it 
was found out. 

These inconveniences therefore considered, here is set forth 
such an order, whereby the same shall be redressed. And for 
a readiness in this matter, here is drawn out a calendar for 
that purpose, which is plain and easy to be understood; where- 
in (so much as may be) the reading of holy Scripture is so set 
forth, that all things should be done in order, without breaking 
one piece from another. For this cause be cut off anthems, 
responds, invitatories, and such like things, as did break the 
continual course of the reading of the Scripture. 

Yet, because there is no remedy but that of necessity, there 
must be some rules ; therefore certain rules are here set forth, 
which as they are few in number, so they are plain and easy 
to be understood. So that here you have an order for prayer, 
and for the reading of the holy Scripture, much agreeable to 
the mind and purpose of the old Fathers, and a great deal more 
profitable and commodious than that which of late was used. 
It is more profitable, because here are left out many things, 
whereof some are untrue, some uncertain, some vain and su- 
perstitious ; and nothing is ordained to be read, but the very 
pure word of God, the holy Scriptures, or that which is agree- 

syuod, the canons thereof were to be read in the churches, and the tenor of 
them to be declared and made known to the people ; and some of them to be 
annually repeated on certain Sundays in the year. 87 

P1 ' 1 nlU * Pie.] The word pie some suppose derives its name from wia(, which 

w called. , t|( . Q ree ][ S sometimes use for table or index : though others think these tables 

or indexes were called the pie, from the parti-coloured letters whereof they 

consisted ; the initial and some other remarkable letters and words being 

done in red, and the rest all in black. And upon this account, when they 

Piralft- translate it into Latin, they call it pica. From whence it is supposed, that 

whVnnw wnen printing came in use, those letters which were of a moderate size (i. e. 

oiled. about the bigness of those in these comments and tables) were called pica 


" So* Dr. N IchoU In bii note* on the wort) fynmfab In th prrfhce roncrrntng the entice of the Church. 
See Dr. Nlcholi, u boic, upon tbe word fur. 


able to the same ; and that, in such a language and order, as 
is most easy and plain for the understanding both of the readers 
and hearers : it is also more commodious, both for the short- 
ness thereof, and for the plainness of the order, and for that 
the rules be few and easy. 

. 10. The Scripture being the word of God, and so a de- 
claration of his will ; the reading of it or making it known to 
the people is an act of authority, and therefore 
the minister that reads the Lessons is to stand. T ^ e SSSter? 
And because it is an office directed to the congre- 
gation, by all the former Common Prayer Books it was ordered, 
that (to the end the people may the better hear] in such places 
where they do sing, there shall the Lessons be sung in a plain 
tune, after the manner of distinct reading : and likewise the 
Epistle and the Gospel. But that rubric is now left out, and 
the minister is only directed to read distinctly with an audi- 
ble voice, and to turn himself so as he may best be heard of 
all such as are present .- which shews, that in time of prayer 
the minister used to look another way; a custom still observed 
in some parish-churches, where the reading pews 
have two desks ; one for the Bible, looking to- JSJyjJ* 
wards the body of the church to the people ; 
another for the Prayer Book, looking towards the east or up- 
per end of the chancel ; in conformity to the practice of the 
primitive Church, which, as I have already observed, 89 paid a 
more than ordinary reverence in their worship towards the east. 

.11. Before every Lesson the minister is direct- 
ed to give notice to the people what chapter he ^TesS &c. 
reads, by saying, Here beginneth such a chapter, 
or verse of such a chapter of such a book : that so the people, 
if they have their Bibles with them, may, by looking over them, 
be the more attentive. The care of the primitive Church in 
this case was very remarkable. Before the Lesson began, the 
deacon first stood up, calling out aloud, Let us listen, my 
brethren ; and then he that read invited his audience to atten- 
tion, by introducing the Lesson with these words : Thus saith 
the Lord. 90 After every Lesson the minister with us is also 
directed to give notice that it is finished, by saying, Here endeth 
the first or second Lesson; which is the form now prescribed 
instead of the old one, Here endeth such a chapter of such a 
book, which were the words enjoined by all our former Liturgies. 

89 Page 86. "> Chrysost. in Act. 9, Horn. 19. 


. 12. As for the people, there is no posture 
^neTS' f prescribed for them ; but in former times they 
always stood, to shew their reverence. It is 
recorded of the Jews in the book of Nehemiah, 91 that when 
Ezra opened the book of the lam, in the sight of the people, 
all the people stood up. And in the first ages of Christianity 
those only were permitted to sit, who by reason of old age, or 
some other infirmity, were not able to stand throughout the 
whole time of divine service. 92 And it is very observable, 
that another ceremony used by the Christians of those times, 
before the reading of the Lessons, was the mashing their 
hands, 93 a ceremony said to be still used by the Turks, before 
they touch their Alcoran, who also write thereupon, Let no 
unclean person touch this.- 9 * which should excite us at least 
to prepare ourselves in such a manner, as may fit us to hear 
the word of God, and to express such outward reverence, as 
may testify a due regard to its author. 

SECT. XL Of the Hymns in general. 

THE use of hymns among Christians isundoubt- 

' he hmns! ty f edl y a* old as the time8 of the Apostles : M and 
we learn, both from the observation of St. Au- 
gustin 96 and from the canons of the Church, 97 that hymns and 
psalms were intermingled with the Lessons, that so by variety 
the people might be secured against weariness and distraction. 
The reasonable- ^- Bui besides antiquity, reason calls for 
nessof them after this interposition of hymns, in respect to the 
on8 ' great benefit we may receive from the word of 
God : for if we daily bless him for our ordinary meat and 
drink, how much more are we bound to glorify him for the 
food of our souls ? 

When fint added ** ^ nat we ma y not therefore want forms 
of praise proper for the occasion, the Church 
hath provided us with two after each Lesson, both in the 
morning and evening service ; leaving it to the discretion of 
him that ministereth, to use those which he thinks most con- 
venient and suitable : though in the first Common Prayer 
Book of king Edward VI. there was only one provided for a 

' Chap. viii. 5. August. Serm. 300, In Append, ad torn. v. col. 504, B. 

** Chryg. Horn. 53, in Joan. torn. ii. p. 776, lin. 3, 4. M Mr. Gregory's Pref. to his 
Notes and Observations upon Scripture, p. 3. * Matt. xxvi. 30. Col. v. 16. James 

T. 13. Serm. 176, torn. v. col. 839, D. Concil. Laod. Can. 17, Concil. torn. i. 
col. 1500, B. 


Lesson ; the hundredth, the ninety-eighth, and the sixty- 
seventh psalms not being added till 1552. The Te Deurn 
and the Benedicite indeed were both in the first book ; but 
not for choice, but to be used one at one time of the year, and 
the other at another, as the next section will shew. 

SECT. XII. Of the Hymns after the first Lessons. 

HAVING heard the holy precepts and useful 
examples, the comfortable promises and just { 
threatenings, contained in the first Lesson, we im- 
mediately break out into praising God for illuminating our 
minds, for quickening our affections, for reviving our hopes, 
for awakening our sloth, and for confirming our resolutions. 

I. For our supply and assistance in which The Te Deum 
reasonable duty, the Church has provided us two and Benedicite, 
ancient hymns ; the one called Te Deum, from w 

the first words of it in Latin, (Te Deum laudamus, We praise 
thee, O God ,) the other Benedicite, for the same reason, the 
beginning of it in Latin being Benedicite omnia opera Do- 
mini Domino ; or, O all ye works of the Lord, bless ye the 
Lord. The former of these is now most frequently used, and 
the latter only upon some particular occasions. 

. 2. The first (as it is generally believed) was 
composed by St. Ambrose for the baptism of St. * h h e e S n f 
Augustin : 98 since which time it has ever been 
held in the greatest esteem, -and daily repeated in the church : 
so that it is now of above thirteen hundred years standing. 
The hymn itself is rational and majestic, and in all particulars 
worthy of the spouse of Christ ; being above all the compo- 
sures of men uninspired, fittest for the tongues of men and 

II. The other was an ancient hymn in the 

Jewish Church, and adopted into the public de- ^ e th e r go"? of 
votions of the Christians from the most early the three chii- 
times. St. Cyprian quotes it as part of the holy Jjg iu 
Scriptures :" in which opinion he is seconded by 
Ruffinus, who very severely inveighs against St. Jerome for 
doubting of its divine authority ; and informs us, that it was 
used in the Church long before his time, who himself lived 

* St. Greg. lib. 3, Dial. cap. 4, mentions Dacius bishop of Milan, A. D. 560, who, in 
the first book of the Chronicles writ by him, gives an account of this. See also St. 
Bennet Reg. cap. 11. De Orat. bom. p. 142. 


A. D. 390. 10 And when afterwards it was left out by some 
that performed divine service, the fourth Council of Toledo, 
in the year 633, commanded it to be used, and excommuni- 
cated the priests that omitted it. 1 Our Church indeed does 
not receive it for canonical Scripture, because it is not to be 
found in the Hebrew, nor was allowed in the Jewish canon ; 
but it is notwithstanding an exact paraphrase of the hundred 
and forty-eighth psalm, and so like it in words and sense, that 
whoever despiseth this, reproacheth that part of the canonical 

8. 2. As to the subject of it, it is an elegant 

The subject of it. it -Jt _i L- ^ 

summons to all God s works to praise him ; inti- 
mating that they all set out his glory, and invite us, who have 
the benefit of them, to join with these three children (to 
whom so great and wonderful a deliverance was given) in 
praising and magnifying the Lord far ever. 

. 3. So that when we would glorify God for 
^be used** * ^is works, which is one main end of the Lord's 

day ; or when the Lesson treats of the creation, 
or sets before us the wonderful works of God in any of his 
creatures, or the use he makes of them either ordinary or 
miraculous for the good of the Church ; this hymn may very 
seasonably be used. Though in the first Common Prayer 
Book of king Edward VI., Te Deum was appointed daily 
througliout the year, except in Lent, all the mhich time, in 
the place of Te Deum, Benedicite mas to be used. So that, 
as I have already observed, they were not originally inserted 
for choice ; but to be used at different parts of the year. But 
when the second book came out with double hymns for the 
other Lessons ; these also were left indifferent at the discre- 
tion of the minister, and the words, Or this Canticle, inserted 
before the hymn we are now speaking of. 

III. After the first Lesson at evening prayer, 
caft.'or ?he l song two other hymns are appointed, both of them 
or the blessed taken out of canonical Scripture : the first is the 

song of the blessed Virgin, called the Magnificat, 
from its first word in Latin. It is the first hymn recorded in 
the New Testament, and, from its ancient use among the 
primitive Christians, has been continued in the offices of the 
Reformed Churches abroad,* as well as in ours. 

100 Ruffln. 1. 2. adv. Hieron. Can. 14, Concil. torn. v. col. 1710, C. D. See 
Durcll's View of the Reformed Churches, page 38. 


For as the Holy Virgin, when she reflected upon the pro- 
mises of the Old Testament, now about to be fulfilled in the 
mysterious conception and happy birth, of which God had de- 
signed her to be the instrument, expressed her joy in this 
form ; so we, when we hear in the Lessons like examples of 
his mercy, and are told of those prophecies and promises 
which were then fulfilled, may not improperly rejoice with 
her in the same words, as having a proportionable share of 
interest in the same blessing. 

IV. But when the first Lesson treats of some 
great and temporal deliverance granted to the 

i i /> /-< j i ii 

peculiar people 01 trod, we have the ninety- 
eighth psalm for variety ; which, though made on occasion of 
some of David's victories, may yet be very properly applied 
to ourselves, who, being God's adopted children, are a spirit- 
ual Israel, and therefore have all imaginable reason to bless 
God for the same, and to call upon the whole creation to join 
with us in thanksgiving. This was one of those which, I have 
already observed, was first added to king Edward's second 
Common Prayer. 

SECT. XIII. Of the Hymns after the second Lessons. 

HAVING expressed our thankfulness to God in 
one of the above-mentioned hymns for the light J^S'^^ 8 
and instruction we have received from the first 
Lesson ; we are fitly disposed to hear the clearer revelations 
exhibited to us in the second. 

I. As to the second Lesson in the morning, it O ftheBenedic- 
is always taken out either of the Gospels or the tus, or song of 
Acts; which contain an historical account of the Zachanas - 
great work of our redemption : and therefore as the angel, 
that first published the glad tidings of salvation, was joined 
by a multitude of the heavenly host, who all brake forth in 
praises to God ; so when the same tidings are rehearsed by 
the priest, both he and the people immediately join their mu- 
tual gratulations, praising God, and saying, Blessed be the 
Lord God of Israel, for he hath visited and redeemed his 
people ; and hath raised up a mighty salvation for us in the 
house of his servant David, &c.; being the hymn that was com- 
posed by good old Zacharias, at the circumcision of his son, 
St. John the Baptist, 3 and containing a thanksgiving to God 

Luke i. 57. 


for the incarnation of our Saviour, and for those unspeakable 
mercies which (though they were not then fully completed) 
were quickly afterwards the subject of the whole Church's 

II. For variety the hundredth psalm was also 
appointed by king Edward's second book, in 
which all lands and nations are invited and call- 
ed upon to serve the Lord with gladness, and come before 
his presence with a song, for his exceeding grace, mercy, and 
truth, which are so eminently set forth in the Gospels. 

III. After the second Lesson at evening, which 
rth mutu nc Di ' is always out of the Epistles, the Song of Simeon, 

called Nunc Dimittis, is most commonly used. 
The author of it is supposed to have been he whom the Jews 
call Simeon the Just, son to the famous Rabbi Hillel, 4 a man 
of eminent integrity, and one who opposed the then common 
opinion of the Messiah's temporal kingdom. The occasion of 
his composing it was his meeting Christ in the temple, when he 
came to be presented there, wherein God fulfilled his promise 
to him, that he should not die till he had seen the Lord's Christ. 5 
And though we cannot see our Saviour with our bodily eyes, 
as he did, yet he is by the writings of the Apostles daily pre- 
sented to the eyes of our faith : and therefore if we were much 
concerned for heaven, and as loose from the love of the world 
as old Simeon was, and we ought to be ; we might, upon the 
view of Christ in his holy word, be daily ready to sing this 
hymn, which is taken into the services of all Christian Churches 
in the world, Greek, Roman, and Reformed, and was formerly 
very frequently sung by saints and martyrs a little before their 

IV. Instead of it sometimes the sixty-seventh 
psalm is used, (being one of those that was intro- 
duced in king Edward's second Liturgy,) which 

being a prayer of David for the coming of the Gospel, is a pro- 
per form wherein to express our desires for the further pro- 
pagation of it. 

N. B. It ought to be noted, that both the sixty-seventh and 
hundredth psalms, being inserted in the Common Prayer 
Books in the ordinary version, ought so to be used, and not to 
be sung in Sternhold and Hopkins, or any other metre, as is 

Vid. Scultet. Eiercit. Evang. 1. 1, c. 61, and Llghtfoofs Harmony on the place. 
* Luke ii. 26. 


now the custom in too many churches, to the jostling out of 
the psalms themselves, expressly contrary to the design of the 
rubric : which, if not prevented, may in time make way for 
further innovations and gross irregularities. 

SECT. XIV. Of the Apostles' Creed. 
THOUGH the Scriptures be a perfect revelation 

,, j. . ,* . . The Creed. 

oi all divine truths necessary to salvation ; yet 

the fundamental articles of our faith are so dispersed there, 

that it was thought necessary to collect out of those sacred 

writings one plain and short summary of fundamental doctrines, 

which might easily be understood and remembered by all 


. 2. This summary, from the first word in Avhy so called 
Latin, Credo, is commonly called the Creed ; why called sym- 
though in Latin it is called Symbolum, for which b< 
several reasons are given : as, first, that it is an allusion to 
the custom of several persons meeting together to eat of one 
common supper, whither every one brings something for his 
share to make up that common meal, which from hence was 
called Symbolum, from the Greek word erv/u/SaXXav, which sig-* 
nines to throw or cast together : even so, say some, 6 the Apos- 
tles met together, and each one put or threw in his article to 
compose this symbol. 

Another signification of the word is fetched from military 
affairs, where it is used to denote those marks, signs, or watch- 
words, &c., whereby the soldiers of an army distinguished and 
knew each other: in like manner, as some think, 7 by this 
Creed the true soldiers of Jesus Christ were distinguished from 
all others, and discerned from those who were only false and 
hypocritical pretenders. 

But the most natural signification of the word seems to be 
derived from the pagan symbols, which were secret marks, 
words, or tokens communicated at the time of initiation, or a 
little before, unto those who were consecrated or entered into 
their reserved or hidden rites, and to none else ; by the de- 
claration, manifestation, or pronunciation whereof, those more 
devout idolaters knew each other, and were with all freedom 
and liberty of access admitted to their more intimate mysteries, 
i. e. to the secret worship and rites of that God, whose sym- 

6 Ruffin. Expos, in Symb. Apost. ad calcem Cyprian. Oper. pag. 17. Cassian. de In- 
carn. Dom. 1. 6, c. 3, pag. 1046, Atrebat. 1628. ' Ruffin. ut supra. Maxim. Taxiri- 
nens. Homil. in Symbol, ap Biblioth. Vet. Pair. Colon. Agrippin. 1618, torn. v. pag. 39. 

L 2 


bols they had received : from whence the multitude in general 
were kept out and excluded : which said symbols those who 
had received them were obliged carefully to conceal, and not, 
on any account whatsoever, to divulge or reveal. 8 And for 
the same reasons the Apostles' Creed is thought by some to 
have been termed a symbol, because it was studiously con- 
cealed from the pagan world, and not revealed to the cate- 
chumens themselves, till just before their baptism or initiation 
in the Christian mysteries ; when it was delivered to them as 
that secret note, mark, or token, by which the faithful in all 
parts of the world might, without any danger, make them- 
selves known to one another. 9 

. 3. That the whole Creed, as we now use it, 
The antiquity of wag drawn U p by the Apostles themselves, can 

hardly be proved : but that the greatest part of 
it was derived from the very days of the Apostles, is evident 
from the testimonies of the most ancient writers ; 10 particu- 
larly of St. Ignatius, in whose epistles most of its articles are 
to be found : though there are some reasons to believe, that 
jsome few of them, viz. that of the descent into hell, the com- 
munion of saints, and the life everlasting, were not added till 
some time after, in opposition to some gross errors and here- 
sies that sprang up in the Church. But the whole form, as it 
now stands in our Liturgy, is to be found in the works of St 
Ambrose and Ruffinus. 11 

. 4. It is true indeed the primitive Christians, 
cited^ubiidy ^v reason they always concealed this and their 

other mysteries, did not in their assemblies pub- 
licly recite the Creed, except at the times of baptism ; which, 
unless in cases of necessity, were only at Easter and Whitsun- 
tide. From whence it came to pass, that the constant repeat- 
ing of the Creed in the church was not introduced till five 
hundred years after Christ : about which time Petrus Gna- 
pheus, bishop of Antioch, prescribed the constant recital of 
the Creed at the public administration of divine service. 12 

The place of the % Tl pjf ce of \ in w ^urgy may be 
creed in the Li- considered with respect both to what goes before, 
turgy - and what comes after it. That which goes be- 

fore it are the Lessons taken out of the word of God : for faith 

See instances of these symbols in the lord chief-Justice King's Critical History of 
the Creed, chap. 1, p. 11, &c. * See this proved by the same author, p. 20, &c. 

10 Vid. Irenteum, contr. Hares. 1. 1, c. 2, p. 44. Tertull. de Virg. veland. c. 1, p. 175, 
A. De Prescript. Hnreticor. c. 13, p. 206, D. " In their Expositions upon it. 

Thcodor. Lector. Histor. Eccles. p. 563, C. 


comes by hearing ,- 13 and therefore when we have heard God's 
word, it is fit we should profess our belief of it, thereby set- 
ting our seals (as it were) to the truth of God, u especially to 
such articles as the chapters now read to us have confirmed. 
What follows the Creed are the prayers which are grounded 
upon it : for we cannot call on him in whom we have not be- 
lieved. 15 And therefore since we are to pray to God the 
Father, in the name of the Son, by the assistance of the Holy 
Ghost, for remission of sins, and a joyful resurrection ; we 
first declare that we believe in God the Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost, and that there is remission here, and a resurrec- 
tion to life hereafter, for all true members of the Catholic 
Church ; and then we may be said to pray in faith. 

. 6. Both minister and people are appointed To be repeated 
to repeat this Creed ; because it is the profession by the whole 
of every person present, and ought for that rea- con g re g atlon - 
son to be made by every one in his own person ; the more 
expressly to declare their belief of it to each other, and con- 
sequently to the whole Christian world, with whom they 
maintain communion. 

. 7. It is to be repeated standing, to signify 
our resolution to stand up stoutly in the defence 
of it. And in Poland and Lithuania the nobles used formerly 
to draw their swords, in token that, if need were, they would 
defend and seal the truth of it with their blood. 16 

. 8. When we repeat it, it is customary to 
turn towards the east, that so whilst we are making towards fheeTs? 
profession of our faith in the blessed Trinity, we 
may look towards that quarter of the heavens where God is 
supposed to have his peculiar residence of glory. 17 

. 9. When we come to the second article in Reverence to ^ 
this Creed, in which the name of JESUS is men- madeatthename 
tioned, the whole congregation makes obeisance, Ol 
which the Church (in regard to that passage of St. Paul, That 
at the name of JESUS every knee should bow l& } expressly en- 
joins in her eighteenth canon : ordering, that when in time 
of divine service the Lord JESUS shall be mentioned, due and 
lowly reverence shall be done by all persons present, as it 
has been accustomed ; testifying by these outward ceremonies 
and gestures tlieir inward humility, Christian resolution, and 

11 Rom. x. 17. i* John iii. 33. Rom. x. 14. See Durell's View, &c. 
sect. 1, . 24, page 37. _ " See Mr. Gregory, as quoted in note &, p. 86. Phil. ii. 10. 


due acknowledgment that tJie Lord JESUS CHRIST, the true 
eternal Son of God, is the only Saviour of the world, in 
whom alone all the mercies, graces, and promises of God to 
mankind for this life, and the life to come, are fully and 
wholly comprised. 

SECT. XV. Of St. Athanasius's Creed. 

The Creed of WHETHER this Creed was composed by Atha- 

Saint Athana- nasius or not, is matter of dispute : in the rubric 
before it, as enlarged at the review, it is only said 
to be commonly called the Creed of St. Athanasius: but we 
are certain that it has been received as a treasure of ines- 
timable price both by the Greek and Latin Churches for al- 
most a thousand years. 

The scruple 2. As to the matter of it, it condemns all 

which some ancient and modern heresies, and is the sum of 
iUt ' all orthodox divinity. And therefore if any 
scruple at the denying salvation to such as do not believe 
these articles ; let them remember, that such as hold any of 
those fundamental heresies are condemned in Scripture : l9 
from whence it was a primitive custom, after a confession of 
the orthodox faith, to pass an anathema against all that denied 
it. But however, for the ease and satisfaction of some people 
who have a notion that this Creed requires every person to 
assent to, or believe, every verse in it on pain of damnation ; 
and who therefore (because there are several things in it which 
they cannot comprehend) scruple to repeat it for fear they 
should anathematize or condemn themselves ; I desire to offer 
what follows to their consideration, viz. That howsoever plain 
and agreeable to reason every verse in this Creed may be ; 
yet we are not required, by the words of the Creed, to believe 
the whole on pain of damnation. For all that is required of 
us as necessary to salvation, is, that before all things me hold 
the catholic faith : and the catholic faith is by the third and 
fourth verses explained to be this, that me worship one God 
in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity: neither confounding the 
persons, nor dividing the substance. This therefore is de- 
clared necessary to be believed : but all that follows from 
hence to the twenty-sixth verse, is only brought as a proof 
and illustration of it; and therefore requires our assent no 
more than a sermon does, which is made to prove or illustrate 

1 John U. M, 13. v. 10. 2 Pet. 11. 1. 


a text. The text, we know, is the word of God, and therefore 
necessary to be believed : but no person is, for that reason, 
bound to believe every particular of the sermon deduced from 
it, upon pain of damnation, though every tittle of it may be 
true. The same I take it to be in this Creed : the belief of 
the catholic faith before mentioned, the Scripture makes ne- 
cessary to salvation, and therefore we must believe it: but 
there is no such necessity laid upon us to believe the illustra- 
tion that is there given of it, nor does the Creed itself require 
it : for it goes on in the twenty-sixth and twenty-seventh verses 
in these words, So that in all things as is aforesaid, the Unity 
in Trinity, and the Trinity in Unity is to be worshipped : lie 
therefore that mill be saved, must thus think of the Trinity. 
Where it plainly passes off from that illustration, and returns 
back to the fourth and fifth verses, requiring only our belief 
of the catholic faith, as there expressed, as necessary to sal- 
vation, viz. that One God or Unity in Trinity and Trinity in 
Unity is to be worshipped. All the rest of the Creed, from 
the twenty-seventh verse to the end, relates to our Saviour's 
incarnation ; which indeed is another essential part of our 
faith, and as necessary to be believed as the former : but that 
being expressed in such plain terms as none, I suppose, scru- 
ple, I need not enlarge any further. 

S. 3. The reasons why this Creed is appointed 

. V ., ., , J /- j -i i Why said on 

to be said upon those days specified in the rubric, those days men- 
are, because some of them are more proper for tio " e . d in the 
this confession of faith, which, being of all others 
the most express concerning the Trinity, is for that reason 
appointed on Christmas -day, Epiphany, Easter-day, Ascen- 
sion-day, JFliit- Sunday, and Trinity Sunday ; which were 
all the days that were appointed for it by the first book of 
king Edward : but in his second book it was also enjoined on 
Saint Matthias, and some other saints-days, that so it might 
be repeated once in every month. 

SECT. XVI. Of the Versicles before the Lord's Prayer. 

THE congregation having now their consciences The good order 
absolved from sin, their affections warmed with and method of 
thanksgiving, their understandings enlightened 01 
by the word, and their faith strengthened by a public profes- 
sion, enter solemnly in the next place upon the remaining 
part of divine worship, viz. supplication and prayer, that is, 


to ask those things which are requisite and necessary, as well 
for the body as the soul. 

. 2. But because they are not able to do this 
without God's help, therefore the minister first 
blesses them with The Lord be with you ; which, 
it must be observed too, is a very proper salutation in this place, 
viz. after a public and solemn profession of their faith. For St. 
John forbids us to say to any heretic, God speed ; M and the 
primitive Christians were never allowed to salute any that 
were excommunicated. 21 But when the minister hath heard 
the whole congregation rehearse the Creed, and seen, by 
their standing up at it, a testimony of their assent to it ; he 
can now salute them as brethren and members of the Church. 
But because he is their representative and mouth to God, they 
return his salutation, immediately replying, And 

^"thy .*wt with mit h th y s P irit ' both which sentences are taken 
out of holy Scripture, 22 and together with that 
salutation, Peace be with you, (which was generally used by 
the bishop, instead of The Lord be with you? 3 } have been of 
very early use in the Church, 24 especially in the eastern part 
of it, to which, as an ancient Council says, 25 they were de- 
livered down by the Apostles themselves : and it is observ- 
able that they always denoted (as here) a transition from one 
part of the divine service to another. 

.3. In the heathen sacrifices there was al- 
r ' ways one to cry, Hoc agitc, or to bid them mind 
what they were about. And in all the old Christian Liturgies 
the deacon was wont t6 call often upon the people, enrrtj'wc 
StT)6u>pti>, Let us pray earnestly ; and then again, itcrtviyTtpov, 
more earnestly. And the same vehemence and earnest de- 
votion does our Church call for in these words, Let us pray , 
warning us thereby to lay aside all wandering thoughts, and 
to attend to the great work we are about ; for though the 
minister only speaks most of the words, yet our affections 
must go along with every petition, and sign them all at last 
with an hearty Ainen. 

. 4. But being unclean, like the lepers re- 
corded by St. Luke, 28 before we come to address 
ourselves to God, we begin to cry, Lord have 

*> 2 John 10, II. Capital. Carol Ma.?. 1. 5, c. 42. Ruth ii. 4. 2 Then. Hi. 
16. 2 Tim. iv. 22. Gal. vi. 18. ** Durand. Rational, lib. 4, c. 14, f. 7, fol. 111. 

M Chryi. in Colou. 1. Horn. 3, torn. 4, p. 107, lin. 3, Src. laid. Peleus. 1. 1, Ep. 122, p. 
44, A. * Concil. Bracar. 2, cap. 3, torn. v. col. 740, B. * Luke xviL 12, 13. 


mercy on us ; lest, if we should unworthily call him Our 
Father, he upbraid us as he did the Jews, If I be a father, 
where is mine Iwnour? 27 And it is to be observed, that the 
Church hath such an awful reverence for the Lord's Prayer, 
that she seldom suffers it to be used without some preceding 
preparation. In the beginning of the morning and evening 
service we are prepared by the confession of our sins, and the 
absolution of the priest ; and very commonly in other places 
by this short litany : whereby we are taught first to bewail 
our unworthiness, and pray for mercy ; and then with an 
humble boldness to look up to heaven, and call God Our 
Father, and beg further blessings of him. 

As to the original of this form, it is taken out of the Psalms, 28 
where it is sometimes repeated twice together ; to which the 
Christian Church hath added a third, viz. Christ have mercy 
upon us, that so it might be a short litany or supplication to 
every person in the blessed Trinity : we have offended each 
person, and are to pray to each, and therefore we beg help 
from them all. 

It is of great antiquity both in the Eastern and Western 
Churches ; and an old Council orders it to be used there times 
a day in the public service. 29 And we are informed that 
Constantinople was delivered from an earthquake by the peo- 
ple going barefoot in procession and using this short litany. 30 

N. B. The clerk and people are here to take The clerk and 
notice not to repeat the last of these versicles, people not to re- 

r 7 T Pi A! i peat Lord have 

viz. Lord have mercy upon us, atter the minister. inercy upm us 
In the end of the Litany indeed they ought to after the min- 
do it, because there they are directed to say all 
the three versicles distinctly after him ; each of them being re- 
peated in the Common Prayer Book, viz. first in a Roman 
letter for the priest, and then in an Italic, which denotes the 
people's response. But in the daily morning and evening ser- 
vice, in the office for solemnization of matrimony, in those 
for the visitation of the sick, for the burial of the dead, for 
the churching of women, and in the commination, where 
these versicles are single, and only the second printed in an 
Italic character, there they are to be repeated alternately, and 
not by way of repetition : so that none but the second versi- 
cle, viz. Christ have mercy upon us, comes to the people's 
turn, the first and last belonging to the minister. 

*? Mai. i. 6. Psalm vi. 2. li. 1. cxxiii. 3. Concil. Vasens. 2, Can. 3, torn, 
iv. col. 1680, C. Paul. Diacon. 1. 16, c. 24. 


SECT. XVII. Of the Lord's Prayer. 

The Lord's '^ HE ^ n ^ter, clerk, and people, being pre- 

Prayer, why re- pared in the manner that we have described 
peated. above, are now again to say the Lord's Prayer 

with a loud voice. For this consecrates and makes way for 
all the rest, and is therefore now again repeated. By which 
repetition we have this further advantage, that if we did not put 
up any petition of it with fervency enough before, we may make 
amends for it now, by asking that with a doubled earnestness. 
. 2. By the clerks in this rubric (which was 
tended by h the"m. first inserted in the second book of king Edward) 
I suppose were meant such persons as were ap- 
pointed at the beginning of the Reformation, to attend the in- 
cumbent in his performance of the offices ; and such as are 
still in some cathedral and collegiate churches, which have 
lay-clerks (as they are called, being not always ordained) to 
look out the Lessons, name the anthem, set the Psalms, and the 
like : 31 of which sort I take our parish clerks to be, though we 
have now seldom more than one to a church. 

SECT. XVIII. Of the Versicles after the Lord's Prayer. 
_ . , BEFOBE the minister begins to pray alone for 

The versicles. , 1*1. - t u |5! / J- 

the people, they are to join with him (according 
to the primitive way of praying) in some short versicles and 
responsals taken chiefly out of the Psalms, and containing the 
sum of all the following collects. 

To the first, O Lord, shew thy mercy upon us, and grant 
us thy salvation, 3 - answers the Sunday collect, which gener- 
ally contains petitions for mercy and salvation. To the second, 
O Lord, save the king, and mercifully hear us roJien rve 
call upon thee, 33 answer the prayers for the king and royal 
family. To the third, Endue thy ministers with righteous- 
ness, and make thy chosen people joyful ; 34 and the fourth, 
O Lord, save thy people, and bless thine inheritance ; M an- 
swers the collect for the clergy and people. To the fifth, 
Give peace in our time, Lord, because there is none other 
that fight eth for us, but only thou, O God, 36 answer the daily 
collects for peace : and to the last, God, make clean our 
hearts rcithin us, and take not thy Holy Spirit from us 3 " 
answer the daily collects for grace. 

" See the Clergyman's Vade Mecum. p. 202, 203. * Psalm Ixxxv. 7. M Psalm 
xx. verse the last, according to the Greek translation, w Psalm cxxxii. 9. * Psalm 
xxvlil. 9. * 1 Chron. xxii. 9. Psalm H. 10,11. 


. 2. Against two of these versicles it is ob- 
jected, that the Church enjoins us to pray to God ^Sm^ 
to give peace in our time, for this odd reason, 
viz. because there is none other that fighteth for us but only 
God. But to this we answer, that the Church by these words 
does by no means imply, that the only reason of our desiring 
peace, is because we have none other to fight for us, save God 
alone ; as if we could be well enough content to be engaged 
in war, had we any other to fight for us, besides God : but 
they are a more full declaration and acknowledgment of that 
forlorn condition we are in, who are not able to help ourselves, 
and who cannot depend upon man for help ; which we confess 
and lay before Almighty God, to excite the greater compas- 
sion in his divine Majesty. And thus the Psalmist cries out 
to God, Be not far from me, for trouble is near ; for there 
is none to help. 36 

. 3. The rubric which orders the priest to 
stand up to say these versicles, (which was first iSf i^to'stand 
added in 1552,) I imagine to have been founded u .P at these ver - 
upon the practice of the priests in the Romish 
Church. For it is a custom there for the priest, at all the 
long prayers, to kneel before the altar, and mutter them over 
softly by himself: but whenever he comes to any versicles 
where the people are to make their responses, he rises up and 
turns himself to them, in order to be heard : which custom 
the compilers of our Liturgy might probably have in their eye, 
when they ordered the minister to stand up in this place. 

SECT. XIX. Of the Collects and Prayers in general. 
BEFORE we come to speak of each of the fol- 

, . . r , , The prayers, -why 

lowing prayers in particular, it may not be amiss divided into so 
to observe one thing concerning them in general, * t " y short col ~ 
viz. the reason why they are not carried on in one 
continued discourse, but divided into many short collects, 
such as is that which our Lord himself composed. And that 
might be one reason why our Church so ordered it, viz. that 
so she might follow the example of our Lord, who best knew 
what kind of prayers were fittest for us to use. And indeed 
we cannot but find, by our own experience, how difficult it is 
to keep our minds long intent upon any thing, much more up- 
on so great things as the object and subject of our prayers ; 
and that, do what we can, we are still liable to wanderings and 



distractions : so that there is a kind of necessity to break off 
sometimes, that our thoughts, being respited for a while, may 
with more ease be fixed again, as it is necessary they should, 
so long as we are actually praying to the Supreme Being of 
the world. 

But besides, in order to the performing our devotions 
aright to the most high God, it is necessary that our souls 
should be possessed all along with due apprehensions of his 
greatness and glory. To which purpose our short prayers 
contribute very much. For every one of them beginning 
with some of the attributes or perfections of God, and so sug- 
gesting to us right apprehensions of him at first, it is easy to 
preserve them in our minds during the space of a short prayer, 
which in a long one would be too apt to scatter and vanish away. 

But one of the principal reasons why our public devotions 
are and should be divided into short collects, is this : our 
blessed Saviour, we know, hath often told us, that whatsoever 
me ask the Fatlier in his name he mill give it us ,- 39 and so 
hath directed us in all our prayers to make use of his name, 
and to ask nothing but upon the account of his merit and 
mediation for us : upon which all our hopes and expectations 
from God do wholly depend. For this reason therefore (as it 
always was, so also now) it cannot but be judged necessary, that 
the name of Christ be frequently inserted in our prayers, that 
so we may lift up our hearts unto him, and rest our faith upon 
him, for the obtaining those good things we pray for. And 
therefore whatsoever it be which we ask of God, we presently 
add, through Jesus Christ our Lord, or something to that 
effect; and so ask nothing but according to our Lord's direc- 
tion, i. e. in his name. And this is the reason that makes our 
prayers so short : for take away the conclusion of every collect 
or prayer, and they may be joined all together, and be made 
but as one continued prayer. But would not this tend to 
make us forgetful that we are to offer up our prayers in the 
name of Christ, by taking away that which refresheth our 
memory ? 

. 2. The reason why these prayers are so often 
u<;. e< * collects is differently represented. Some 

ritualists think, because the word collect is some- 
times used both in the vulgar Latin Bible, 40 and by the an- 
cient Fathers, 41 to denote the gathering together of the people 

John xiv. IS, and xvi. 24. Die* Collects-, Lev. xxili. 36. Collectionem, 
Heb. x. 25. i Collectum celebrate. Passim apud Patres. 


into religious assemblies ; that therefore the prayers are called 
collects, as being repeated when the people are collected to- 
gether. 42 Others think they are so named upon account of 
their comprehensive brevity ; the minister collecting into short 
forms the petitions of the people, which had before been di- 
vided between him and them by versicles and responses: 43 
and for this reason God is desired in some of them to hear the 
prayers and supplications of the people. Though I think it 
is very probable that the collects for the Sundays and Holy- 
days bear that name, upon account that a great many of them 
are very evidently collected out of the Epistles and Gospels. 

SECT. XX. Of the three Collects at Morning and Evening Prayer. 

THE next thing to be taken notice of is the The rubric after 
rubric that follows the versicles after the Lord's the Lord's 
prayer in the morning service, viz. 

^f Then shall follow three Collects : the first of the Day, which 
shall be the same that is appointed at the Communion; the 
second for Peace ; the third for Grace to live well. And 
the two last Collects shall never alter, but daily be said at 
Morning Prayer throughout all the year, as followeth ; all 

There is much the same rubric in the evening service ; only 
whereas the third collect for the morning is entitled, for grace 
to live well ; the title of that for the evening is, for aid against 
all perils. 

I. The first of these collects, viz. that of the 
day, to be the same that is appointed at the ^ 
communion, will fall under my particular con- 
sideration, when I come to treat of the several Sundays and 
Holy-days, which will naturally lead me to take notice of the 
several collects that belong to them. 

II. The second collect, for peace, both for the 
morning and evening service, are, word for word, Of th e < ^ ect 
translated out of the Sacramentary of St. Gre- 
gory ; each of them being suited to the office it is assigned to. 
In that which we use in the beginning of the day, when we 
are going to engage ourselves in various affairs, and to con- 
verse with the world, we pray for outward peace, and desire 
to be preserved from the injuries, affronts, and wicked de- 

43 A populi collectione, Collectae appellari cceperunt. Alcuinus. 

<3 Sacerdos omnium petitiones compendiosa brevitate colligit. Walafrid. Strabo. 


signs of men. But in that for the evening we ask for inward 
tranquillity, requesting jfor that peace rchich the world cannot 
'five, as springing only from the testimony of a good con- 
science : that so each of us may with David be enabled to say, 
/ will lay me down in peace, and take my rest ; having our 
hearts as easy as our heads, and our sleep sweet and quiet. 

III. The third collects, both at morning and 
01 for Krace Cts evening, are framed out of the Greek euchologion. 
That in the morning service, for grace, is very 
proper to be used in the beginning of the day, when we are 
probably going to be exposed to various dangers and tempta- 
tions. Nor is the other, for aid against all perils, 
. ^ ess seasonable at night ; for being then in dan- 
ger of the terrors of darkness, we by this form 
commend ourselves into the hands of that God, who neither 
slumbers nor sleeps, and with whom darkness and light are 
both alike. 

SECT. XXI. Of the Anthem. 

AFTER the aforesaid collects, as well at morn- 
ing prayer as at evening, the rubric orders, that 
in choirs and places where they sing, here followeth the an- 
them ; the original of which is probably derived 
Sdant?qu"ty. from the Vel 7 first Christians. For Pliny has 
recorded that it was the custom in his time to 
meet upon a fixed day before light, and to sing a hymn, in 
parts or by turns, to Christ, as God :" which expression can 
hardly have any other sense put upon it, than that they sung 
in an ant'tphonical way. Socrates indeed attributes the rise of 
them to St. Ignatius, who, when he had heard the angels in 
heaven singing and answering one another in hymns to God, 
ordered that, in the church of Antioch, psalms of praise should 
be composed and set to music, and sung in parts by the choir 
in the time of divine service ; 45 which, from the manner of 
singing them, were called uvriQutva, antiphons, or anthems, 
i. e. hymns sung in parts, or by course. This practice was 
soon imitated by the whole Church, and has universally ob- 
tained ever since. 

. 2. The reason of its being ordered in this 
. Un * P lace is P artl y perhaps for the relief of the con- 
gregation, who, if they have joined with due fer- 

Plln. Epiit. 1. 10, Ep. 97, p. 281. edit. Ozon. 1703. Socrat. Hut. Eccl. lib. 6, 
cap. 8, p. 313, D. 


vour in the foregoing parts of the office, may now be thought 
to be something weary ; and partly, I suppose, to make a 
division in the service, the former part of it being performed 
in behalf of ourselves, and that which follows being mostly 

. 3. And therefore since it is now grown a , . 
, , * .1 his the proper 

custom, in a great many churches, to sing a psalm place for singing 
in metre in the middle of the service ; I cannot i )salms - 
see why it would not be more proper here, than just after the 
second Lesson, where a hymn is purposely provided by the 
Church to follow it. I have already showed the irregularity of 
singing the hymn itself in metre : and to sing a different psalm 
between the Lesson and the psalm appointed, is no less irregu- 
lar. And therefore certainly this must be the most proper place 
for singing, (if there must be singing before the service is end- 
ed,) since it seems much more timely and conformable to the 
rubric, and moreover does honour to the singing-psalms them- 
selves, by making them supply the place of anthems. 

SECT. XXII. Of the Prayer for the King. 
WE have been hitherto only praying for our- 
selves ; but since we are commanded to pray for Tb th P e r king for 
all men,* 6 we now proceed, in obedience to that 
command, to pray for the whole Church ; and in th.e first 
place for the king, whom, under Christ, we acknowledge to 
be the supreme governor of this part of it to which we belong. 
And since the supreme King of all the world is God, by whom 
all mortal kings reign ; and since his authority sets them up, 
and his power only can defend them ; therefore all mankind, 
as it were by common consent, have agreed to pray to God for 
their rulers. The heathens offered sacrifices, prayers, and 
vows for their welfare : and the Jews (as we may see by the 
Psalms 47 ) always made their prayers for the king a part of 
their public devotion. And all the ancient Fathers, Liturgies, 
and Councils fully evidence, that the same was done daily by 
Christians : and this not only for those that encouraged them, 
but even for such as opposed them, and were enemies to the 
faith. Afterwards indeed, when the emperors became Chris- 
tian, they particularly named them in their offices, with titles 
expressing the dearest affection, and most honourable respect; 
and prayed for them in as loyal and as hearty terms as are in- 

1 Tim. ii. 1,2. Psalm xx. and hcxii 


eluded in the prayer we are now speaking of: which is taken 
almost verbatim out of the Sacramentary of St. Gregory, but 
was not inserted in our Liturgy till the reign of queen Eliza- 
beth ; when our reformers observing that, by the 
oSr fl 8?rVrce e<r Liturgies of king Edward, the queen could not 
be prayed for, but upon those days when either 
the Litany or Communion-office was to be used, they found 
it necessary to add a form, to supply the defect of the daily 

SECT. XXIIL Of the Prayer for the Royal Family. 

The prayer for THERE is as near an alliance between this and 
the royal the former prayer, as between the persons for 

whom they are made. And we may observe that 
the Persian emperor Darius desired the Jewish priests to pray 
not only for the king, but his sons too; 49 and the Romans 
prayed for the heirs of the empire, as well as the emperor 
himself. 49 The primitive Christians prayed also for the im- 
perial family; 8 " and the canons of old Councils both at home 
and abroad enjoin the same. 51 In our own Church 
indeed there was no mention made of the royal 
family till the reign of king James I., because 
after the Reformation no protestant prince had children till 
he came to the throne. But at his accession, this prayer was 
immediately added ; except that the beginning of it, when it 
was first inserted, was, .Almighty God, which hast promised 
to be a father of* thine elect, and of their seed: but this, I 
suppose, being thought to savour a little of Calvinism, was 
altered about the year 1632 or 33, when (Frederic the prince 
elector palatine, the lady Elizabeth his roife, mith their 
princely issue, being left out) these words were changed into, 
Almighty God, the fountain of all goodness. 

SECT. XXIV. Of the Prayer for the Clergy and People. 

The prayer for HAVING thus made our supplications for our 
the clergy and temporal governors, that under them we may 
people- have all those outward blessings which will make 

our lives comfortable here ; we proceed, in the next place, 
to pray for our spiritual guides, that with them we may re- 
ceive all those graces and inward blessings which will make 

Exra vi. 10. Tacit. Annal. 1. 4. " Liturg. 8. Basil. > Excerpt. Egbert, 
Can. 7, Spelm. torn. i. p. 259. Concll. Rheraens. 2, Can. 40, torn. vli. col. 1285, C. 


our souls happy hereafter. We are members of the Church 
as well as of the State, and therefore we must pray for the 
prosperity of both, since they mutually defend and support 
each other. That we might not want a form 
therefore suitable and good, this prayer was add- ^dded 1 
ed in queen Elizabeth's Common Prayer Book, 
out of the Sacramentary of St. Gregory, in conformity to the 
practice of the ancient Church, which always had prayers for 
the clergy and people. 53 

. 2. And because to gather a Church at first 
out of infidels, and then to protect it continually V o ^lone^work- 
from its enemies, is an act of as great power, and est s reat mar - 
a greater miracle of love than to create the world ; 
therefore in the preface of this prayer we may properly ad- 
dress ourselves to God, as to him mho alone tvorketh great 
marvels : though it is not improbable that those words might 
be added with a view to the miraculous descent of the Holy 
Ghost upon the twelve Apostles on the day of Pentecost. 

. 3. By the word curates in this prayer, are 
meant all' that are intrusted with the cure or Cur t a h t ^ ; b( T" ho 
care of souls, whether they be the incumbents 
themselves, who from that cure were anciently called curates ; 
or those whom we now more generally call so, from assisting 
incumbents in their said cure. 

SECT. XXV. Of the Prayer of St. Chrysostom. 
WHERE ancient Liturgies afforded proper pray- 
ers, the compilers of ours rather chose to retain sT'ifhrysostoin 
them than make new ones : and therefore as 
some are taken from the Western offices, so is this from the 
Eastern ; where it is daily used, with very little difference, in 
the Liturgies both of St. Basil and St. Chrysostom ; the last 
of which was the undoubted author of it. It is inserted in- 
deed in the middle of their Liturgies ; but in ours, I think 
more properly, at the conclusion. For it is fit, that, in the 
close of our prayers, we should first reflect on all those great 
and necessary requests we have made, and then not only re- 
new our desires that God may grant them, but also stir up 
our hearts to hope he will. To which end we address our- 
selves in this prayer to the second Person in the glorious 

5 * Synes. Ep. 11, p. 173, B. Excerpt. Egberti, Can. 8, Spelm. torn. i. p. 220. Concil. 
Calchuthens. Can. 10, torn. vi. col. 1816, A. 



Trinity, our blessed Saviour, and remind him of the gracious 
promise he made to us when on earth, that where two or 
three are gathered together in his name, he would be there in 
the midst of them ,- 53 and therefore if we can but prevail with 
him to hear our desires and petitions, we know that the pow- 
er of his intercession with God is so great, that we need not 
doubt but we shall obtain them. But however, since it may 
happen that we may have asked some things which he may 
not think convenient for us ; we do not peremptorily desire 
that he would give us all we have prayed for, but submit our 
prayers to his heavenly will ; and only request that he would 
fulfil our desires and petitions as may be most expedient for 
us : begging nothing positively, but what we are sure we can- 
not be too importunate for, viz. in this world knowledge of 
his truth, and in the world to come life everlasting. This 
we may ask peremptorily, without fear of arrogance or pre- 
sumption ; and yet this is all we really stand in need of. 

. 2. Neither this nor the following benedic- 
W &dded" 1 tory prayer is at the end of either the morning 
or evening service, in any of the old Common 
Prayer Books; which all of them conclude with the third 
collect. But the prayer of St. Chrysostom is at the end of 
the Litany, from the very first book of king Edward ; and 
the benedictory prayer from that of queen Elizabeth ; and 
there also stood the prayers for the king, the royal family, 
for the clergy and people, till the last review. And I suppose, 
though not printed, they were always used, as now, at the 
conclusion of the daily service. For after the third collect, 
the Scotch Liturgy directs, that they shall follow the prayer 
for the king's Majesty, with the rest of the prayers at the end 
of the Litany to the benediction. 

SECT. XX VI. Of 2 Cor. xiii. 14. 

jcorxiii.14 THE whole service being thus finished, the 
minister closes it with that benedictory prayer 
of St. Paul, with which he concludes most of his Epistles : a 
form of blessing which the Holy Spirit seems, by the repeated 
use of it, to have delivered to the Church to be used instead 
of that old Jewish form, with which the priest under the law 
dismissed the congregation.* 4 The reason of its being changed 
was undoubtedly owing tot the new revelation made of the 

Matt XTili. 20. M Numb. vi. 23, &c. 


three Persons in the Godhead. For otherwise the Jews both 
worshipped and blessed in the name of the same God as the 
Christians ; only their devotions had respect chiefly to the 
Unity of the Godhead, whereas ours comprehend also the 
Trinity of Persons. 

. 2. I must not forget to observe, that the form Not 
here used in our daily service is rather sprayer 
than a blessing ; since there is no alteration either of person or 
posture prescribed to the minister, but he is directed to pro- 
nounce it kneeling, and to include himself as well as the people. 



AFTER the order for the morning and evening The si g nification 
prayer in our present Liturgy, as well as in all of the word 
the old ones, stands the confession of our Chris- Lltany - 
tian faith, commonly called the Creed of Atlianasius? which 
hath already been spoken to : and then followeth the Litany 
or general supplication to l)e sung or said after morning pray- 
er, upon Sundays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, and at all 
other times when it shall be commanded by the ordinary. 
The word Litany, as it is explained by our present Liturgy, 
signifies a general supplication ; and so it is used by the most 
ancient heathens, viz. "for an earnest supplication to the gods 
made in time of adverse fortune ; 2 and in the same sense it 
is used in the Christian Church, viz. for a supplication and 
common intercession to God, when his wrath lies heavy upon 
us." 3 Such a kind of supplication was the fifty-first psalm, 
which may be called David's litany. Such was that litany of 
God's appointing in Joel, 4 where, in a general assembly, the 
priests were to weep between the porch and the altar, and to 
say, Spare thy people, O Lord : (in allusion to which place, 

1 The words commonly called the Creed of Athanasius were added at the Restora- 
tion. "* IloXXa 4e Kai OTrti/<5a>v xpvattf AtVai' Airai/evcv. Horn. II. *. *i'Xa>? AiTaue 
TOKrjar MJiTin ovu<pf>aiaaatiau. Hesiod. Theog. s AiTavei'a W ean irapa(t\-if irpot 

eeon, KOI Ueo-i'a ii bpjriv iirn/iepoMei"!"'. Symeon. Thessal. Opusc. de Haeret. 

1 Joel ii. 17. 

M 2 

164 OF THE LITANY. [CHAP. iv. 

our Litany, retaining also the same words, is enjoined, by the 
royal injunctions still in force, 6 to be said or sung in the midst 
why sung in the ^ *^ e church, at a low desk before the chancel 
midst of the door, anciently called the failed stool. 6 ") And 
such was that litany of our Saviour, 7 which he 
thrice repeated with strong crying and tears. 6 

The antiquity of ' 2 ' AtJ . f r the f rm in whlch the y f"" 6 nOW 

litanies in thu made, viz. in short requests by the priests, to 

which the people all answer, it appears to be very 

ancient ; for St. Basil tells us, that litanies were read in the 

church of Neocaesarea, between Gregory Thaumaturgus's time 

and his own. 9 And St. Ambrose hath left a form of litany, 

which bears his name, agreeing in many things with this of 

" ours. For when miraculous gifts began to cease, they wrote 

down several of those forms, which were the original of our 

modern office. 

. 3. About the year 400 they began to be used 
Llt procession *" * n procession, the people walking barefoot, and 
saying them with great devotion ; by which means, 
it is said, several countries were delivered from great calami- 
ties. 10 About the year 600, Gregory the Great, out of all the 
litanies extant, composed that famous sevenfold litany, 11 by 
which Rome was delivered from a grievous mortality ; 12 which 
hath been a pattern to all the Western Churches since ; and 
to which ours comes nearer than that in the present Roman 
Missal, wherein later popes had put in the invocation of saints, 
which our reformers have justly expunged. But here we must 
observe, that litanies were of use before processions, and re- 
mained when they were taken away. For those processional 
litanies having occasioned much scandal, it was decreed "that 
the litanies should for the future only be used within the walls 
of the church ; " 13 and so they are used amongst us to this day. 
whysaidonsun- 4 - In the Common Prayer Book of 1549, 
days, Wednes- (i. e. in the first book of king Edward,) the Litany 
days,and Friday*. wag pj ace( j between the communion office, and 


* Injunctions of Edward VI. and of queen Elizabeth, A. D. 1559, in bishop Sparrow's 
jllect. p. H and 72. See a note of bishop Andrews, in Dr. Nichols's Additional 
..oten, p. 22, col. 1. ' Luke zxii. 44. Heb. v. 7. Basil. Ep. 63, ad Neocaesar. 
10 Viil. Niceph. Hist. 1. H, c. 3, torn. 11. p. 443, A. " It was called Lilania tepti- 
furmit, or the sevenfold litany, because he ordered the Church to make their procession 
in seven classes : vis. first the clergy, then the laymen, next the monks, after the vir- 
gins, then the married women, next the widows, last of all the poor and the children. 
Vide Greg. lib. 11, Ep. 2, and Strabo de Offlc. Eccles. c. 28. " Paul. Diac. 1. 18, et 

Balreus in Vit. Greg. Concil. Coloniens. 


the office for baptism, with this single title, The Letany u and 
Suffrages, and without any rubric either before or after it. 
But at the end of the communion office the first rubric began 
thus : Upon Wednesdays and Fridays the English Litany 
shall be said or sung in all places, after such form as is ap- 
pointed by the King's Majesty's Injunctions : or as it shall be 
otherwise appointed by his Highness. What this form was I 
shall mention presently from the Injunctions themselves : but 
first I must observe, that Wednesdays and Fridays are here only 
mentioned, which were the ancient fasting-days of the primi- 
tive Church: 15 the death of Christ being designed on the 
Wednesday, when he was sold by Judas, and accomplished 
on the Friday, when he died on the cross. 16 As to Sunday, 
I find no direction relating to it ; though I conclude from two 
other rubrics, which dispense with the use of it on some par- 
ticular Sundays, that it was generally used on all the rest. For 
among the notes of explication at the end of that book, the 
two last allow that upon Christmas-day, Easter-day, the As- 
cension-day, Whit-Sunday, and the feast of Trinity, may be 
used any part of holy Scripture, hereafter to be certainly 
limited and appointed instead of the Litany. And that if there 
be a sermon, or for other great cause, the curate by his discre- 
tion may leave out the Litany, the Gloria in Excelsis, the 
Creed, the Homily, and the Exhortation to the Communion. 
But in the review of the Common Prayer in 1552, the Litany 
was placed where it stands at this time, with direction at the 
beginning, that it should be used on Sundays, Wednesdays, 
and Fridays ; and at other times when it shall be commanded 
by the ordinary. And the order for Sunday has continued 
ever since ; I suppose partly because there is then the greatest 
assembly to join in so important a supplication, and partly 
that no day might seem to have a more solemn office than the 
Lord's day. 

.5. The particular time of the day when what time of the 
it is to be said seems now different from what it day it is to be 
was formerly : in king Edward's and queen Eli- 
zabeth's time, it seems it was used as preparatory to the second 
service. For by their Injunctions 17 it was ordered, that im- 
mediately before high mass, or the time of communion of 

14 So the word was spelt in all the old Common Prayer Books. 1& Clem. Alex. 
Strom. 7, c. 744, B. Tertul. de Jejun. c. 2, p. 545, A. Epiphan. adv. Haeres. 1. 3, torn, 
i. p. 910, B. 10 Petrus Alexandrinus, ap. Albaspinseum, 1. i. Obs. 16, p. 35, col. 1, E. 
7 Sparrow's Collections, p. 8, 72. 

166 OP THE LITANY. [CHAP. iv. 

the sacrament, the priests with others of the quire should 
kneel in the midst of the church, and sing or say plainly and 
distinctly the Litany which is set forth in English, with all 
the suffrages following . And even long afterwards it was a 
custom in several churches to toll a bell whilst the Litany was 
reading, to give notice to the people that the communion 
service was coming on. 18 And indeed till the last review in 
1661 the Litany was designed to be a distinct service by itself, 
and to be used some time after the morning prayer was over ; 
as may be gathered from the rubric before the commination 
in all the old Common Prayer Books, which orders, that after 
morning prayer, the people being called together by the ring- 
ing of a bell, and assembled in the church, the English Litany 
shall be said after the accustomed manner. This custom, as 
I am informed, is still observed in some cathedrals and cha* 
pels : 19 though now, for the most part, it is made one office 
with the morning prayer; it being ordered by the rubric 
before the prayer for the king, to be read after the third col- 
lect for grace, instead of the intercession al prayers in the 
daily service. Which order seems to have been formed from 
the rubric before the litany in the Scotch Common Prayer 
Book, which I have transcribed in the margin. 30 And ac- 
cordingly we find that, as the aforementioned rubric before 
the commination office is now altered, both the morning 
prayer and Litany are there supposed to be read at one and 
the same time. 

tf.,. 6. By the fifteenth canon above mentioned, 

une oui 01 every o T i i 

family to attend whenever the Litany is read, every householder 
dwelling within half a mile of the church, is to 
come or send one at tlie least of his household fit to join with 
the minister in prayers. 

. 7. The posture, which the minister is to 
The kneel!" to U8e m 8a yi"g tne Litany, is not prescribed in 
any present rubric, except that, as it is now a 
part of the morning service for the days above mentioned, it is 
included in the rubric at the end of the suffrages after the 
second Lord's prayer, which orders all to kneel in that place, 
after which there is no direction for standing. And the In- 

'" Mi-ylin'.s Antidot. Lincoln, cap. 10, sect. 3, p. 59. " As at Worcester Cathedral 
and Merlon College in Oxford, where morning prayer is read at six or seven, and the 
Litany at ten. *> Here followeth the Litany to be used after the third collect at 
morning prayer, called the collect for grace, upon Sundays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 
and at other times, when it shall be commanded by the Ordinary, and without the 
omission of any part of the other daily service of the Church on those days. 


junctions of king Edward and queen Elizabeth both appoint, 
that the priests, with others of the choir, shall kneel in the 
midst of 'the church, and sing or say plainly and distinctly 
the Litany, which is set forth in English, with all the suf- 
frages following , to the intent the people may hear and an- 
swer, &c. 21 As to the posture of the people, nothing need to 
be said in relation to that, because whenever the priest kneels, 
they are always to do the same. 

8. 8. The singing of this office by laymen, as 

* j i .1 i i j 11 The irregularity 

practised in several cathedrals and colleges, is O f singing the 
certainly very unjustifiable, and deservedly gives Litan y by lay- 
offence to all such as are zealous for regularity 
and decency in divine worship. And therefore (since it is 
plainly a practice against the express rules of our Church, 
crept in partly through the indevout laziness of minor canons 
and others, whose duty it is to perform that solemn office ; 
and partly through the shameful negligence of those who can 
and ought to correct whatever they see amiss in such matters) 
it cannot surely be thought impertinent, if I take hold of this 
opportunity to express my concern at so irreligious a custom. 
And to shew that I am not singular in my complaint, I shall 
here transcribe the words of the learned Dr. Bennet, who 
hath some time since, upon a like occasion, very severely, but 
with a great deal of decency, inveighed against this practice ; 
though I cannot learn that he has yet been so fortunate as to 
obtain much reformation. 

" I think myself obliged (saith he 22 ) to take notice of a 
most scandalous practice, which prevails in many such con- 
gregations, as ought to be fit precedents for the whole kingdom 
to follow. It is this ; that laymen, and very often young boys 
of eighteen or nineteen years of age, are not only permitted, 
but obliged to perform this office, which is one of the most 
solemn parts of divine service, even though many priests and 
deacons are at the same time present.. 

" Those persons upon whom it must be charged, and in 
whose power it is to rectify it, cannot but know that this 
practice is illegal, as well as abominable in itself, and a flat 
contradiction to all primitive order. And one would think, 
when the nation swarms with such as ridicule, oppose, and 
deny the distinction of clergy and laity ; those who possess 

81 See Bishop Sparrow, as in page 165, note 17 . n Upon the Common Prayer, 

page 94. 

168 OF THE LITANY. [CHAP. iv. 

some of the largest and most honourable preferments in the 
Church, should be ashamed to betray her into the hands of 
her professed enemies, and to put arguments into their mouths, 
and declare by their actions that they think any layman what- 
soever as truly authorized to minister in holy things as those 
who are regularly ordained. Besides, with what face can 
those persons blame the dissenting teachers for officiating 
without episcopal ordination, when they themselves do not 
only allow of but require the same thing? " 

SECT. I. Of the Invocation. 

WE have a divine command to call upon God 
' for mercy in the time of trouble; 23 and all the 
litanies I have seen begin with this solemn word, K6ptc iXtriaov, 
Lord have mercy upon us. So that this invocation is the sum 
of the whole Litany, being a particular address for mercy, first 
to each person in the glorious Trinity, and then to them all 
together. The address being urged by two motives, viz. first, 
because we are miserable ; and secondly, because we are 
sinners; upon both which accounts we extremely need mercy, 
why repeated by 2 - The desi g n of the , people's repeating 
the whole con- these whole verses after the mims f er is, that 
every one may first crave to be heard in his own 
words : which when they have obtained, they may leave it to 
the priest to set forth all their needs to Almighty God, pro- 
vided that they declare their assent to every petition as he 
delivers it. 

SECT. II. Of the Deprecations. 

HAVING opened the way by the preceding invo- 
The tu>ns eca cation, we now begin to ask : and because deli- 
verance from evil is the first step to felicity, we 
begin with these deprecations for removing it. Both the 
Eastern and Western Church begin their litanies after the same 
manner, 24 theirs as well as ours being a paraphrase upon that 
petition in the Lord's prayer, deliver us from evil. 

. 2. But because our requests ought to as- 

T1 of them** 1 cen d by degrees ; before we ask for a perfect 

deliverance, we beg the mercy of forbearance. 

For we confess we have sinned rvith our fathers, and that 

therefore God may justly punish us, not only for our own 

James v. IS. * Liturg. S. Chrysos. et S. Basil. Miss, tec. Us. Sarisb. 

SECT, ii.] OF THE LITANY. 169 

sins, but for theirs also, which we have made our own by 
imitation : for which reason we beg of him not to remember, 
or take vengeance of us for them, especially since he has him- 
self so dearly purchased our pardon with his own most 
precious blood. But however if we cannot obtain to be 
wholly spared, but that he may see it good for us to be a 
little under chastisement ; then we beg his correction may be 
short, and soon removed, and that he would not be angry 
with us for ever. 

And the sum of all that we pray against being deliverance 
from the evils of sin and punishment, we begin the next pe- 
tition with two general words which comprehend both : for 
evil and mischief signify wickedness and misery : and as the 
first is caused by the crafts and assaults of the Devil, so the 
second is brought upon us by the just wrath of God here, and 
completed by everlasting damnation hereafter : and therefore 
we desire to be delivered both from sin and the punishment 
of it ; as well from the causes that lead to it, as the conse- 
quences that follow it. 

After we have thus prayed against sin and misery in general, 
we descend regularly to the particulars, reckoning divers 
kinds of the most notorious sins, some of which have their 
seat in the heart or mind, and others in the body. And first 
we begin against those of the heart, where all sins begin, and 
there recount first the sins concerning ourselves : and, se- 
condly, those concerning our neighbours. Of the former sort 
are blindness of heart, (which we place in the front as the 
cause of all the rest,) and pride, vainglory, and hypocrisy, 
which are united together in this deprecation, as vices which 
generally accompany one another. Of the other sort are 
envy, hatred, and malice, and all uncharitableness , in which 
words are comprehended all those sins which we do, or can, 
commit against our neighbour in our hearts. 

From the heart sin spreads further into the life and actions, 
and thither our Litany now pursues it, beginning with that 
which St. Paul reckons first among the works of the flesh, 25 
but which is notwithstanding the boldest and most barefaced 
sin in this lewd age, viz. fornication, which is not be re- 
strained to the defiling of single persons, but comprehends 
under it all acts of uncleanness whatsoever. But though this 
be a deadly sin, yet it is not the only one, and therefore we 

45 Gal. v. 29. 


pray to be delivered from all other deadly sins ; 
De J!?lT l Jfl.,T hat W which we understand not such as are deadly 

" klgulllco. * /> 1 1 1 

by way of distinction, or as they stand in opposi- 
tion to venial sins, (for there are no sins venial in their own 
nature,) but such as are those which David calls presumptu- 
ous, and begs particular preservation from, 26 or those which 
are most heinous and crying above others. For though every 
sin deserves damnation in its own nature, yet we know that 
the infinite goodness of God will not inflict it for every sin. 
But then there are some sins so exceeding great, that they are 
inconsistent even with the gospel-clemency, and immediately 
render a man obnoxious to the wrath of God, and in danger 
of eternal damnation. And these are they which we pray 
against, together with all other sins, which we are apt to fall 
into through the deceits of OUT three great enemies, which we 
renounced in baptism, the world, the flesh, and the Devil. 

When the cause is removed, there are hopes the conse- 
quences may be prevented : and therefore, after we have pe- 
titioned against all sin, we may regularly pray against all those 
judgments with which God generally scourges those who of- 
fend him; whether they are such as fall upon whole na- 
tions and kingdoms, and either come immediately from the 
hand of God, as lightning and tempest, plague, pestilence, 
and famine : or else are inflicted by the hands of wicked 
men, as his instruments, as battle and murder.- or whether 
they are such as fall upon particular persons only, as sudden 
why we pray death; such as happens sometimes by violence, 
against sudden as by stabbing, burning, drowning, or the like ; 
or else on a sudden, and in a moment's time, 
without any warning or apparent cause. And though both 
these kinds of death may sometimes happen to very good 
men, yet if we consider that by such means we may leave our 
relations without comfort, and our affairs unsettled ; and may 
ourselves be deprived of the preparative ordinances for 
death, and have no time to fit our souls for our great ac- 
count ; prudence as well as humility will teach us to pray 
against them. 

Having thus deprecated those evils which might endanger 
our lives, we proceed next to pray against such as would de- 
prive us of our peace and truth : as well those which are 
levelled at the state, as is all sedition, privy conspiracy, and 

** Psalm xix. 13. 

SZCT. ii.] OF THE LITANY. 171 

rebellion as those which portend the ruin of the Church, as 
all false doctrine, heresy, and schism. 21 And then we con- 
clude with the last and worst of God's judgments, which he 
generally inflicts upon those whom neither private nor public 
calamities will reform, viz. hardness of heart, and contempt 
of his word and commandment : for when people amend not 
upon those punishments which are inflicted upon their estates 
and persons, upon the Church and State ; then the patience of 
God is tired out, and he withdraws his grace, and gives them 
up to a reprobate sense, the usual prologue to destruction and 
damnation, from which deplorable state, good Lord deliver us. 

And now to be delivered from all these great and grievous 
evils, is a mercy so very desirable, that it ought to be begged 
by the most importunate kind of supplication imaginable ; and 
such are the two next petitions, which the Latins call Obse- 
crations, in which the Church beseeches our dear Redeemer 
to deliver us from all the evils we have been praying against, 
by the mystery of his holy incarnation, &c., i. e. she lays be- 
fore our Lord all his former mercies to us expressed in his 
incarnation, nativity, circumcision, baptism, and in every 
thing else which he has done and suffered for us ; and offers 
these considerations to move him to grant our requests, and 
to deliver us from those evils. 

And though we are always either under or near some evil, 
for which reason it is never unseasonable to pray for deliver- 
ance; yet there are some particular times when we stand in 
more especial need of the divine help : and they are either 
during our lives, or at our deaths. During our lives we par- 
ticularly want the divine assistance, first in all times of tribu- 
lation, when we are usually tempted to murmuring, impatience, 
sadness, despair, and the like ; and these we pray against now, 
before the evil day comes : not that God would deliver us 
from all such times, which would be an unlawful request ; but 
that he would support us under them whenever he shall 
please to inflict them. The other part of our lives which we 
pray to be delivered in, is all time of our wealth, i. e. of our 
welfare and prosperity, which are rather more dangerous than 
our time of adversity : all kinds of prosperity, especially plenty 

77 Rebellion, tchism.] Both these words were added in the review after the restora- 
tion of king Charles II., to deprecate for the future the like subversion of Church and 
State to what they had then so lately felt. After priry conspiracy in both Common 
Prayer Books of king Edward VI. followed, from the tyranny of the Bishop of Rome, 
and all hit detestable enormities : but this has ever since been omitted. 

172 OF THE LITANY. [CHAP. iv. 

and abundance, being exceedingly apt to increase our pride, 
to inflame our lusts, to multiply our sins, and in a word, to 
make us forget God, and grow careless of our souls. And 
therefore we had need to pray that in all such times God would 
be pleased to deliver us. But whether we spend our days in 
prosperity or adversity, they must all end in death, in the 
hour of which the Devil is always most active, and we least 
able to resist him. Our pains are grievous, and our fears 
many, and the danger great of falling into impatience, de- 
spair, or security : and therefore we constantly pray for de- 
liverance in that important hour, which if God grant us, we 
have but one request more, and that is, that he would also 
deliver us in the day of judgment; which is the last time a 
man is capable of deliverance, since if we be not delivered 
then, we are left to perish eternally. How fervently there- 
fore ought we to pray for ourselves all our life long, as St. 
Paul prayed for Onesiphorus,* 8 that the Lord mould grant 
unto us that we may find mercy of the Lord in that day ! 

SECT. III. Of the Intercessions. 
IP the institution of God be required to make 
this P art f our Litany necessary, we have his 
positive command by St. Paul, to make inter- 
cession for all men , s9 and if the consent of the universal 
Church can add any thing to its esteem, it is evident that this 
kind of prayer is in all the Liturgies in the world, and that 
every one of the petitions we are now going to discourse of are 
taken from the best and oldest litanies extant. All therefore 
that will be necessary here, is to shew the admirable method 
and order of these intercessions, which are so exact, curious, 
and natural, that every degree of men follow in their due 
place ; and, at the same time, so comprehensive, that we can 
think of no sorts of persons but who are enumerated, and for 
whom all those things are asked which all and every of them 
stand in need of. 

. 2. But because it may seem presumptuous for 
d us to pray for others, who are unworthy to pray 
for ourselves, before we begin, we acknowledge 
that we are sinners : but yet, if we are penitent, we know our 
prayers will be acceptable : and therefore in humble confi- 
dence of his mercy, and in obedience to his command, 

2 Tim. I. 18. *> 1 Tim. ii. 1. 

SECT, in.] OF THE LITANY. 173 

We sinners do beseech him to hear us in these our interces- 
sions, which we offer up, first, for the holy Church universal, 
the common mother of all Christians, as thinking ourselves 
more concerned for the good of the whole, than of any par- 
ticular part. After this, we pray for our own Church, to 
which, next the catholic Church, we owe the greatest observ- 
ance and duty ; and therein, in the first place, for the princi- 
pal members of it, in whose welfare the peace of the Church 
chiefly consists : such as is the king, whom, because he is the 
supreme governor of the Church in his dominions, and so the 
greatest security upon earth to the true religion, we pray for 
in the three next petitions, that he may be orthodox, pious, and 
prosperous. 30 And though at present we may be happy under 
him ; yet because his crown doth not render him immortal, 
and the security of the government ordinarily depends upon 
the royal family, we pray in the next place for them, (and 
particularly for the heir apparent,) that they may be supplied 
with all spiritual blessings, and preserved -from all plots and 
dangers. 31 

The Jews and Gentiles always reckoned their chief priests 
to be next in dignity to the king ; M and all ancient Liturgies 
pray for the clergy immediately after the royal family, as be- 
ing the most considerable members of the Christian Church, 
distinguished here into those three apostolical orders of bi- 
shops, priests, and deacons , though in all former Common 
Prayer Books they were called the bishops, pastors, and min- 
isters of the Church, except in the Scotch Liturgy, which for 
pastors had presbyters. 

Next to these follow those who are eminent in the state, viz.. 
the lords of the council and all tlie nobility, who by reason of 
their dignity and trust have need of our particular prayers, and 
were always prayed for in the old Liturgies, by the title of 
tJte whole palace. 

After we have prayed for all the nobility in general, we pray 
for such of the nobility and gentry as are magistrates, or more 
inferior governors of the people, according to the example of 
the primitive Christians, and in obedience to the positive com- 
mand of St. Paul, who enjoins us to pray for all that are in 
authority. 33 

M In king Edward's Liturgies the first petition for the king was only this : Thai it 
may vlease thee to keep Edward the Sixth, thy servant, our king and+goternor. 

31 This petition was not added till king James the First's time, for a reason given in 
the section upon the prayer for the royal family in the daily service. 
Alex, ab Alex. 1. 2, e. 8. ** 1 Tim. ii. 2. 

174 OF THE LITANY. [CHAP. iv. 

After these we pray for all the people, i. e. all the commons 
of the land, who are the most numerous, though the least 
eminent ; and unless they be safe and happy, the governors 
themselves cannot be prosperous, the diseases of the members 
being a trouble to the head also. 

And though we may be allowed to pray for our own nation 
first, yet our prayers must extend to all mankind ; and there- 
fore in the next place we pray for the whole world, in the 
very words of ancient Liturgies, viz. that all nations may have 
unity at home among themselves, peace with one another, and 
concord, i. e. amity, commerce, and leagues. 

Having thus prayed for temporal blessings both for ourselves 
and others, it is time now to look inward, and to consider what 
is wanting for our souls ; and therefore we now proceed to 
pray for spiritual blessings, such as virtue and goodness. And, 
first, we pray that the principles of it may be planted in our 
hearts, viz. the love and dread of God, and then that the prac- 
tice of it may be seen in our lives, by our diligent living after 
his commandments. 

But though we receive grace, yet if we do not improve it, 
we shall be in danger of losing it again ; and therefore having 
in the fomer petition desired that we might become good, we 
subjoin this that we may grow better : begging increase of 
grace, and also that we may use proper means thereunto, such 
as is the meekly hearing God's word, &c. 

From praying for the sanctification and improvement of 
those within the Church, we become solicitous for the conver- 
sion of those that are without it ; being desirous that all should 
be brought into the may of truth mho have erred or are de- 

But though those without the Church are the most miser- 
able, yet those within are not yet so happy as not to need our 
prayers ; some of them standing in need of strength, and 
others of comfort : these blessings therefore we now ask for 
those that want them. 

Having thus considered the souls of men, we go on next to 
such things as concern their bodies, an^l to pray for all the 
afflicted in general ; begging of God to succour all that are in 
danger, by preventing the mischief that is falling upon them ; 
to help those that are in necessity, by giving them those bless- 
ings they want ; and to comfort all that are in tribulation, by 
supporting them under it, and delivering them out of it. 

And because the circumstances of some of these hinder them 

SECT, in.] OF THE LITANY. 175 

from being present to pray for themselves ; we particularly 
remember them, since they more especially stand in need of 
our prayers, such as are all that travel by land or by water, 
and the rest mentioned in that petition. 

There are other afflicted persons who are unable to help 
themselves, such as are fatherless children and widows, who 
are too often destitute of earthly friends ; and such as are de- 
solate of maintenance and lodging ; or are oppressed by the 
false and cruel dealings of wicked and powerful men; and 
therefore these also we particularly recommend to God, and 
beg of him to defend and provide for them. 

And after this large catalogue of sufferers as well in spi- 
ritual as temporal things ; lest any should be passed who are 
already under or in danger of any affliction, we pray next that 
God would have mercy upon all men. 

And then, to shew we have no reserve or exception in our 
charity or devotions, we pray particularly for our enemies, 
persecutors, and slanderers ; who we desire may be partakers 
of all the blessings we have been praying for, and that God 
would moreover forgive them, and turn their hearts. 

After we have thus prayed, first for ourselves and then for 
others, we proceed to pray for them and ourselves together : 
begging, first, whatsoever is necessary for the sustenance of 
our bodies, comprehended here under the fruits of the earth. 

And then, in the next petition, asking for all things neces- 
sary to our souls, in order to bring them to eternal happiness, 
viz. true repentance, forgiveness of all our sins, &c., and 
amendment of life. Which last petition is very proper for a 
conclusion. For we know that if we do not amend our lives, 
all these intercessions will signify nothing, because God will 
not hear impenitent sinners. We therefore earnestly beg re- 
pentance and amendment of life, that so all our preceding re- 
quests may not miscarry. 

And now having presented so many excellent supplications 
to the throne of grace ; if we should conclude them here, and 
leave them abruptly, it would look as if we were not much 
concerned whether they were received or not : and therefore 
the Church has appointed us to pursue them still with vigorous 
importunities, and redoubled entreaties. And for this reason 
we now call upon our Saviour, whom we have all this while 
been praying to, and beseech him by his divinity, as he is the 
Son of God, and consequently abundantly able to help us in 

176 OF THE LITANY. [CHAP. iv. 

all these things, that he would hear us : and then afterwards 
invocate him by his humanity, beseeching him by his suffer- 
ings for us, when he became the Lamb of God, and was sacri- 
ficed to take amay the sins of the world, that he would grant 
us an interest in that peace, which he then made with God, 
and the peace of conscience following thereupon ; and that he 
would have mercy upon us, and take away our sins, so as to 
deliver us from guilt and punishment. And lastly, we beg of 
him, as he is the Lord Christ, our anointed Mediator, to hear us, 
and favour us with a gracious answer to all these intercessions. 
Finally, that our conclusion may be suitable to our begin- 
ning, we close up all with an address to the whole Trinity, 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, for that mercy which we have 
been begging in so many particulars : this one word compre- 
hends them all, and therefore these three sentences are the 
epitome of the whole Litany ; and considering how often and 
how many ways we need mercy, we can never ask it too often. 
But of these see more in the former chapter, sect. xvi. 

SECT. IV. Of the Supplications. 

The original of '^ HK following part of this Litany we call the 
the suppiica- supplications , which were first collected, and put 
into this form, when the barbarous nations first 
began to overrun the empire, about six hundred years after 
Christ : but considering the troubles of the Church militant, 
and the many enemies it always hath in this world, this part 
of the Litany is no less suitable than the former at all times 

. 2. We begin with the Lord's prayer, of 
T prayer. ds which we have spoke before, 34 and need only ob- 
serve here, that the ancients annexed it to every 
office, to shew both their esteem of that, and their mean 
opinion of their own composures, which receive life and value 
from this divine form. 

. 3. After this, we proceed to beg deliver- 
deAinot,&e. ance from our troubles: but because our con- 
sciences presently suggest, that our iniquities 
deserve much greater, and that therefore we cannot expect to 
be delivered, since we suffer so justly ; we are 
^wd^us, 1 *""" P ut in mmc l tli at God doth not deal with us after 
our sins, nor reward us according to our ini- 

3i Chap. ill. sect. vi. page 12S. 

SECT, iv.] OF THE LITANY. 177 

quities. And therefore we turn these very words into sup- 
plication, and thereby clear his justice in punishing us, but 
apply to his mercy to proportion his chastisements according 
to our ability of bearing, and not according to the desert of 
our offences. 

. 4. The way being thus prepared, the priest -j^ prayer 
now begins to pray for the people alone : but lest against persecu- 
they should think their duty at an end, as soon tlon ' 
as the responses are over, he enjoins them to accompany him in 
their hearts still by that ancient form Let us pray : x and 
then proceeds to the prayer against persecution, which is col- 
lected partly out of the Scripture, and partly out of the primi- 
tive forms, and is still to be found entire among the offices of 
the Western Church, with the title, For tribulation of heart. 

It is not concluded with Amen, to shew that ^ ns o Lord 
the same request is continued in another form : arise, &c. for'tny 
and what the priest begged before alone, all the name ' 8 sake- 
people join to ask in the following alternate supplications 
taken from the Psalms. 38 When our enemies are rising against 
us to destroy us, we desire that God will arise and help us, 
not for any worthiness in ourselves, but for his name's sake, 
that he may make his power to be known. 

. 5. Whilst the people are praying thus earn- 
estly, the priest, to quicken their faith by another hweheard, &c. 
divine sentence, 40 commemorates the great trou- 
bles, adversities, and persecutions, which God hath delivered 
his Church from in all ages : and since he is the same Lord, 
and we have the same occasion, this is laid down as the ground 
of our future hope. 

For the wonderful relations which me have lieard with our 
ears, and our fathers have declared unto us, of God's res- 
cuing this particular Church at first from popery, and of his 
delivering and preserving it ever since from faction and su- 
perstition, from so many secret seditions and open rebellions, 
fully assure us that his arm is not shortened. 

And therefore the people again say, O Lord, Ani o Lord 
arise, help us, and deliver us for thine honour; arise, & c . for' 
which is no vain repetition, but a testimony that thine honour ' 

35 Psalm ciii. 10. Let us pray.] In ancient Liturgies these words often served 
as a mark of transition from one sort of prayer to another, viz. from what the Latins 
call preces, to what they term oratianet: ihepreces were those alternate petitions which 
passed conjointly between the priest and people; the orationet were those that were 
said by the priest alone, the people only answering Amen. 37 Miss. Sarisb. 

38 Psalm xliv. 26, and Ixxix, 9. Psalm cvi. 8. * Psalm xliv. 1. 


178 OF THE LITANY. [CHAP. iv. 

they are convinced they did wisely to ask of this God (who 
hath done so great things for his people in all ages) now to 
arise and help ; that so the honour he hath gotten by the 
wonders of his mercy may be renewed and' confirmed by this 
new act of his power and goodness. 

. 6. To this is added the Doxology in imita- 
G p3hw, &*" tion of David, who would often, in the very midst 
of his complaints, out of a firm persuasion that 
God would hear him, suddenly break out into an act of praise. 41 
And thus we, having the same God to pray to, in the midst of 
our mournful supplications, do not only look back on former 
blessings with joy and comfort, but forward also on the mer- 
cies we now pray for : and though we have not yet received 
them, yet we praise him for them beforehand, and doubt not, 
but that, as he was glorified in the beginning for past mercies, 
so he ought to be now for the present, and shall be hereafter 
for future blessings. 

. 7. But though the faithful do firmly believe, 
" 8 that the y sha11 be delivered at the last, and do at 
present rejoice in hopes thereof; yet because it is 
probable their afflictions may be continued for a while for a trial 
of their patience, and the exercise of their other graces ; for 
that reason we continue to pray for support in the mean time, 
and beg of Christ to defend us from our enemies, and to look 
graciously upon our afflictions ; pitifully to behold the sor- 
rows of our hearts, and mercifully to forgive our sins, which 
are the cause of them. 

And this we know he will do, if our prayers be accepted ; 
and therefore we beg of him favourably with mercy to hear 
them, and do beseech him, as he assumed our nature, and 
became* the Son of David, (whereby he took on him our in- 
firmities, and became acquainted with our griefs,) to have 
mercy upon us. 

And because the hearing of our prayers in the time of dis- 
tress is so desirable a mercy, that we cannot ask it too fer- 
vently nor too often ; we therefore redouble our cries, and 
beg of him as he is Christ, our anointed Lord and Saviour, 
that he would vouchsafe to hear us now, and whenever we 
cry to him for relief in our troubles. And, to shew we rely 
on no other helper, we conclude these supplications with Da- 
vid's words in a like case, 42 Lord, let thy mercy be shewed 

41 Pulm vi. 8, and xxii. 22, &c. Psalm xxxiii. 21. 

iECT. v.] OF THE LITANY. 179 

upon us, as roe do put our trust in thee. To him, and to him 
only, we have applied ourselves ; and as we have no other 
hope but in him, so we may expect that this hope shall be ful- 
filled, and that we shall certainly be delivered in his due time. 
. 8. The whole congregation having thus ad- The prayer for 
dressed the Son ; the priest now calls upon us to sanctifying out 
make our application to the Father (who knows tr 
as well what we suffer as what we can bear) in a most fervent 
form of address, composed at first by St. Gregory above one 
thousand one hundred years ago, 43 but afterwards corrupted 
by the Romish Church, by the addition of the intercession of 
saints, 41 which our reformers have left out, not only restoring, 
but improving the form. 

SECT. V. Of the Prayer of St. Chrysostom, and 

2 Cor. xiii. 14. 
THE Litany, as I have already observed, was 

* i j- J i_ -j. if j j Tne prayer of 

formerly a distinct service by itself, and was used saint chrysos- 
generally after morning prayer was over; and torn, and 2 Cor. 
then these two final prayers belonged particu- 
larly to this service. But it being now used almost every 
where with the morning prayer, these latter collects being 
omitted there (after some occasional prayers, which shall be 
spoken of next) come in here ; and how fit they are for this 
place may be seen by what is said of them already. 



SECT. I. Of the six first Occasional Prayers. 

THE usual calamities which afflict the world 
are so exactly enumerated in the preceding Li- casfonS Prayers! 
tany, and the common necessities of mankind so 
orderly set down there ; that there seems to be no need of 
any additional prayers to complete so perfect an office. But 
yet because the variety of the particulars allows them but a 
bare mention in that comprehensive form ; the Church hath 
thought good to enlarge our petitions in some instances, be- 

43 Sacram. S. Greg. torn. ii. col. 1535, B. M Miss. Sarisb. 

N 2 


cause there are some evils so universal and grievous, that it is 
necessary they should be deprecated with a peculiar impor- 
tunity ; and some mercies so exceeding needful at some times, 
that it is not satisfactory enough to include our desires of them 
among our general requests ; but very requisite that we should 
more solemnly petition for them in forms proper to the seve- 
ral occasions. Thus it seems to have been among the Jews : 
for that famous prayer which Solomon made at the dedication 
of the temple, 45 supposes that special prayers would be made 
there in times of war, drought, pestilence, and famine. And 
the light of nature taught the Gentiles, on such extraordinary 
occasions, to make extraordinary addresses to their gods.* 6 
Nor are Christians to be thought less mindful of their own 
necessities. The Greek Church hath full and proper offices 
for times of drought and famine, of war and tumults, of pes- 
tilence and mortality, and upon occasion of earthquakes also, 
a judgment very frequent there, but more seldom in this part 
of the world. In the Western Missals there is a Collect, and 
an Epistle and Gospel, with some responses upon every one 
of these subjects, seldom indeed agreeing with any of our 
forms, which are the shortest of all ; being not designed for a 
complete office, but appointed to be joined to the Litany, or 
Morning and Evening Prayer, every day while the occasion 
requires it; that so, according to the laws of Charles the 
Great, " in times of famine, plague, and war, the mercy of 
God may be immediately implored, without staying for the 
king's edict." 47 

. 2. The two first of these prayers, viz. those 

When first added. /. 3 . , ,. ,. . ., 

for rain and for fair weather, are placed after the 
six collects at the end of the communion office, in the first book 
of king Edward VI. The other four were added afterwards 
to his second book, in which they were all six placed, as now, 
at the end of the Litany. But in the old Common Prayer 
Book of queen Elizabeth and king James I., the second of the 
prayers in the time of dearth and famine was omitted, and 
not inserted again till the restoration of king Charles II. 

SECT. II. Of the Prayers in the Ember- Weeks. 

The Prayen in THE ordination of ministers is a matter of so 

the Ember- great concern to all degrees of men, that it has 

ever been done with great solemnity : and by 

"1 King* vill. 33, 35, 37. Lmctant. Inst.l. !, c. 1, p. 1J5. Capitular, lib. I.e. 118. 


the thirty-first canon of the Church it is appointed, That no 
deacons and ministers be made and ordained, but only upon 
the Sundays immediately 'folio wing jejuniaquatuor temporum, 
commonly called Ember- Weeks. And since the whole nation 
is obliged, at these times, to extraordinary prayer and fasting ; 
the Church hath provided two forms upon the occasion, of 
which the first is most proper to be used before the candidates 
have passed their examination, and the other afterwards. 
They were both added to our Common Prayer 
Book at the last review ; though the second oc- 
curs in the Scotch Liturgy, just before the prayer of St. Chry- 
sostom, at the end of the Litany. 

As to the original, antiquity, and reason of these four em- 
ber-fasts, and the fixing the ordination of ministers at those 
times, I shall take occasion to speak hereafter ; and shall only 
observe further in this place, that it is a mistake in those who 
imagine that these prayers are only to be used upon the three 
ember-days, i. e. upon the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday 
in every ember-week ; the rubric expressing as plain as words 
can do, that one of them is to be said every day in the ember- 
weeks, i. e. beginning (as it is expressed in the Scotch Litur- 
gy) on the Sunday before tlie day of ordination. 

SECT. III. Of the Prayer that may be said after any of the former. 
THIS prayer was first added in queen Eliza- 

1,1, /-, J T> TI J.LI. j Wbenfirstadded. 

beth s Common Prayer Book, and not by order 
of king James I., as Dr. Nichols affirms. When it was first 
inserted, it was placed just after the prayer in the time of any 
common plague or sickness, (that being then the last of the 
prayers upon particular occasions,) but at the review after the 
Restoration, the two prayers for the ember- weeks were inserted 
just after that, and the collect we are speaking of ordered to 
be placed immediately after those prayers. The printers indeed 
set it in the place where it now usually stands, viz. between 
the prayers for all conditions of men and the general thanks- 
giving , but the commissioners obliged them to strike it out, 
and print a new leaf, wherein it should stand just before the 
prayer for the parliament. But notwithstanding 

ii 11 ii V 11 .1 j Wrong placed in 

this, in all the following impressions, this order a ii the editions 
was again neglected, and the prayer that we are f the common 

ni 11 j-,- r J Prayer. 

speaking ot has, in all editions ever since, been 

continued in the same place, viz. just after the prayer for all 


conditions of men. But as no edition of the Common Prayer 
is authorized by act of parliament, but such as is exactly con- 
formable to the Sealed Books ; 1B we cannot justify ourselves 
in using it after that prayer, since the Sealed Books assign it 
a quite different place. 

SECT. IV. Of the Prayer for the High Court of Parliament. 

The prayer for THOUGH the ancient monarchs of this king- 
the high court of dom, Saxons and Normans, coming in by con 
parliament. quest, governed according to their own will at 
first ; yet in after times they chose themselves a great coun- 
cil of their bishops and barons, and at last freely condescend- 
ed to let the people choose persons to represent them : so 
that we have now had parliaments for above four hundred 
years, consisting of bishops and barons to represent the clergy 
and nobility, and of knights and burgesses to represent the 
commons. But these being never summoned but when the 
king or queen desires their advice, de arduis regni negotiis, 
and they having at such times great affairs under their debate, 
and happy opportunities to do both their prince and country 
service ; it is fit they should have the people's prayers for 
their success. And accordingly we find not only that the 
primitive Christians prayed for the Roman senate, 49 but that 
even the Gentiles offered sacrifices in behalf of their public 
councils, which were always held in some sacred place. 40 In 
conformity therefore to so ancient and universal a practice, this 
prayer for our own parliament was added at the last review. 

SECT. V. Of the Prayer for all Conditions of Men. 

BEFORE the addition of this prayer, which was 
made but at the | ast review, the Church had no 
general intercession for all conditions of men, 
except on those days upon which the Litany was appointed. 
For which reason this collect was then drawn up, to supply 
the want of that office upon ordinary days ; and therefore it is 
ordered by the rubric to be used at such times, when the 
Litany is not appointed to be said: consonant to which it is 
whether to be now * believe, a universal practice, and a very 
used in the after- reasonable one, I think, to read this prayer every 
evening, as well as on such mornings as the Li- 

*' To understand what is meant by the Sealed Books, ice a clause toward the end of 
the Act of Uniformity. Tertull. Apologet. Al. ab Alex. Gen. Dier. 1. 4, c. 
11. Aul. Cell. 1. U,c. 7. 


tany is not said : though Dr. Bisse informs us, 51 that " bishop 
Gunning, the supposed author of it, in the college whereof he 
was head, suffered it not to be read in the afternoon, because 
the Litany was never read then, the place of which it was sup- 
posed to supply." I know this form has been generally 
ascribed to bishop Sanderson : but the above-mentioned gen- 
tleman assures me, that it is a tradition at St. John's in 
Cambridge, that bishop Gunning, who was for some time 
master there, was the author, and that in his time it was the 
practice of the college not to read it in the afternoon. And 
I have heard elsewhere, that it was originally drawn up much 
longer than it is now, and that the throwing out a great part 
of it, which consisted of petitions for the king, the royal 
family, clergy, &c., who are prayed for in the other collects, 
was the occasion why the word finally comes in so soon in 
so short a prayer. It is not improbable, that the bishop 
might have designed to comprehend all the intercessional col- 
lects in one : but that the others who were commissioned for 
the same affair, might think it better to retain the old forms, 
and so only to take as much of bishop Gunning's as was not 
comprehended in the rest. 

. 2. There being a particular clause pro- 
vided in this prayer, to be said when any desire ^"visitation' 
the prayers of the congregation, it is needless as office not to be 

,f y . / , V 9 ' used here. 

well as irregular to use any collects out or the 
Visitation Office upon these occasions ; as some are accustom- 
ed to do, without observing the impropriety they are guilty of 
in using those forms in the public congregations, which are 
drawn up to be used in private, and run in terms that suppose 
the sick person to be present. 

SECT. VI. Of the Thanksgivings. 

PEAISE is one of the most essential parts of 
God's worship, by which not only all the Christian ofthlnlsgivS^. 
world, but the Jews and Gentiles also paid their 
homage to the Divine Majesty ; as might be shewed by innu- 
merable testimonieo : and indeed considering how many 
blessings we daily receive from God, and that he expects no- 
thing else from us in return but the easy tribute of love and 
gratitude, (a duty that no one can want leisure or ability to 
perform,) it is certain no excuse can be made for the omission 

" Beauty of Holiness in the Common Prayer, p. 97, in the notes. 


of it. It is pleasant in the performance, 52 and profitable in 
the event ; for it engages our great Benefactor to continue 
the mercies we have, and as well inclines him to give, as fits 
us to receive more. 83 

These forms of ^' Therefore for the performance of this 
thanksgiving, duty the reverend compilers of our Liturgy had 
appointed the Hallelujah, the Gloria Patri, and 
the daily psalms and hymns. But because some thought that 
we did not praise God so particularly as we ought to have 
done upon extraordinary occasions, some particular thanks- 
givings upon deliverance from drought, rain, famine, mar, 
tumults, and pestilence, were added in the time of king James 
I. And to give more satisfaction still, by removing all shadows 
of defect from our Liturgy, there was one general thanks- 
giving added to the last review for daily use, drawn up (as it 
is said) by bishop Sanderson, and so admirably composed, 
that it is fit to be said by all men who would give God thanks 
for common blessings, and yet peculiarly provided with a proper 
clause for those who, having received some eminent personal 
mercy, desire to offer up their public praise : a duty which 
none, that have had the prayers of the Church, should ever 
omit after their recovery, lest they incur the reprehension 
given by our Saviour to the ungrateful lepers recorded in the 
Gospel, Were there not ten cleansed ? but where are the nine ? u 





THE Collects, Epistles, and Gospels, to be used (at the 
celebration of the Lord's Supper, and Holy Communion, 
as it was said in all the old Common Prayer Books) through- 
out the year, standing next in order in the Common Prayer 
Book, come now to be treated of: but because they are sel- 
dom used but upon Sundays and Holy-days, it is necessary 

* Pulm cxlvil. 1. Psalm UriL 5, 6, 7. M Luke xril. 17. 


something should be premised concerning the reasons and 
original of the more solemn observation of those days in ge- 
neral. And first, 

I. Of Sundays in general. 

ONE day in seven seems from the very beginning . 

i * -i i /~iii i IT one day m se - 

to have been sanctified by God, 1 and commanded ven, why kept 

to be set apart for the exercise of religious duties. holy> 
All the mysteries of it perhaps are beyond our comprehension : 
but to be sure one design of it was that men, by thus sancti- 
fying the seventh day, after they had spent six in labour, 
might shew themselves to be worshippers of that God only, 
who rested the seventh day, after he had finished the heavens 
and the earth in six. 

. 2. The reasons why the Jews were com- Saturday> why 
manded to observe the Seventh-day, or Satur- the Jewish sab- 
day, in particular for their Sabbath, were pecu- bath- 
liar and proper to themselves : it was on this day God had 
delivered them from their Egyptian bondage, and over- 
whelmed Pharaoh and his host in the Bed Sea : so that no 
day could be more properly set apart to celebrate the mercies 
and goodness of God, than that, on which he himself chose to 
confer upon them the greatest blessing they enjoyed. 

. 3. But the deliverance of Israel out of Egypt Sunday> why 
by the ministry of Moses, was only intended for observed by the 
a type and pledge of a spiritual deliverance which C1 
was to come by Christ : their Canaan also was no more than 
a type of that heavenly Canaan, which the redeemed by Christ 
do look for. Since therefore the shadow is made void by the 
coming of the substance, the relation is changed ; and God is 
no more to be worshipped and believed in, as a God foreshew- 
ing and assuring by types, but as a God who hath performed 
the substance of what he promised. The Christians indeed, 
as well as the Jews, are to observe the moral equity of the 
fourth commandment, and, after six days spent in their own 
works, are to sanctify the seventh : but in the designation of 
the particular day, they may and ought to differ. For if the 
Jews were to sanctify the seventh day, only because they had 
on that day a temporal deliverance as a pledge of a spiritual 
one ; the Christians surely have much greater reasons to sanc- 
tify the first, since on that very day God redeemed us from 

> Genesis ii. 3. 


this spiritual thraldom, by raising Jesus Christ our Lord from 
the dead, and begetting us, instead of an earthly Canaan, to 
an inJteritance incorruptible in the heavens. And accord- 
ingly we have the concurrent testimonies both of Scripture* 
and antiquity, 3 that the first day of the week, or Sunday, 
hath ever been the stated and solemn time of the Christians 
meeting for their public worship and service. 

. 4. In the East indeed, where the Gospel 
Md U h^observ- chiefly prevailed among the Jews, who retained 
ed by the Eastern a great reverence for the Mosaic rites, the Church 
thought fit to indulge the humour of the Judaiz- 
ing Christians so far as to observe the Saturday as a festival 
day of devotions, and thereon to meet for the exercise of re- 
ligious duties: as is plain from several passages of the ancients. 4 
But however, to prevent giving any offence to others, they 
openly declared, that they observed it in a Christian way, and 
not as a Jewish Sabbath. 5 And this custom was so far from 
being universal, that at the same time all over the West, ex- 
cept at Milan in Italy, 6 Saturday was kept as a fast, 7 (as being 
the day on which our Lord lay dead in the grave,) and is still, 
for the same reason, appointed for one of the fast-days in the 
ember-weeks by the Church of England ; which, in imitation 
both of the Eastern and Western Churches, always reserves 
to the Sunday the more solemn acts of public worship and 

ILOfour Saviour's Holy-days in general. 

Our Saviour's ^ UT besides the weekly return of Sunday, 
Holy-days in (whereon we celebrate God's goodness and mer- 
cies set forth in our creation and redemption in 
general,) the Church hath set apart some days yearly for the 
more particular remembrance of some special acts and pas- 
sages of our Lord in the redemption of mankind ; such as are 
his incarnation and nativity, circumcision, manifestation to the 
Gentiles, presentation in the temple ; his fasting, passion, re- 
surrection, and ascension ; the sending oftlie Holy Ghost, and 

* Acts it. 1. xz. 7. 1 Cor. xvi. 2. Rev. i. 10. S. Hannah. . 15. Ignat. ad Mag- 
net. {. 9, p. 23. Just Mart. Apol. 1, c. 89, p. 132. Ten. de Coron. Mil. cap. 3, p. 102, 
A. Plin. 1. 10, Eplst. 97. Orig. in Exod. xv. Horn. 7, torn. i. p. 49, F. et alibi. 

4 Athana*. Homil. de Sement. torn. ii. p. 60, A. Socrat. Hist. Eccl. 1. 6, c. 8, p. 312, 
D. Concil. Laod. Can. 16, 51, t. i. col. 1500, B. et 1505, B. * Athanas. ut supra. 

Concil. Laod. Can. 29, torn. i. col. 1501, C. Paulin. in Vita Amhr. ~ Innocent!! 
primi Epist. ad Decent. Eugubin. c. 4. Concil. torn. ii. col. 1246, D. Concil. Klib. 
Can. 26, torn. i. col. 973, D: 


the manifestation of the sacred Trinity. That the observation 
of such days is requisite, is evident from the practice both of 
Jews and Gentiles : nature taught the one, 8 and God the other, 
that the celebration of solemn festivals was a part of the public 
exercise of religion. Besides the feasts of the passover, of 
weeks, and of tabernacles, which were all of divine appoint- 
ment, the Jews celebrated some of their own institution, viz. 
the feast ofpurim 9 and the dedication of the temple, 10 the lat- 
ter of which even our blessed Saviour himself honoured with 
his presence. 11 

. 2. But these festivals being instituted in Christians not to 
remembrance of some signal mercies granted in observe Jewish 
particular to the Jews ; the Christians, who were feasts - 
chiefly converted from the heathen world, were no more 
obliged to observe them, than they were concerned in the 
mercies thereon commemorated. And this is the reason that 
when the Judaizing Christians would have imposed upon the 
Galatians the observation of the Jewish festivals, as necessary 
to salvation ; St. Paul looked upon it as a thing so criminal, 
that he was afraid the labour he had bestowed upon them to 
set them at liberty in the freedom of the Gospel had been in 
vain: 12 not that he thought the observation of festivals was a 
thing in itself unlawful, but because they thought themselves 
still obliged by the law to observe those days and times, 
which, being only shadows of things to come, were made 
void by the coming of the substance. 

. 3. As to the celebration of Christian festi- 
vals, they thought themselves as much obliged vais^how eaSy 
to observe them as the Jews were to observe observed in the 
theirs. They had received greater benefits, and 
therefore it would have been the highest degree of ingratitude 
to have been less zealous in commemorating them. And ac- 
cordingly we find that in the very infancy of Christianity some 
certain days were yearly set apart, to commemorate the re- 
surrection and ascension of Christ, the coming of the Holy 
Ghost, &c., and to glorify God by an humble and grateful ac- 
knowledgment of these mercies granted to them at those 
times. Which laudable and religious custom so soon prevailed 
over the universal Church, that in five hundred years after 
our Saviour, we meet with them distinguished by the same 

Plat, de Legibus, lib. 2, torn. ii. p. 653, D. ab Hen. Steph. Paris. 1578. 9 Esther 
ix. 1 1 Maccab. ir. 59. John x. 22. u Gal. iv. 10, 11. 


names we now call them by; such as Epiphany, Ascension- 
day, IPhit- Sunday, &c., and appointed to be observed on those 
days on which the Church of England now observes them. 13 

III. Of Saints-days in general. 

BUT besides the more solemn festivals, where- 
observetPb^the on they were wont to celebrate the mysteries of 
uans itive hrU l ^ e ' r redemption, tne primitive Christians had 
their memoriae martyrum, or certain days set 
apart yearly in commemoration of the great heroes of the 
Christian religion, the blessed Apostles and martyrs, who had 
attested the truth of these mysteries with their blood : at 
whose graves they constantly met once a year, to celebrate 
their virtues, and to bless God for their exemplary lives and 
glorious deaths ; as well to the intent that others might be en- 
couraged to the same patience and fortitude, as also that vir- 
tue, even in this world, might not wholly lose its reward : a 
practice doubtless very ancient, and probably founded upon 
that exhortation to the Hebrews, to remember those nlio had 
had the rule over them, and roho had spoken unto them the 
word of God, and had sealed it with their blood. " In which 
place the author of that Epistle is thought chiefly to hint at 
the martyrdom of St. James, the first bishop of Jerusalem, 
who, not long before, had laid down his life for the testimony 
of Jesus. And we find that those who were eyewitnesses of 
the sufferings of St. Ignatius, published the day of his mar- 
tyrdom, that the Church of Antioch might meet together at 
that time to celebrate the memory of such a valiant combatant 
and martyr of Christ. 15 After this we read of the Church of 
Smyrna's giving an account of St. Polycarp's martyrdom, 
(which was A. D. 147, 16 ) and of the place where they had en- 
tombed his bones, and withal professing that they would as- 
semble in that place, and celebrate the birthday of his mar- 
tyrdom with joy and gladness. 17 (Where we may observe, 
by the way, that the days of the martyrs' deaths were called 
their birthdays ; because they looked upon those as the dayg 
of their nativity, whereon they were freed from the pains and 
sorrows of a troublesome world, and born again to the joys 
and happiness of an endless life.) These solemnities, as we 

11 Conit. Apost. 1. 5, . IS. 1. 8. c. 33. " Heb. xiii. 7. Act. Mart. Ipnat. 
J. 7, p. 52. ' Pearson. Diuertat. Chronologic, part. 2, a cap. 14 ad 20. " Ec- 

clei. Stnjrrn. Epist. de Mart. 8. Polycarp. . 18, p. 73, et Euaeb. Histor. Eccl. 1. 4, c. IS, 
p. 135, A. B. 


learn from Tertullian, 18 were yearly celebrated, and were 
afterwards observed with so much care and strictness, that it 
was thought profaneness to be absent from the Christian as- 
semblies upon those occasions. 19 

IV. Of the Festivals observed by the Church of England. 

THE following ages were as forward as those 
we have already spoken of, in celebrating the the'churchof 
festivals of the martyrs and holy men of their England ob- 
time. Insomuch that at the last the observation 
of holy-days became both superstitious and troublesome ; a 
number-of dead men's names, not over-eminent in their lives 
either for sense or morals, crowding the calendar, and jostling 
out the festivals of the first saints and martyrs. But at the 
reformation of the Church, all these modern martyrs were 
thrown aside, and no festivals retained in the calendar as days 
of obligation, but such as were dedicated to the honour of 
Christ, &c., or to the memory of those that were famous in 
the Gospels. Such as were, in the first place, the twelve 
Apostles, who being constant attendants on our Lord, and ad- 
vanced by him to that high order, have each of them a day 
assigned to their memory. St. John the Baptist and St. Ste- 
phen have the same honour done to them ; the first because 
he was Christ's forerunner ; the other upon account of his 
being the first martyr. St. Paul and St. Barnabas* are com- 

w De Coron. Mil. c. 3, p. 102, A. w Euseb. de Vit. Const. 1. 4, c. 23, p. 536, C. 
Basil. Ep. 336, torn. iii. p. 228, E. 

* St. Paul and St. Barnabas were neither of them inserted in the table 
of holy-days prefixed to the calendar, till the Scotch Liturgy was compiled, |[' Barnabas 
from whence they were taken into our own at the last review ; nor were why not for- 
they reckoned up among the days that were appointed by the act, in the m 'l'y , i ? ' he 
fifth and sixth year of king Edward VI., to be observed as holy-days ; JJ;^ 
though it is there expressly enacted, that no other day but what is therein 
mentioned shall be kept, or commanded to be kept, holy. However, the names of each 
of them were inserted in the calendar itself, and proper services were appointed for 
them in all the Common Prayer Books that have been since the Reformation. And 
in the first book of king Edward they are both red-letter holy-days : though in the 
second book (in which the other holy-days are also printed in red letters) the Conversion 
of St. Paul is put down in black, and St. Barnabas is omitted. But this last seems to 
have been done through the carelessness of the printer, and not through design ; proper 
second Lessons being added in the calendar against the day. The reason of their being 
left out of the table of holy-days, was, because if they fell upon any week day, they 
were not to be observed as days of obligation, or by ceasing from labour, nor to be bid 
in the church. Their proper offices might be used, so they were not used solemnly, nor 
by ringing to the same, after the manner used on high-holy-days. The reason why 
these were not high-holy-days, I suppose, was, because the Conversion of St. Paul did 
always, and St. Barnabas did often, fall in term-time ; during which time and the time 
)f harvest, i. e. from the first of July to the twenty -ninth of September, it was ordained 
n convocation by the authority of king Henry VIII. in 1536, that no days should be 
)bserved as holy-days, except the feasts of the Apostles, of our blessed Lady, and St. 
Jeorge, and such feasts as the king's judges did not use to sit in judgment in West- 
minster-hall. 21 The days in the terms in which the judges did not use to sit were the 
Chap. IIL " Seo Sparrow's Collect, p. 167, 108, and Hej-lin'i Miccllaneou3 Tracts, p. IT. 


memorated upon account of their extraordinary call : St. 
Mark and St. Luke, for the service they did Christianity by 
their Gospels ; the Holy Innocents, because they are the first 
that suffered upon our Saviour's account, as also for the 
greater solemnity of Christmas, the birth of Christ being the 
occasion of their death. The memory of all other pious per- 
sons is celebrated together upon the festival of All-Saints : and 
that the people may know what benefits Christians receive by 
the ministry of angels, the feast of St. Michael and all Angels 
is for that reason solemnly observed in the Church. 

. 2. Designing to treat in this chapter of all 
serves them! these days separately, in the order that they lie 
in the Common Prayer Book, I shall say nothing 
further of them in this place ; but only shall observe in 
general, that they were constantly observed in the Church of 
England, from the time of the Reformation till the late rebel- 
lion, when it could not be expected that any thing that carried 
an air of religion or antiquity could bear up against such an 
irresistible inundation of impiety and confusion. But at the 
Restoration our holy-days were again revived, together with 
our ancient Liturgy, which appoints proper Collects, Epistles, 
and Gospels for each of them ; and orders the curate to 
declare unto the people, on the Sunday before, what holy-days 
or fasting-days are in the week following to be observed.'"' 
And the preface to the Act of Uniformity intimates it to be 
schismatical to refuse to come to church on those days. And 
by the first of Elizabeth, which is declared by the Uniformity- 
Act to be in full force, all persons, having no lawful or rea- 
sonable excuse to be absent, are obliged to resort to their parish- 
church on holy-days, as well as Sundays, and there to abide or- 
derly and soberly during the time of divine service, upon pain or 
punishment by the censures of the Church, and also upon pain 
of twelve pence for every offence, to be levied by distress. 

. 3. In relation to the concurrence of two 
holy- da y s together, we have no directions either 
in the rubric or elsewhere, which must give 
place, or which of the two services must be used. According 

feast* of the Ascension, of St. John Baptist, of All-Saints, and of the Purification. By 
the feasts of the Apostles I suppose the twelve only were meant . and therefore St. 
Paul and St. Barnabas were excluded. But as they are inserted now in the table of 
holy-days, which, with the whole Liturgy, is confirmed by the Act of Uniformity, they 
are both of them days of equal obligation with the rest. 

** Rubric after the Nicene Creed. 


to what I can gather from the rubrics in the Roman Breviary 
and Missal, (which are very intricate and difficult,) it is the 
custom of that Church, when two holy-days come together, 
that the office for one only be read, and that the office for the 
other be transferred to the next day ; excepting that some 
commemoration of the transferred holy-day be made upon the 
first day, by reading the hymns, verses, &c., which belong to 
the holy-day that is transferred. But our Liturgy has made 
no such provision. For this reason some ministers, when a 
holy-day happens upon a Sunday, take no notice of the holy- 
day, (except that sometimes they are forced to use the second 
Lesson for such holy-day, there being a gap in the column of 
second Lessons in the calendar,) but use the service appointed 
for the Sunday ; alleging that the holy-day, which is of human 
institution, should give way to the Sunday, which is allowed to 
be of divine. But this is an argument which I think not 
satisfactory : for though the observation of Sunday be of di- 
vine institution, yet the service we use on it is of human ap- 
pointment. Nor is there any thing in the services appointed 
to be used on the ordinary Sundays, that is more peculiar to, 
or tends to the greater solemnity of the Sunday, than any of 
the services appointed for the holy-days. What slight there- 
fore do we shew to our Lord's institution, if when we meet on 
the day that he has set apart for the worship of himself, we 
particularly praise him for the eminent virtues that shined 
forth in some saint, whose memory that day happens to bring 
to our mind ? Such praises are so agreeable to the duty of the 
day, that I cannot but esteem the general practice to be pre- 
ferable, which is, to make the lesser holy-day give way to the 
greater ; as an ordinary Sunday, for instance, to a saint's day ; 
a saint's day to one of our Lord's festivals ; and a lesser fes- 
tival of our Lord to a greater : except that some, if the first 
Lesson for the holy-day be out of the Apocrypha, will join 
the first Lesson of the Sunday to the holy-day service : as 
observing that the Church, by always appointing canonical 
Scripture upon Sundays, seems to countenance their use of a. 
canonical Lesson even upon a holy-day, that has a proper one 
appointed out of the Apocrypha, if that holy-day shall happen 
upon a Sunday. But what if the Annunciation should happen 
in Passion-week; or either that or St. Mark upon Easter- 
Monday or Tuesday ? or what if St. Barnabas should fall upon 
Whit-Monday or Tuesday? or what if St. Andrew and Advent- 
Sunday both come together ? In any of these concurrences I 


do not doubt but the service would be differently performed 
in different Churches. And therefore I take this to be a case 
in which the bishops ought to be consulted, they having a 
power vested in them to appease all diversity, (if any arise,) 
and to resolve all doubt concerning the manner how to under- 
stand, do, and execute the things contained in the Book of 
Common Prayer.* 3 

V. Of the Vigils or Eve. 

IN the primitive times it was the custom to 
^called 7 * P a8S g reat P art f tne night that preceded certain 
holy-days in religious exercises and devotion ; 
and this even in those places which were set apart for the 
public worship of God. And these exercises, from their be- 
ing performed in the night-time, came to be called vigiUce, 
vigils or watchings. 

. 2. As to the original of this practice, some 
The th1m nal f are inclined to found it upon the several texts of 
Scripture literally understood, where watching is 
enjoined as well as prayer ; particularly upon the conclusion 
our Saviour draws from the parable of the ten virgins : Watch 
therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour mherem 
the Son of man cometh. u But others, with greater probabi- 
lity, have imputed the rise of these night-watches to the ne- 
cessity which Christians were under of meeting in the night, 
and before day, for the exercise of their public devotions, by 
reason of the malice and persecution of their enemies, who 
endeavoured the destruction of all that appeared to be Chris- 
tians. 25 And when this first occasion ceased, by the Christians 
having liberty given them to perform their devotions in a more 
public manner, they still continued these night-watches before 
certain festivals, in order to prepare their minds for a due 
observation of the ensuing solemnity. 28 But afterwards, when 
these night-meetings came to be so far abused, that no care 
could prevent several disorders and irregularities, the Church 
thought fit to abolish them : so that the nightly watchings 
were laid aside, and the fasts only retained, but still keeping 
the former name of vigils. 27 

** See the preface concerning the service of the Church. f * Matt. xxv. 13. 

* See John xx. 19. Acts xii. 12, and xx. 7. Tertull. de Coron. c. S. Plin. Lib. 10. 
Ep. 97. Tert. ad Uxor. lib. 2. Euseb. de Vit. Const, lib. 4. Hieron. ad Ripar. 
adv. Vipilantium. " It seems the vigil upon All-hallows day at night was kept by 
watching, and ringing of bells all night long, till the year 1545, when king Henry VIII. 
wrote to Cranmer to abolUh it. Collier's History, rol. li. p. 205. 


. 3. The festivals that have these vigils as- 
signed to them by the Church of England 29 are, 
the Nativity of our Lord, the Purification of the 
blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of the blessed Virgin, 
Easter-day, Ascension-day, Pentecost, St. Matthias, St. John 
Baptist, St. Peter, St. James, St. Bartholomew, St. Matthew, 
St. Simon and St. Jude, St. Andrew, St. Thomas, and All- 
Saints. The reason why the other holy-days have 
no vigils before them, is, because they generally Whi * d 1 ^ y not ' 
happen either between Christmas and the Purifi- 
cation or between Easter and Whitsuntide ; which were always 
esteemed such seasons of joy, that the Church did not think 
fit to intermingle them with any days of fasting and humilia- 
tion. They that fall between Christmas and the Purification, 
are the feasts of St. Stephen, St. John the Evangelist, the 
Holy Innocents, the Circumcision, and the Conversion of St. 
Paul. 29 The others that may happen between Easter and 
Whitsuntide, are St. Mark, St. Philip and St. James, and St. 
Barnabas. It is true, indeed, the festival of our Lord's as- 
cension, which is always ten days before Whit-Sunday, has a 
vigil before it : but it may be worth inquiring, whether there 
was any vigil prefixed to it before the institution of the roga- 
tion-fasts, which were appointed upon the three days that 
precede this festival. There are two holy-days not yet named, 
that have no vigils, though they do not happen in either of the 
above-mentioned seasons : the one is in September, viz. the 
feast of St. Michael and All Angels; the other in October, 
viz. the festival of St. Luke. Upon the first of these, one 
reason for the institution of vigils ceaseth, which was to con- 
form us to the example of the saints we commemorate, and to 
remind us that they passed through sufferings and mortifica- 
tions before they entered into the joy of their Master ; whereas 
those ministering spirits, for whose protection and assistance we 
return God thanks on that day, were at first created in full pos- 
session of bliss. The reason why the latter, viz. St. Luke, has 
no vigil, is because the eve of that saint was formerly itself a 
celebrated holy-day in the Church of England, viz. the feast 
of St. Etheldred: but that reason being now removed, I sup- 
's See the table of the vigils, &c., before the calendar, which was first inserted at the 
ast review. Though the days before these several festivals were marked for fasts hi 
the calendar in all the Common Prayer Books, except king Edward's. ** The day 
before the Conversion of St. Paul is marked for a fast in tlie Scotch Liturgy. 



pose every one is left to his own liberty, as to his private de- 
votions, whether he will observe the eve as a vigil or not. 

. 3. All Sundays in the year being appointed 
The vigil of a by the Church to be observed as festivals, no 
^ vigil is allowed to be kept upon any of those 

days : there being a particular rubric to order, 
that if any of the feast-days that have a vigil 
fall upon a Monday, then the vigil or fast-day shall be 
kept upon the Saturday, not. upon the Sunday next before it. 30 
But from hence a query ariseth, viz. on which evening service 
the collect for the festival is to be used : the rubric indeed 
relating to this matter seems to be worded very plain, viz. 
Whether the That the collect appointed for every Sunday, or 
collect of a Mon- for any holy-day that hath a vigil or eve, shall 
be^u^the be said at the evening service next before ;* 
Saturday or Sun- but then this rubric seems to suppose that the 
day before is the vigil or eve ; and makes no 
provision in case the festival falls upon the Monday, when we 
are directed by the rubric above cited to keep the vigil or fast 
upon the Saturday. Here then we are left at an uncertainty, 
nor can we get any light by comparing our present Liturgy 
with any former Common Prayer Book, because both these 
rubrics, together with the tables of vigils or eves, were first 
added at the last review. According to Mr. Johnson, indeed, 
who imagines that the collect for the festival is appointed to 
be used upon the evening before, because then the holy-day 
properly begins, we ought to read the collect upon the Sunday 
evening, though the vigil be kept upon the Saturday. For he 
observes,** that " the Church of England has divided her 
nights and days according to the scriptural, not the civil ac- 
count : and that though our civil day begins from midnight, 
yet our ecclesiastical day begins at six in the evening. And 
therefore the collect for the Sunday is to be read on what in 
our civil account is called Saturday evening, and the collect 
of every greater festival at evening prayer next before. The 
proper time for vespers or even-song is six of the clock, and 
from that time the religious day begins : therefore where even- 
ing prayer is ready at its proper season, the collect for the 
Purification may well be used as the rubric directs, on what , 
they call the foregoing evening, notwithstanding those words, 

10 See the ruhric at the bottom of the table of viprils. ' See the rubric before the 
Collect for the first Sunday in Advent. * Clergyman's Vade Mecum, c. 22, page 210. 


Thy only Son mas THIS DAY presented in the temple" But 
against this supposition lie two objections : the one is, that 
there are very few churches which begin prayers after six in 
the evening, which Mr. Johnson affirms to be the proper time 
for vespers or even-song : though if they did, the same diffi- 
culty would occur what collect we must use at evening prayer 
upon the festival itself, for then, according to Mr. Johnson, 
another day begins. But further, if the day begins at six of 
the clock on the evening before, then the collect of every 
festival ought to be used on the foregoing evening ; whereas 
the rubric only orders, that the collects for Sundays, and such 
holy-days ,as have vigils and eves, be said at the preceding 
evening service, and consequently supposes that the collects 
of such festivals as have no vigils are only to be used upon the 
festivals themselves.* From whence too we may observe by 
the way, it is a mistake in those who use the collects of all 

* Mr. Johnson has been pleased to reply to this, that " it is so certain that six is the 
hour of even-song, that no man will dispute it who is not a perfect stranger to things 
of this nature. "s 3 That it was so formerly, whilst the old canonical hours of prayer 
were strictly observed, I readily allow. But that it is so still, I was not aware : for I 
own myself to be so much a stranger to things of this nature, as to have been hitherto 
of the opinion (though I shall be glad to alter it, when I shall be better informed) that, 
upon reducing the seven offices into two,** viz. Matins and Even-Song, or Morning and 
Evening Prayer, as we now generally call them, there were no hours fixed for the say- 
ing of either. The same learned gentleman says further in the same place, that " they 
who terminate the feasts within certain minutes, and because six is the hour of ves- 
pers will allow no latitude, have never considered that in the Scripture language (which 
is the best guide in this matter) what is expressed by the evening, and going down of 
the sun, in one text, (Deut. xvi. 6,) is called the time between the two evenings in an- 
other (Exod. xii. 6). And the time of the evening sacrifice is expressed by this last 
phrase (Numb, xxviii. 4). And it is notorious that this was any time between the 
ninth and twelfth according to them, the third and sixth with us." These texts of 
Scripture I have seen before ; and have since considered how far they help Mr. John- 
son's argument. But I cannot see yet that they prove any more than that they who 
began the day punctually at six one evening, ended it as punctually at six the next. 
But that the Church of England divides her nights and days according to the scrip- 
tural, and not the civil account, is his assertion, and not mine. To him it is clear, but 
not to me, that feasts are to be kept from even-song to even-song inclusively. 35 That 
the festival day is not past till even-song is ended, I willingly grant : but that the fes- 
tival begins at even-song before, wants, I think, a better proof. That the collect for a 
holy-day that hath a vigil or eve, is to be said at the evening service next before, the 
rubric appoints : but that the evening before is therefore part of the festival, I know 
not how to reconcile with another rubric that calls the eve or vigil a fast. 36 I rather 
take it, that the evenings before such festivals as have vigils are designed by the 
Church to be preparations to the festivals, rather than parts of them ; and therefore I 
know not what Mr. Johnson means when he tells us, " that holy-days which begin not 
till morning prayer are not perfect feasts, but were deemed to be of inferior rank by 
them that had the ordering of these matters." When he gives us his authority for 
what he asserts, I shall readily submit : but till then I shall be of the opinion, that 
gome festivals which have not vigils are as perfect feasts as some others which have : 
and that their not having vigils assigned them, was not because they are of inferior 
rank, but for the other reasons that I have given above. 

e Mr. Jnhmon'i Addenda to his ClCTRjrnan'i Vade Mecum, at the end of Mi two caw*, pages 10. 
107. !$ Mr. JohMon'i Ecclesiastical La i, A. D. 740, 28, and 967, 19. Addenda ut upra. bee 
the rubric at the cad of the table of riuiln. 

o 2 


holy-days whatsoever upon the evening before. I know in- 
deed it may be urged against this last observation, that the 
Collect of the Nativity is directed by another rubric to be 
said continually from Citristmas-day unto New-Years- 
Eve ; and what makes this objection the stronger, is, that be- 
fore the last review of the Liturgy, the Christmas collect was 
to be said until New-Year's-Day. The changing Day there- 
fore for Eve looks something remarkable ; and as if they pur- 
posely designed that the collect of the Circumcision should 
be used on the evening before, and that the collect of the 
Nativity should be then left off : the Church always speaking 
exclusive of the time or place it mentions in any such direc- 
tions. "What answer to make to this, I own I am at a loss. 
The best I can think of is, that New-Year's-Eve being the 
common name given to the last day of the year, the person 
that altered the rubric might imagine, that the feast of the 
circumcision had really an eve belonging to it. But whatever 
might be the occasion of the alteration, I think it can be 
urged no otherwise against what I have said, than as a single 
exception from a general rule. 

. 4. Now I am speaking of this, I shall ob- 
Sii e e rtrnotto be serve one thing more ; and that is, that whenever 
used on holy- the collect of a Sunday or holy-day is read at the 
eves! r evening service before, the weekly collect that 

had been in course must be omitted and give 
place. And the same rule, as I take it, should be observed 
upon the holy-day itself, upon which no other collect ought 
to be used, but the proper one for the day. For the rubric, 
at the end of the order horn the rest of the service is appoint, 
ed to be read, directs, that the collect, Sfc. for the Sunday 
shall serve all ttie meek after, where it is not otherwise or- 
dered; which supposes, that in some places it is otherwise 
ordered, which must be (as it was worded in all the old Com- 
mon Prayer Books) when there falls some feast that hath its 
proper, i. e. when any day falls that hath a proper or peculiar 
collect, &c. to itself: upon which occasions the rubric plainly 
supposes, that the collect for the Sunday shall be left out and 
omitted : the Church never designing to use two collects at 
once, except within the octaves of Christmas, and during Ad- 
vent and Lent ; when, for the greater solemnity of those 
solemn seasons, she particularly orders the collects of the prin- 
cipal days to be used continually after the ordinary collects. 


VI. Of Days of Fasting or Abstinence in general. 

THAT Fasting or Abstinence from our usual Fastlngj how an _ 
sustenance is a proper means to express sorrow cient and uni- 
and grief, and a fit method to dispose our minds versal a duty ' 
towards the consideration of any thing that is serious, nature 
seems to suggest : and therefore all nations, from ancient 
times, have used fasting as a part of repentance, and as a 
means to avert the anger of God. This is plain in the case of 
the Ninevites, 37 whose notion of fasting, to appease the wrath 
of God, seems to have been common to them with the rest of 
mankind. In the Old Testament, besides the examples of 
private fasting by David, 38 and Daniel, 39 and others ; we have 
instances of public fasts observed by the whole nation of the 
Jews at once upon solemn occasions. 40 It is true, indeed, in 
the New Testament we find no positive precept, that expressly 
requires and commands us to fast : but our Saviour mentions 
fasting with almsgiving and prayer, which are unquestionable 
duties ; and the directions he gave concerning the performance 
of it sufficiently suppose its necessity. And he himself was 
pleased, before he entered upon his ministry, to give us an 
extraordinary example in his own person, by fasting forty days 
and forty nights. 41 He excused indeed his disciples from fast- 
ing, so long as he, the Bridegroom, was with them ; because 
that being a time of joy and gladness, it would be an improper 
season for tokens of sorrow : but then he intimates at the same 
time, that though it was not fit for them then, it would yet be 
their duty hereafter : for the days, says he, will come, when 
the Bridegroom shall be taken from them, and then they shall 
fast.'" 1 And accordingly we find, that after his ascension, the 
duty of fasting was not only recommended, 43 but practised by 
the Apostles, as any one may see by the texts of Scripture 
referred to in the margin. 44 After the Apostles, we find the 
primitive Christians very constant and regular in the observa- 
tion both of their annual and weekly fasts. Their weekly 
fasts were kept on Wednesdays and Fridays, because on the 
one our Lord was betrayed, on the other crucified. The chief 
of their annual fasts was that of Lent, which they observed 
by way of preparation for their feast of Easter. 

" Jonah iii. 5. 38 p sa l m Ixix. 10. Daniel ix. 3. See Lev. xxiii. 26, &c. 
2 Chron. xx. S. Ezra viii. 21. Jer. xxxvi. 9. Zech. viii. 19. Joel i. 14. Matt. iv. 2. 
Matt. ix. 15. 1 Cor. vii. 5. * Acts xiii. 2, and xiv. 23. 1 Cor. ix. 27. 2 Cor. 
vf. 5, and xi. 27. 


8. 2. Their manner of observing these fasts 

Days of fasting, " . ..... 

how observed by was very strict ; it being their general custom to 
!-h e riS ive abstain from all food, till the public devotion of 

i ill JallfUla. i"ii i n 

the Church was over : which was about three of 
the clock in the afternoon, though in the time of Lent they 
were not to eat till six in the evening ; and even then they 
forbore both flesh and wine, the greater part of them feeding 
only upon herbs or pulse, with a little bread. Some used the 
dry diet, as nuts and almonds, and such like fruit, whilst 
others fed only upon bread and water. 

Fasting and ab- . 3 " In , th . e Church of Rome fasting and ab- 
stinence.howdis- stmence admit of a distinction, and different daya 
chwch h oniome! are appointed for each of them. On their days 
of fasting, they are allowed but one meal in four 
and twenty hours : but on days of abstinence, provided they 
abstain from flesh, and make but a moderate meal, they are 
What days ap- indulged in a collation at night. The times by 
pointed for the one them set apart for the first are, all Lent except 
her - Sundays, the ember-days, the vigils of the more 
solemn feasts, and all Fridays, except those that fall within 
the twelve days of Christmas, and between Easter and the 
Ascension. Their days of abstinence are, all the Sundays in 
Lent, St. Mark's day, if it does not fall into Easter-week, the 
three Rogation-days, all Saturdays throughout the year, with 
the Fridays before excepted, unless either happen to be Christ- 
st Mark wh mas-day. The reason why they observe St. Mark 
observed aTa day as a day of abstinence is, as we learn from their 
the^o'mMUu^ own books, in imitation of St. Mark's disciples, 
the first Christians of Alexandria, who, under this 
saint's conduct, were eminent for their great prayer, abstinence, 
and sobriety. They further tell us, that St. Gregory the Great, 
the Apostle of England, first set apart this day for abstinence 
and public prayer, as an acknowledgment of the divine mercy 
in putting a stop to a mortality in his time at Rome.* 4 
..... .. 8. 4. I do not find that the Church of England 

No distinction ,._ , _ 

made in the makes any difference between days of fasting and 

UndlltheVbe?" da y 8 of abstinence : it is true, in the title of the 

tween days of table of vigils, &c. she mentions fasts AND daya 

o"ab\*unTnce, a or f oibstinence separately ; but when she comes 

between any dif- to enumerate the particulars, she calls them all 

ftri-nt kinds of , ,. - .. ... -.1 , j- .- 

food. days of fasting OR abstinence, without distm- 

45 See their Practical Catechism upon the Sundays, Feasts, and Fast*, pages 186, 187. 


guishing between the one and the other. Nor does she 
any where point out to us what food is proper for such 
times or seasons, or seem to place any part of religion in ab- 
staining from any particular kinds of meat. It is true, by 
a statute still in force, 46 flesh is prohibited on fast-days : but 
this is declared to be for a political reason, viz. for the increase 
of cattle, and for the encouragement of fishery and navigation. 
Not but that the statute allows that abstinence is serviceable 
to virtue, and helps to subdue the body to the mind : but the 
distinction of clean and unclean meats determined, it says, with 
the Mosaic law ; and therefore it sets forth, that days and 
meats are in themselves all of the same nature and quality as 
to moral consideration, one not having any inherent holiness 
above the other. And for this reason it is that our Church, 
as I have said, no where makes any difference in the kinds of 
meat : but, as far as she determines, she seems to recommend 
an entire abstinence from all manner of food till the time 
of fasting be over ; declaring in her Homilies, 47 that fasting 
(by the decree of the six hundred and thirty Fathers, assembled 
at the Council of Chalcedon, which was one of the four first 
general Councils, who grounded their determination upon ilie 
sacred Scriptures, and long -continued usage or practice both of 
the prophets and other, godly persons before the coming of 
Christ; and also of the apostles and other devout men in the 
Neio Testament) is a withholding of meat, drink, and all na- 
tural food from the body, for the determined time of fasting. 

. 5. The times she sets apart as proper for this 
duty are such as she finds have been observed ^fe d d ^^. 
with fasting and abstinence by the earliest ages 
of the Church ; which, besides the vigils above mentioned, 
are the forty days of Lent, the ember-days at the four seasons, 
the three rogation-days, and all Fridays in the year, except 

. 6. Every one of these seasons (except the 
Friday-fast only) will come in turn to be ^ed'wa 3 ^ 
spoken to hereafter ; and therefore I shall waive 
saying any thing further to them here ; and shall only observe 
of Friday in particular, that it was always observed by the 
primitive Christians as a day of fasting, who thought it very 
proper to humble themselves on the same day weekly, on 

48 In the second and third of king Edward VI. c. 19. 47 See the first part of the 
sermon of Fasting. 


which the blessed Jesus humbled himself once, even to tlie 
death of the cross, for us miserable sinners. 

VII. Of the Collects, Epistles, and Gospels in general. 

HOW the Church ^ LL tne ^ a J' 8 a ^ ove mentioned, as well fasts 
of England ob- as festivals, the Church of England still requires 
serve* these days. ug ^ Q O b 8e rve, in such manner as may answer the 
end for which they were appointed. To this end she always 
enlarges her ordinary devotions, adding particular Lessons on 
most of them, proper Psalms on some, and the Communion 
Office on all. The proper Lessons and Psalms I shall take 
notice of, when I come to treat of the particular days on which 
they are appointed : but because there are a Collect, Epistle, 
and Gospel appointed for every Sunday and holy-day through- 
out the year ; it is requisite I should first speak of them in 
general, and shew their antiquity as well as their suitableness 
to the days they belong to. And first of their antiquity. 

The antiquity, , ' 2> Tfaat m St . f OUI> coll f cts are verv an ' 

src. of the col- cient, appears by their conformity to the Epistles 
and Gospels, which are thought to have been se- 
lected by St. Jerome, and put into the Lectionary by him : 
for which reason many believe that the collects also were first 
framed by him. It is certain that Gelasius, who was bishop 
of Rome A. D. 492, ranged the collects, which were then 
used, into order, and added some new ones of his own; 48 
which office was again corrected by pope Gregory the Great 
in the year 600, whose Sacramentary contains most of the 
collects we now use. But our reformers observing that some 
of these collects were afterwards corrupted by superstitious 
alterations and additions, and that others were quite left out 
of the Roman Missals, and entire new ones, relating to their 
present innovations, added in their room ; they therefore ex- 
amined every collect strictly, and where they found any of 
them corrupted, there they corrected them ; where any 
new ones had been inserted, they restored the old ones ; 
and lastly, at the Restoration, every collect was again re- 
viewed, when whatsoever was deficient was supplied, and all 
that was but improperly expressed, rectified. The several 
alterations both then and at the Reformation shall be noted 
hereafter in their proper places : in the mean while I shall pro- 
ceed to give the like general account of the Epistles and Gospels. 

See Dr. Comber's History of Liturgies, part ii. J. 14, p. 68. 


. 3. I have already hinted, that they are fhe antiquity of 
thought to have been at first selected by St. Je- the Epistles and 
rome, and put into the Lectionary by him. It is Gos P els - 
certain that they were very anciently appropriated to the days 
whereon we now read them ; since they are not only of ge- 
neral use throughout the whole Western Church, but are also 
commented upon in the homilies of several ancient Fathers, 
which are said to have been preached upon those very days, 
to which these portions of Scripture are now affixed. So that 
they have most of them belonged to the same Sundays and 
holy-days we now use them on, for above twelve hundred 
years ; as I might easily shew also from several authorities. 49 

. 4. In all the old Common Prayer Books, 
except the Scotch one, the Epistles and Gospels ^feSS?^ 
were taken out of the Great Bible, neither of the 
two last translations being extant when the Common Prayer 
was first compiled. But in regard of the many defects which 
were observed in that version, and upon the petition of the 
presbyterian commissioners at the Savoy conference, the com- 
missioners on the Church side concluded that all the Epistles 
and Gospels should be used, according to the last translation. 80 

. 5. The other variations that have been made 
in them, at and since the Reformation, shall be ^J^Stod.** 5 
taken notice of as I go along : I shall only observe 
further in this place, in relation to them in general, in what 
admirable order and method they are appointed, and what 
special relation they bear to the several days whereon they 
are read. 

The whole year is distinguished into two parts : the design 
of the first being to commemorate Christ's living amongst us ; 
the other to instruct us to live after his example. The former 
takes in the whole time from Advent to Trinity -Sunday ; for 
the latter are all the Sundays from Trinity to Advent. The 
first part being conversant about the life of our Saviour, and 
the mysteries of his divine dispensation : therefore beginning 
at Advent, we first celebrate his incarnation in general, and 
after that in their order the several particulars of it : such as 
were his nativity, circumcision, and manifestation to the Gen- 
tiles ; his doctrine and miracles, his baptism, fasting, and 
temptation ; his agony and bloody srveat ; his cross and pas- 

49 Vid. Liturg. S. Jacob. S. Clem. S. Basil, Walefrid. -Strab. de Reb. Eccl. c. 22. 
w Account of all the Proceedings of the Commissioners, 1661, p. 15, or in Baxter's 
Narrative, p. 318, and the Papers that passed between the Commissioners, p. 129. 


sion ; his precious death and burial ; his glorious resurrection 
and ascension ; and his sending the Holy Ghost to comfort us. 
During all this time the chief end and design of the Epistles 
and Gospels is to make us remember with thankful hearts 
what unspeakable benefits we receive from the Father, first by 
his Son, and then by his Holy Spirit ; for which we very aptly 
end this part of the year with giving praise and glory to the 
whole blessed Trinity. 

The second part of the year, (which comprehends all the 
whole time from Trinity-Sunday to Advent,} I observed, is 
to instruct us to lead our lives after our Lord's example. For 
having in the first part of the year learned the mysteries of our 
religion, we are in the second to practise what is agreeable to 
the same. For it concerns us, not only to know that we have 
no other foundation of our religion, than Christ Jesus our 
Lord ; but further also to build upon this foundation such a 
life as he requires of us. And therefore as the first part ends 
with Pentecost, whereon we commemorate a new law given us 
in our hearts ; so the second is to begin with the practice of 
that law : for which reason such Epistles and Gospels are ap- 
pointed, as may most easily and plainly instruct and lead us 
in the true paths of Christianity ; that so those who are rege- 
nerated by Christ, and initiated in his faith, may know what 
virtues to follow, and what vices to eschew. 
The Collect, E- ^' This I take to be a proper place to speak 
pistie, and bo- to the rubric which directs, that the Collect, 
S, f0 to le "for" Epistle, and Gospel appointed for the Sunday 
the' week after- shall serve all the meek after, rohere it is not in 
this book otherwise ordered. 51 The principal 
occasion of which provision, I suppose, was a rubric at the 
end of the Communion Office, in the first book of king Edward 
VI., which ordered, that upon Wednesdays and Fridays, 
though there were none to communicate with the priest, yet 
(after the Litany ended) the priest should put upon him a plain 
alb, or surplice, with a cope, and say all things at the altar 
(appointed to be said at the celebration of the Lord's Supper) 
until after the offertory. And that the same order should be 
used all other days, whensoever the people accustomably assem- 
bled to pray in the church, and none disposed to communicate 
nith him. But though this custom be now laid aside, yet the 

41 See the lait rubric in the Order how the rest of the holy Scripture if appointed to be 


direction above mentioned is still of use to us, if either at a 
marriage, or at the churching of a woman, (at both which 
times a communion is prescribed by the rubric as convenient,) 
or upon any other such like occasion, the sacrament be admin- 
istered : at which times we are ordered by the rubric I am 
speaking of, to use the same Collect, Epistle, and Gospel as 
were used the Sunday before, where it is not otherwise ordered 
in this book. Before the last review it was said, Except Bome ho _ 
except there fall some feast that hath its proper, iy-day happens in 
i. e. except there fall some holy-day in the week theweek - 
which has a Collect, Epistle, and Gospel of its own; or, as it 
is worded in the Scotch Liturgy, except there fall some feast 
that hath its proper Collect, Epistle, and Gospel ; as it is on 
Ash- Wednesday, and on every day in the holy meek next 
before the Pasch or Easter , in which case the Sunday Col- 
lect, Epistle, and Gospel are to give place to the proper Col- 
lect, Epistle, and Gospel for that day. And this to be sure is 
part of what is intended by the rubric, as it stands now. 
Though the design I suppose of altering the last words into, 
where it is not in this book otherwise ordered, 
was for a direction also at^uch times as a new Eaf^vLS 

i . | f~ -m 1 season ucgins. 

season begins between one ounday and another, 
as it happens upon Ash-Wednesday and Ascension-day. In 
which case the services of those days being placed between 
the services for the Sundays immediately before and after ; I 
take that to be an order that the Collect, &c. for the fore- 
going Sunday shall be then left off, and the Collect, &c. for 
the holy-day shall succeed as the service for the remaining 
part of the week. Which is exactly agreeable to an express 
rubric after the Gospel for Ash-Wednesday in the Scotch 
Liturgy, which enjoins that from Ash-Wednesday to the first 
Sunday in Lent shall be used the same Collect, Epistle, and 
Gospel, which were used on Ash- Wednesday. 

. 7. In the first Common Prayer Book of king 
Edward VI. there were two Collects, Epistles, nfons7ormeriy at 
and Gospels appointed for Christmas-day and Christmas and 
Easter-day, one to be used at the first com- 
munion, the other at the second .- for the churches not afford- 
ing room enough upon those high festivals for all to com- 
municate at once that were willing to come ; therefore the 
sacrament was ordered to be repeated, and a different service 
appointed for each solemnity. As to a double ,. 

,. -' ^ j Double commn- 

commumon, the practice is ancient : ior we find nions on the 


same day an an- that pope Leo, writing to Dioscorus, bishop of 
Alexandria, advised, that where the churches 
were too small to admit all that were desirous to communicate 
at Once, the priests should administer two or three commu- 
nions in one day, that so they who could not get room to offer 
themselves the first time, might have an opportunity of doing 
it afterwards. Convinced by this authority, Bucer afterwards 
retracted an exception he had made against having two com- 
munions in one day ; 5 * though in the second review of the 
Liturgy under king Edward, one of these services was laid 
aside, not, I suppose, with intent to forbid a repetition of the 
sacrament, if the minister should see occasion to administer it 
twice, but only that, as the congregation at each time is sup- 
posed to be different, therefore the same service should be 
used for both. 

VIII. Of Introits in general. 

I SHOULD now proceed to give the reasons of the choice of 
the several Collects, Epistles, and Gospels, and to shew their 
suitableness to the days they belong to. But because to do 
this it is necessary I should shew what particular blessings the 
Church commemorates at those several times on which they 
are prescribed ; I shall descend to particulars, and first give a 
short account of the several Sundays and holy-days, as they 
stand in order, and then shew how these portions of Scripture 
are to be applied to the day. 

introits, what But ^ rst ^ 8 ^ a ^ ta ^ e ^' s opportunity to ob- 
they were, and serve, that in the first Common Prayer Book of 
,w ancient. kmg E dward yj., before every Collect, Epistle, 
and Gospel, there is a Psalm printed, which contains some- 
thing prophetical of the evangelical history used upon each 
Sunday and holy-day, or in some way or other proper to the 
day ; which, from its being sung or said while the priest made 
his entrance within the rails of the altar, was called Introitus 
or Introit.^ But in the second edition of king Edward's book 

Script. Anglican, p. 465, et 495. 
M The Introits for every Sunday and holy -day throughout the year. 

1 Sunday in Advent . . . J'talm 1 
2 120 

Sunday after Christmas-day . 
Circumcision . . 

J'talm 121 

3 4 

Epiphany '. 


4 6 


Christmas-day, At the first commu- 


nion 98 

3 . 




St. John the Evangelist ... 11 

; ... 

Scptuageslma Sunday . 


SECT. I.] 



it was laid aside ; though the reason they had for doing so is 
not easily assigned. For it is very certain that the use of In- 
troits to begin the Communion Office was not only unexcep- 
tionable, but of great antiquity in the Church : Durand prov- 
ing that they were taken into divine service before the time 
of St. Jerome. 54 And it is plain that they would still have 
been very useful, since the want of them is forced to be sup- 
plied by the singing of anthems in cathedrals, and part of a 
psalm in metre in parish churches. And therefore I cannot 
but think, it would have been much more decent for us to 
have been guided by the Church what psalms to have used in 
that intermediate time, than to stand to the direction of every 
illiterate parish clerk, who too often has neither judgment to 
choose a psalm proper to the occasion, nor skill to sing it so 
as to assist devotion. 

SECT. I. Of the Sundays in Advent. 
FOR the greater solemnity of the three princi- , 

i i_ i j /", 7 -n 7 i Advent Sundays. 

pal holy-days, Christmas-day, Easter-day, and 

Quinquagesima Sunday . 
1 Sunday in Lent . 
Sunday next before Easter 

Psalm 26 
. 130 
. 46 
. 61 

11 Sunday after Trinity 
12 ... 

Psalm 119 
part 1 1 
. 12 


. 14 


. 16 


. 18 

Easter-even . . . 
Easter-day. At the first comi) 

. 88 
nunion 16 
. 62 
. 112 

19 ... 



21 ' . 

. 20 


nion . 
Monday in Easter-week 
Tuesday in Easter-week 
1 Sunday after Easter 


. 22 


. . 125 


. . 127 

St. Andrew 
St. Thomas . 
Conversion of St. Paul 
Purification of the blessec 
Mary . . i . 
St. Matthias . . _ 

. . 129 
. 138 
. 134 
. 131 


. 75 


Sunday after Ascension-day 
WTiit-Sunday . 
Monday in Whitsun-week 
Tuesday in Whitsun-week . 
Trinity Sunday . 
1 Sunday after Trinity 

. 84 
. 93 
. 100 
. 67 
part 1 119 

St. Mark. 
St. Philip and St. James . 
St. Barnabas . 
St. John the Baptist . 
St Peter . . . 

. 133 
. 143 


. 4 
. 6 
. 8 

St. Mary Magdalene . 

. . 146 

St. Bartholomew 
St. Matthew . 
St. Michael and All Angels 
St. Luke the Evangelist 
St. Simon and St. Jude 

All Saints 

. 115 
. 113 
. 150 

10 .. . 



De Rit. Eccl. 1. 7, c. 1 1 . 


Wliit- Sunday, the Church hath appointed certain days to attend 
them : some to go before, and others to come after them. 
Why so called Before Christmas are appointed four Advent 

Sundays, so called, because the design of them 
is to prepare us for a religious commemoration of the Advent, 

or coming of Christ in the flesh. The Roman 
ae gtpftrrf ritualigts would have the celebration of this holy 

season to be apostolical, and that it was instituted 
by St. Peter. 55 But the precise time of its institution is not so 
easily to be determined : though it certainly had its beginning 
before the year 450, because Maximus Taurinensis, who lived 
Advent sermons about that time, writ a homily upon it. And it 
formerly preach- is to be observed, that for the more strict and 

religious observation of this season, courses of 
sermons were formerly preached in several cathedrals on Wed- 
nesdays and Fridays, as it is now the usual practice in Lent. 86 
And we find by the Salisbury Missal, that before the Reform- 
ation there was a Special Epistle and Gospel relating to 
Christ's Advent, appointed for those days during all that time. 
8. 2. The Collects for the first and second Sun- 

The Collects. , o . , , . 1K/in , . 

days in Advent were made new in 1549, being 
first inserted in the first book of king Edward VI. That for 
the third Sunday was added at the Restoration in the room of 
a very short one not so suitable to the time.* The Collect 
for the fourth Sunday is the same with what we meet with in 
the most ancient offices, except that in some of them it is ap- 
pointed for the first Sunday.f 

The Epistles and Gospels appointed on these 
El Go t speis. nd days are all very ancient and very proper to the 

time : they assure us of the truth of Christ's first 
coming; 57 and, as a proper means to bring our lives to a con- 
formity with the end and design of it, they recommend to us 
the considerations of his second coming, when he will execute 
vengeance on all those that obey not his Gospel. 58 

my the church . $ 3 ' II is worth observing in this place, that 
begins her year it is the peculiar computation of the Church, to 

The old Collect was this : " Lord, we beseech thee, give ear to our prayers, and by 
thy gracious visitation lighten the darkness of our hearts, by our Lord Jesus Christ, 
Aincn." t The word* " through the satisfaction of thy Son our Lord " were first 
added in the Scotch Liturgy. 

B Durand. Rational. 1. 6, c. 2, numb. 2, fol. 253. See Dr. Greenvil's Sermon, 

preached in the cathedral of Durham, upon the revival of the ancient and laudable prac- 
tice of that and some other cathedrals, in having sermons on Wednesdays and Fridays 
in Advent and Lent. Quarto, 1688. " Epistle and Gospel for Sunday 1. Epistle 
for Sunday 2. Gospel for Sunday 3. Epistle and Gospel for Sunday 4. M Gospel 
for Sunday 2 and 3. 


begin her year, and to renew the annual course of at Advent - 
her service, at this time of Advent, therein differing from all 
other accounts of time whatsoever. The reason of which is, 
because she does not number her days, or measure her sea- 
sons, so much by the motion of the sun, as by the course of 
our Saviour : beginning and counting on her year with him, 
who being the true Sun of Righteousness, began now to rise 
upon the world, and, as the day-star on high, to enlighten 
them that sat in spiritual darkness. 

SECT. II. Of the Ember- Weeks. 

THE first season of the ember-days falling after 
the third Sunday in Advent, I shall take this op- : ' he gg" 1 
portunity to speak a word or two of them ; which 
are certain days set apart for the consecrating to God the four 
seasons of the year, and for the imploring his blessing by fast- 
ing and prayer, upon the ordinations performed in the Church 
at those times : in conformity to the practice of the Apostles, 
who, when they separated persons for the work of the minis- 
try, prayed and fasted, before they laid on their hands. 59 It 
is true, at the first planting of the Gospel, orders were confer- 
red at any time, as there was occasion : but as soon as the 
Church was settled, the ordination of ministers was affixed to 
certain set times, which was the first original of these four 
weeks of fasting. 

. 2. They are called ember -weeks (as some ^ go ca]led 
think) from a German word which imports absti- 
nence : though others are of the opinion that they are so called, 
because it was customary among the ancients to express their 
humiliation at those seasons of fasting, by sprinkling ashes 
upon their heads, or sitting on them ; and when they broke 
their fasts on such days to eat only cakes baked upon embers, 
which were therefore called ember-bread. But the most pro- 
bable conjecture is that of Dr. Mareschal, who derives it from 
a Saxon word, importing a circuit or course ,- so that these 
fasts being not occasional, but returning every year in certain 
courses, may properly be said to be ember-days, i. e . fasts 
in course. 60 

. 3. They were formerly observed in several 
churches with some variety, 61 but were at last observed! 63 
settled by the Council of Placentia, A. D. 1095, 

69 Acts xiii. 3. 6 In his observations upon the Saxon Gospels, pages 528, 529. 

81 See the answers of Ecbright upon question 16, in Johnson's Ecclesiastical Laws, 
A. D. 734. 


to be the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday after the first 
Sunday in Lent, after Whit-Sunday, after the fourteenth of 
September, which was then observed as the feast of holy- 
cross, and the thirteenth of December, which was then also 
observed in remembrance of St. Lucy. 62 
Why ordinations 4 - The reasons why the ordinations of minis- 
are fixed to these ters are fixed to these set times of fasting are these : 
first, that as all men's souls are concerned in the 
ordaining a fit clergy, so all may join in fasting and prayer for 
a blessing upon it : secondly, that both bishops and candi- 
dates, knowing the time, may prepare themselves for this great 
work : thirdly, that no vacancy may remain long unsupplied : 
lastly, that the people, knowing the times, may, if they please, 
be present, either to approve the choice made by the bishop, 
of to object against those whom they know to be unworthy ; 
which primitive privilege is still reserved to the people in this 
well-constituted Church. 

SECT. III. Of Christmas-day. 

HOW early ob- THOUGH the learned in most ages have dif- 
served in the fered concerning the day and month of our 

Saviour's nativity, yet we are certain that the 
festival was very early observed in the primitive Church. And 
if the day was mistaken, yet the matter of the mistake being 
of no greater moment than the false calculation of a day ; it 
will certainly be very pardonable in those who perform the 
business of the festival, with as much piety and devotion as 
they could do, if they certainly knew the time. 

. 2. And that no one may want an opportunity 
""ttedj! f r to celebrate so great a festival with a suitable 

solemnity, the Church both excites and assists our 
devotion, by an admirable frame of office fitted to the day. 
In the first Lessons 63 she reads to us the clearest prophecies 
of Christ's coming in the flesh ; and in the second Lessons,** 
Epistle, and Gospel, shews us the completion of those prophe- 
cies, by giving us the entire history of it. In the collect she 
teaches us to pray, that we may be partakers of the benefit of 
his birth, and in the proper psalms she sets us to our duty of 
praising and glorifying God for his incomprehensible mystery. 
TheCoiiect Epis- ^ ne Epistle and Gospel are the same that 
tie, and Gospel, were used in the most ancient Liturgies ; but 

* Concil. torn. x. col. 502, B. * Ilia, ix. to ver. 8. chap. vil. ver. 10 to ver. 17. 
Luke II. to ver. 15. Tit. iii. ver. 4 to ver. 0. 


the Collect was made new in 1549. In the first book of 
king Edward VI. they are appointed for the second commu- 
nion, which I suppose was the principal one : since the first 
was probably more early in the morning, for the benefit of 
servants, and others who could not attend at the usual time. 
The Collect for the first communion was different from what 
we now use,* as were also the Epistle and Gospel ; the Epistle 
beginning Tit. ii. ver. 11, to the end ; the Gospel, Luke ii. to 
ver. 15, the last of which we now read for the second Lesson 
in the morning service. 

8. 3. The Psalms for the morning are Psalms . 

i I rr-i A i i a j j The Psalms. 

xix. xlv. Ixxxv. The xixth was chiefly designed 
to give glory to God for all his works of power and excel- 
lence : the beginning of it, viz. Tlw heavens declare the glory 
of God, &c., is extraordinarily applicable to the day : for at the 
birth of Christ a new star appeared, which declared his glory 
and deity so plainly, that it fetched wise men from the East 
to come and worship him. The following verses all set forth 
God's goodness, in giving so excellent a rule of life to men, 
and in warning us of the great danger of presumptuous sins. 
The xlvth Psalm is thought to be an epithalamium, or mar- 
riage-song, upon the nuptials of Solomon and the king of 
Egypt's daughter ; but it is mystically, and in a most eminent 
sense, applicable to the union between Christ and his Church. 
The Ixxxvth Psalm was principally set for the birth of Christ ; 
and so the primitive Christians understood it ; and therefore 
chose it as a part of their office for this day, as being proper 
and pertinent to the matter of the feast. The prophet indeed 
speaks of it as a thing past, but that is no more than what is 
usual in all prophecies : for by speaking of things after that 
manner, they signified their prophecies should as surely come 
to pass, as if what they had foretold had already happened. 65 

The evening Psalms are Psalms Ixxxix. ex. cxxxii. The 
Ixxxixth is a commemoration of the mercies performed and 
promised to be continued to David and his posterity to the 
end of the world. The greatest of which mercies, viz. the 
birth of the Messiah, the Church this day celebrates; and 
therefore appoints this psalm to excite us to thanksgiving for 

* The Collect for the first communion in king Edward's first book was this : " God, 
which makest us glad with the yearly remembrance of the birth of thy only Son Jesus 
Christ ; grant, that as we joyfully receive him for our Redeemer, so we may with sure 
confidence behold him, when he shall come to be our Judge, who liveth and reigneth," 
&c. K> Acts ii. 30, 31. 



such an inestimable mercy, by shewing us how only the bare 
promise of it, so many ages since, wrought upon the saints of 
those times. The cxth Psalm is a prophecy of the exaltation 
of the Messiah to his regal and sacerdotal office j 86 both which 
are by him exercised at the right hand of the Father, and set- 
tled on him as a reward of his humiliation and passion. 67 The 
cxxxiind Psalm seems to have been at first composed by So- 
lomon upon the building of the temple (part of it being used 
in his prayer at the dedication of it). 68 It recounts David's 
care - of the ark, and his desire to build God a temple, and 
God's promises thereupon made to him and his posterity, of 
setting his seed upon the throne till the coming of Christ, 

SECT. IV. Of the days of St. Stephen, St. John, and tfo Innocents. 
THAT the observation of these days is ancient, 
The em"' y f we h &ve tne testimonies of several very ancient 
writers, 69 who all assure us that they were cele- 
brated in the primitive times. 
. . . 8. 2. The placing of them immediately after 

Why observed /-,, a . s ' , 

immediately af- (Jhnstmas-day was to intimate, as is supposed, 
day^and^the that none &Te thought fitter attendants on Christ's 
order they are nativity, than those blessed martyrs, who have 
not scrupled to lay down their temporal lives for 
him, from whose incarnation and birth they received life 
eternal. And accordingly we may observe, that as there are 
three kinds of martyrdom ; the first both in will and in deed, 
which is the highest ; the second in will, but not in deed ; the 
third in deed, but not in will ; so the Church commemorates 
these martyrs in the same order : St. Stephen first, who suf- 
fered death both in will and in deed ; St. John the Evangel- 
ist next, who suffered martyrdom in will, but not in deed, 
being miraculously delivered out of a caldron of burning oil, 
into which he was put before Port Latin in Rome; 70 the holy 
Innocents last, who suffered in deed, but not in will ; for 
though they were not sensible upon what account they suffer- 
ed, yet it is certain that they suffered for the sake of Christ ; 
since it was upon the account of his birth that their lives were 
taken away. And besides, wheresoever their story shall be 
told, the cause also of their deaths will be declared and made 

Matt. xxii. 44. Act 11. 84. 1 Cor. XT. 25. Heb. i. 13. " PhU. ii. 8, 9. 

" 2 Chron. vi. 4 1, 42. Orig. Horn. 3, in Divers, part. 2, p. 282, G. Aug. in Natal. 
Su-ph. Martyris, Serm. 314, torn. T. col. 1260, B. Chryi. in S. Stephanum, Oral. 135, 
136, torn. T. p. 864, &c. et alibi. w Ten. de Prmc. Haer. c. 36, p. 215, A. 


known : for which reason they cannot be denied, even in the 
most proper sense, to be true martyrs or witnesses of Christ. 

Mr. L'Estrange 71 imagines another reason for the order of 
these days. He supposes St. Stephen is commemorated first, 
as being the first martyr for Christianity : that St. John has 
the second place, as being the disciple which Jesus loved : and 
that the Innocents are commemorated next, because their 
slaughter was the first considerable consequence of our Sa- 
viour's birth. To this he adds another conjecture, viz. " That 
martyrdom, love, and innocence are first to be magnified, as 
wherein Christ is most honoured." 

8. 3. The Collects for the days of St. Stephen _ . _ .. 

sj J i L i Their Collects, 

and the holy Innocents were made new at the Epistles, and 
Restoration ; and that for S$. John was somewhat Gos P els - 
altered.* But the Epistles and Gospels for all these days are 
the same that we meet with in the oldest offices ; excepting 
that the Epistle for St. John was first inserted at the Re- 
formation, instead of a Lesson out of the xxvth of Ecclesi- 

The reasons of their choice are very plain. On St. Ste- 
phen's day the Epistle gives us an account of his martyrdom, 
and the Gospel assures us, that his blood, and the blood of all 
those that have suffered for the name of Christ, shall be re- 
quired at the hands of those that shed it. On St. John's day 
both the Epistle and the Gospel are taken out of his own writ- 
ings, and very aptly answer to one another : the Epistle cpn- 
tains St. John's testimony of Christ, and the Gospel Christ's 
testimony of St. John : the Gospel seems applicable to the 
day, as it commemorates this evangelist ; but the Epistle 
seems to be chosen upon account of its being an attendant 
upon the preceding more solemn festival. On the Innocents' 
day the Gospel contains the history of the bloody massacre 
committed by Herod ; and for the Epistle is read part of the 
xivth chapter of the Revelation, shewing the glorious state of 
those and the like innocents in heaven. 

* The old Collect for St. Stephen's day was this : " Grant ns, O Lord, to learn to love 
our enemies by the example of thy martyr Saint Stephen, who prayed for.his persecu- 
tors to thee, which livest and reignest," &c. 

In the Collect for St. John's day, after the words, " Evangelist Saint John," followed, 
" may attain to thy everlasting gifts, through Jesus Christ our Lord, Amen." 

The Collect for Innocents' day was as follows : " Almighty God, whose praise this day 

the young innocents thy witnesses have confessed and shewed forth, not in speaking but 

in dying ; mortify and kill all vices in us, that in our conversation or life we may express 

thy faith, which with our tongues we do confess, through Jesus Christ our Lord, Amen." 

Alliance of Divine Offices, p. 137. Lond. 1690. 

P 2 


SECT. V. Of the Sunday after Christmas-day. 

IT was a custom among the primitive Chris- 
0ct obser f vS! erIy tians to observe the Octave, or eighth day after 
their principal feasts, with great solemnity, (the 
reasons whereof shall be given in speaking of the particular 
prefaces in the Communion Office hereafter ;) and upon every 
day between the feast and the Octave, as also upon the Octave 
itself, they used to repeat some part of that service which was 
performed upon the feast itself. In imitation of which religious 
custom, this day generally falling within the Octave of Christ- 
mas-day, the Collect then used is repeated now; and the 
Epistle and Gospel still set forth the mysteries of our redemp- 
tion by the birth of Christ. Before the Reformation, instead 
of the present Gospel, was read Luke ii. ver. 33 to ver. 41. 
But then the first of St. Matthew was appointed, which is still 
retained ; excepting that the first seventeen verses, relating 
to our Saviour's genealogy, were left out at the Restoration. 

SECT. VI. Of the Circumcision. 

THIS feast is celebrated by the Church, to 
commemorate the active obedience of Jesus 
Christ in fulfilling all righteousness, which is one 
branch of the meritorious cause of our redemption ; and by 
that means abrogating the severe injunctions of the Mosaical 
establishment, and putting us under the easier terms of the 

. 2. The observation of this feast is not of 
antiquity of very greaj . ant j qu j ty . fa e fi rst mention of it un- 
der this title is in Ivo Carnotensis, who lived 
about the year 1090, a little before St. Bernard, which latter 
has also a sermon upon it. In Isidore, and other more early 
writers, it is mentioned under the name of the Octave of Christ- 
mas. The reason why it was not then observed as the feast 
of the circumcision, was probably because it fell upon the 
calends of January, which was celebrated among the heathens 
with so much disorder and revellings, and other tokens of 
idolatry, that St. Chrysostom calls it topnjy 2ia/3o\tic>)v, the 
Devil's festival. For which reason the sixth general Council 
absolutely forbade the observation of it among Christians. 72 

Concil. Trull. Can. 62. 


8. 3. The proper services are all very suitable T , T c 

u! , * r . T r- xi_ The Lessons. 

to the day. The first Lesson tor the morning Epistle, and 
gives an account of the institution of circum- Gos P el - 
cision ; and the Gospel, of the circumcision of Christ : the 
first Lesson at evening, and the second Lessons and Epistle, 
all tend to the same end, viz. that since the circumcision of 
the flesh is now abrogated, God hath no respect of persons, 
nor requires any more of us than the circumcision of the heart. 
The Collect, Epistle, and Gospel for the day were ell first in- 
serted in 1549. 

SECT. VIL Of the Epiphany. 

THE word Epiphany in Greek signifies Mani- 
festation, and was at first used both for Christ- 
mas-day, when Christ was manifested in the flesh, 
and for this day, (to which it is now more properly appropri- 
ated,) when he was manifested by a star to the Gentiles : from 
which identity of the word, some have concluded that the 
feasts of Christmas-day and the Epiphany were one and the 
same : but that they were two different feasts, observed upon 
two several days, is plain from many of the Fathers. 73 

But besides this common and more usual name, 
we find two other titles given to it by the an- me TofTt! 
cients, viz. ra ayta 0wra, 74 the day of the Holy 
Lights ; and ra Qeotyaveia, the Theophany, or Manifestation of 
God.' 1 ' 3 The first name was given it, as being the day whereon 
they commemorated the baptism of Christ, who from that 
time became a light to those that sat in darkness : upon which 
account this day was as solemn for baptizing the catechumens 
among the Latins, as Easter and Whitsuntide among the 
Greeks. And for the greater solemnity of so high a festival, 
it was the custom to adorn the public churches with a great 
number of lights and tapers, when they came to perform the 
service of the day. The reason of the other name is very 
plain, the feast being instituted in commemoration of the first 
manifestations of our Saviour's divinity. 

. 2. The principal design of the Church's ce- The feast of jt 
lebrating this feast, is to shew our gratitude to to what end in- 
God, in manifesting the Gospel to the Gentile 8tituted - 
world, and vouchsafing to them equal privileges with the Jews, 

73 Aug. Serai. 102, torn. v. col. 914, P. Greg. Naz. in S. Lum. prat. 39, torn. i. p. 624, 
&c. et alii. ;1 Greg. Naz. in Sanct. Lum. " Epiph. Oral, in Ascens. Domini. 


who had been all along his peculiar people ; the first instance 
of which divine favour was in declaring the birth of Christ to 
the wise men of the East. 

Three manifest*- . 3 - But in all, there are three great manifest- 
tions of Christ ations of our Saviour commemorated on this day ; 
ted - all which, St. Chrysostom tells us, happened on 
the same day, though not in the same year : the first of which 
was what I just now mentioned, viz. his manifestation by a 
star, which conducted the wise men to come and worship him, 
which we commemorate in the Collect and Gospel. The e- 
The Lessons, cond manifestation was that of the glorious Trinity 
collect, Epistle, at his baptism, mentioned in the second Lesson 
at morning prayer. The second Lesson at even- 
ing service contains the third, which was the manifestation of 
the glory and divinity of Christ, by his miraculous turning 
water into wine. The first Lesson contains prophecies of the 
increase of the Church by the abundant access of the Gentiles, 
of which the Epistle contains the completion, giving an ac- 
count of the mystery of the Gospel's being revealed to them. 
The Collect and Gospel for this day are the same that were 
used in the ancient offices ; but the Epistle was inserted at the 
first compiling of our Liturgy, instead of part of the Ixth of 
Isaiah, which is now read for the first Lesson in the morning.* 

SECT. VIII. Of the Sundays after the Epiphany. 

The design of the FROM Christmas to Epiphany, the Church's 
Epistles and design in all her proper services, is to set forth 

the humanity of our Saviour, and to manifest him 
in the flesh : but from the Epiphany to Septuagesima Sunday 
(especially in the four following Sundays) she endeavours to 
manifest his divinity, by recounting to us in the Gospels some 
of his first miracles and manifestations of his Deity. The de- 
sign of the Epistles is to excite us to imitate Christ as far as 
we can, and to manifest ourselves his disciples by a constant 
practice of all Christian virtues. 

The collects E- ^' '^ e Collects, Epistles, and Gospels for 
pkties, and GO- the five first Sundays after the Epiphany, are all 

the same as in the Sacramentary of St. Gregory, 

In the Common Prayer Books of king James, and down to the Restoration, Isaiah 
the zlth was by mistake (as I presume) set down for the morning first Lesson, instead 
of the Ixth, from whence the same error is continued in some of our present books. 
The Ixth chapter was undoubtedly designed, being in all the books of king Edward, 
queen Elizabeth, the Scotch Liturgy, and the Scaled Book, at the Restoration. And in 
those books of king James, where the xlth chapter first appears in the table of the Let- 
son* appointed for Holy-days, the Ixth chapter stands against the day in the calendar. 


except that the Collect for the fourth Sunday was a little 
amended at the Restoration,* and that before the Reformation 
the Epistle for that day was the same with the Epistle for the 
first Sunday in Advent. 

The Collect, Epistle, and Gospel for the sixth Sunday were 
all added at the last review ; till when, if there happened to 
be six Sundays after the Epiphany, the Collect, Epistle, and 
Gospel for the fifth Sunday were repeated : though in the 
Salisbury Missal the service of the third Sunday is ordered to 
be used upon such an occasion. 

SECT. IX. Of Septuagesima, Sexagesima, and Quinquage- 
sima Sundays. 

AMONG the several reasons given for the names 
of these Sundays, the most probable seems to be 
this : the first Sunday in Lent, being forty days before Eas- 
ter, was for that reason called Quadragesima Sunday, which 
in Latin signifies forty ; and fifty being the next round num- 
ber above forty, as sixty is to fifty, and seventy to sixty; 
therefore the Sunday immediately preceding Quadragesima 
Sunday, being further from Easter than that was, was called 
Quinquagesima (or fifty) Sunday, which is also fifty days in- 
clusive before Easter: and the two foregoing Sundays, being 
still further distant, were for the same reason called Sexa- 
gesima and Septuagesima (sixty and seventy) Sundays. 

. 2. The observation of these days and the 
weeks following appear to be as ancient as the The t d jf e s j^ of 
times of Gregory the Great. The design of them 
is to call us back from our Christmas feasting and joy, in or- 
der to prepare ourselves for fasting and humiliation in the 
approaching time of Lent; from thinking of the manner of 
Christ's coming into the world, to reflect upon the cause of 
it, viz. our own sins and miseries ; that so being convinced of 
the reasonableness of punishing and mortifying ourselves for 
our sins, we may the more strictly and religiously apply our- 
selves to those duties when the proper time for them comes. 
Some of the more devout Christians observed the whole 
time, from the first of these Sundays to Easter, as a season 
of humiliation and fasting ; though the generality of the peo- 
ple did not begin their fasts till Ash-Wednesday. 

The old Collect was this : " O God, which knowest us to be set in the midst of so 
many and great dangers, that for man's frailness we cannot always stand uprightly : 
Rrant to us the health of body and soul, that all those things which we suffer for sin, by 
thy help we may well pass and overcome, through Christ our Lord. Amen." 


The Collects ^- The Collects, Epistles, and Gospels for 

Eputies, and these days are all the same as in the ancient Li- 
turgies, excepting only the Collect for Quinqua- 
gesima Sunday, which was made new, A. D. 1549. They are 
all of them plainly suitable to the times. The Epistles are all 
three taken out of St. Paul's Epistles to the Corinthians : the 
two first persuade us to acts of mortification and penance, by 
proposing to us St. Paul's example : but because all bodily ex- 
ercises without charity profit us nothing; therefore the Church, 
in the Epistle for Quinquagesima Sunday, recommends charity 
to us, as a necessary foundation for all our other acts of religion. 
The design of the Gospels is much the same with that of 
the Epistles : that for Septuagesima Sunday tells us, by way 
of parable, that all that expect to be rewarded hereafter, must 
perform these religious duties now ; and to all those who have 
been so idle as to neglect their duties all their lifetime hither- 
to, it affords comfort, by assuring them, they may still entitle 
themselves to a reward, if they will now set about them with 
diligence and sincerity. The Gospel for Sexagesima Sunday, 
in another parable, admonishes us to be careful and circum- 
spect in the performance of our duty, since there is scarce one 
in four who profess religion, that brings forth fruit to perfec- 
tion. And, lastly, the Gospel for Quinquagesima Sunday 
shews us how we are to perform these duties ; advising us by 
the example of the blind beggar to add faith to our charity, 
and to continue incessant in our prayers, and not to despair 
of the acceptance of them, because we are not immediately 
heard, but to cry so much the more, Jesus, tJtou Son of Da- 
vid, have mercy on us. 

. 4. The Tuesday after Quinquagesima Sun- 
^ av * s g enera % called Shrove-Tucsday ; a name 
given it from the old Saxon words, shrive, shrift, 
or shrove, which in that language signifies to confess , it be- 
ing a constant custom amongst the Roman Catholics to con- 
fess their sins on that day, in order to receive the blessed Sa- 
crament, and thereby qualify themselves for a more religious 
observation of the. holy time of Lent immediately ensuing. 
But this in process of time was turned into a custom of invita- 
tions, and their taking their leave of flesh and other dainties ; 
and afterwards, by degrees, into sports and merriments, which 
still in that Church make up the whole business of the car- 


SECT. X. Of the Forty days in Lent. 

THOUGH it ought to be the constant endeavour The necessity of 
of a Christian to observe his duty at all times, some set time for 
and to have always a great regard to what God humUiation - 
requires of him ; yet, considering the great corruption of the 
world, and the frailty of our nature, and how often we trans- 
gress the bounds of our duty, and how backward we are to 
cross our fleshly appetites, it is very expedient we should 
have some solemn season appointed for the examining our 
lives, and the exercise of repentance. 

. 2. And accordingly we find that, from the 
very first ages of Christianity, it was customary The *j?*| <lulty 
for the Christians to set apart some time for mor- 
tification and self-denial, to prepare themselves for the feast 
of Easter. Irenaeus, who lived but ninety years from the 
death of St. John, and conversed familiarly with St. Polycarp, 
as Polycarp had with St. John, has happened to let us know, 
though incidentally, that as it was observed in his time, so it 
was in that of his predecessors. 76 

. 3. As to its original, the present lord bishop Itg oriclnal 
of Bath and Wells, in his learned Discourse con- 
cerning Lent, has shewed, by very probable arguments, that 
the Christian Lent took its rise from the Jewish preparation 
to their yearly expiation. He likewise proves out of their own 
writers, that the Jews began their solemn humiliation forty 
days before the expiation. "Wherefore the primitive Chris- 
tians, following their example, set up this fast at the beginning 
of Christianity, as a proper preparative for the commemoration 
of the great expiation of the sins of the whole world. 

. 4. It is true indeed, as to the length of it, 
the Christian Lent was observed with great variety Jrvecuuirst 
at first : some fasting only one day, some two, 
some more, and some for forty days together, i. e. if Eusebius 
be rightly understood by the learned Dr. Grabe : if not, we 
must reduce the forty days to an entire abstinence of forty 
hours only, according to Valesius ; 7T from which number of 
hours some think it is most probable this fast was first called 
TEffffapaKoffTij, or quadragesima ; as beginning about twelve on 
Friday, (the time of our Saviour's falling under the power of 

' Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 1. 5, c. 24, p. 192, D. " Vid. Euseb. ut supra, et Vale*, et 
Bevereg. in loc. p. 247, edit. Reading. 


death,) and continuing till Sunday morning, the time of his 
rising again from the dead. But afterwards it was enlarged to 
a longer time, drawn out into more days, and then weeks, till 
it was at last fixed to forty days , which number seems very 
anciently to have been appropriated to repentance and humili- 
ation. For not to reckon up the forty days in which God 
drowned the world, 78 or the forty years in which the children 
of Israel did penance in the wilderness, 79 or the forty stripes 
by which malefactors were to be corrected ; M whoever con- 
siders that Moses did, not once only, fast this number of 
days, 91 that Elias also fasted in the wilderness the same space 
of time, ei that the Ninevites had precisely as many days al- 
lowed for their repentance, 83 and that our blessed Saviour him- 
self, when he was pleased to fast, observed the same length of 
time : M whoever, I say, considers these things, cannot but 
think that this number of days is very suitable to extraordi- 
nary humiliation. 

8. 5. It receives its name from the time of the 

Why called Lent. 3 , . . . , , , . , ., 

year wherein it is observed ; Lent, in the old 
Saxon language, signifying Spring, being now used to signify 

this spring fast, which always begins so that it 
^Ejuter" 1 at mav en( ^ at E aster ; to remind us of our Saviour's 

sufferings, which ended at his resurrection. 
HOW observed by * During tn ' 8 whole season, they were used 
the primitive to give the most public testimonies of sorrow and 

repentance, and to shew the greatest signs of 
humiliation that can be imagined : no marriages were allowed 
of, nor any thing that might give the least occasion to mirth 
or cheerfulness ; w insomuch that they would not celebrate the 
memories of the Apostles or martyrs, that happened within 
this time, upon the ordinary week-days, but transferred the 
commemoration of them to the Saturdays or Sundays. 86 For 
the Eastern Christians, as I have already observed, 87 celebrated 
Saturday as well as Sunday as a day of festival devotions. But 
except on those two days, even the holy eucharist was not 
consecrated during the whole time of Lent, that being an act, 
as those Fathers thought, more suitable and proper for a fes- 
tival than a fast.** On those days indeed they consecrated 
enough to supply the communions of each day, till either 

Gen. vil. 4. " Numb. xlr. 34. Dnt. XXY. 3. Deut. Ix. 9, 18, 25. 
* 1 Kinff* xtx. 8. Jonah 1U. 4. Matt iv. 2. Concil. Laod. Can. 52, 
torn. 1. col. 1505, C. * Concil. Laod. Can. 51. " Page 186. Ibid. Can. 49. 


Saturday or Sunday returned again. For though the sacra- 
ment was not consecrated on the ordinary week-days, yet it 
was customary to receive it every day ; and therefore to those 
that came to communicate upon any of those days, they ad- 
ministered out of what the Greeks call the Trpoj/yiaoyzeVa, the 
Latins prcesanctificata, both which words signify the same 
thing, viz. the bread and wine that were ready consecrated. 

Nor was the demeanour of the primitive Christians at home 
less strict and austere than their discipline at church ; they lay 
in sackcloth and ashes, and took no care of their garb or dress ; 
they used no other food but what was necessary to preserve 
life ; 89 some abstaining from flesh and wine ; others, especially 
the Greeks, forbearing all fish likewise as well as flesh : some 
contented themselves with eggs and fruits; others forbore both, 
and lived upon bread, herbs, and roots : but all agreed in this, 
viz. that whereas at other seasons their fasts continued but till 
three in the afternoon, they would not on any day in Lent eat 
till the evening, 90 and then such food as was least delicate. 91 

SECT. XL Of Ash- Wednesday, or the first day of Lent. 

THE first day of Lent had formerly two names, 
one of which was Caput Jejunii, the Head of the 
Fast; the other, Dies Cinerum, Ash-Wednes- 
day. The first compellation was given because Lent began 
on that day ; for since it was never the custom of the Church 
to fast on Sundays, (whereon we commemorate so great a 
blessing as our Saviour's resurrection,) therefore we begin 
Lent on this day, to supply the room of those Sundays. For 
if you deduct out of the six weeks of Lent the six Sundays, 
there will remain but thirty-six fasting-days, to which these four 
of this week being added, make up the exact number of forty. 

. 2. The name of Ash-Wednesday proceeded 
from a custom in the ancient discipline, which ^JnH^Hat 81 *" 

i i j weauesaay. 

began very early to be exercised on this day ; an 
account whereof we have in Gratian 93 as follows : 

On the first day of Lent the penitents were to present them- 
selves before the bishop clothed with sackcloth, with naked 
feet, and eyes turned to the ground : and this was to be done 
in the presence of the principal of the clergy of the diocese, who 

89 Tertull. de Poenit. passim. 9 Basil. Horn. 1, de Jejun. et Prudent. Hymn, ante 
Cibum. Epiphan. Expos. Fid. Cathol. c. 22, torn. i. p. 1105, B.C. w 1 Part 
Deer. Dist. 50, c. 64, torn. i. p. 331. 


were to judge of the sincerity of their repentance. These in- 
troduced them into the church, where the bishop, all in tears, 
and the rest of the clergy, repeated the seven penitential 
psalms. Then rising from prayers, they threw ashes upon 
them, and covered their heads with sackcloth ; and then with 
mournful sighs declared to them that as Adam was thrown out 
of Paradise, so they must be thrown out of the Church. 
Then the bishop commanded the officers to turn them out of 
the church-doors ; and all the clergy followed after, repeating 
that curse upon Adam, In the srceat of thy broro shall thou 
eat thy bread. The like penance was inflicted upon them the 
next time the Sacrament was administered, which was the 
Sunday following. And all this was done to the end that the 
penitents, observing how great a disorder the Church was in by 
reason of their crimes, should not lightly esteem of penance. 
How observed 3. Though this discipline was severe, yet the 
by the churchof many good consequences of it shewed it worthy 

the imitation of all Churches in succeeding ages ; 
and ours in particular heartily bewails the want of it : but till 
she can be so happy as to succeed in discharging those obli- 
gations she lies under to restore it, she supplies that want, by 
adding to her ordinary service a very proper and suitable office 
called the Commination, which shall be treated of hereafter in 
its turn. 

. 4. In the ordinary morning and evening 

service, instead of the Psalms for the day, are 
appointed six of David's penitential Psalms, (the seventh be- 
ing used in the office of Commination :) concerning which we 
need only observe, that they are tho very forms wherein that 
royal prophet expressed his repentance, and were all composed 
by him in times of affliction, and contain supplications and 
prayers to be delivered from all temporal and spiritual ene- 
mies ; and have, for this reason, been very much esteemed of 
in the Church in all ages, 93 and were always thought proper to 
be used in times of humiliation and repentance. 
The Collect, **. The Collect for this day was made new at 
Epintie, nd' the compiling of the. Liturgy ; the Epistle and 

Gospel were taken out of the old offices. For 
the former is read part of Joel, which, together with the latter, 
cautions us to be very careful, that, whilst we seem to be ready 
at all external signs of sorrow, we be not void of internal con- 

** Greg. Maj. Comment, in 7 Pal. Pirn. torn. ill. col. 369, ftc. 


. 6. There are no proper Lessons appointed NO Lessons ap- 
for this day, which I presume proceeded from an pointed. 
omission of the compilers. 

SECT. XIL Of the Sundays in Lent. 

THOUGH the Church allows us to interrupt our The Co iiects, 
fasts on the Sundays in Lent, by reason of the Epistles, and 
eminency of those days ; yet, lest the pleasant- 
ness of those intervals should entice us to a discontinuance of 
our mortification and abstinence in the returning week-days, 
when we ought to renew it with the greater zeal, she takes care 
to remind us of the duties we have undertaken, and therefore 
in the Epistles (which were continued from the old Missals) 
sets before us the obligations we lie under of returning to our 
acts of self-denial and humiliation. But because all this with- 
out charity is nothing worth, the Gospels (which are of the 
same antiquity) are designed to excite us to the exercise of that 
great duty in all its branches, by proposing to us the example 
of our great Lord and Master, the blessed Jesus, who not only 
fasted and withstood the greatest temptations of doing evil in 
his own person, 94 but went about seeking opportunities of do- 
ing good to others ; healing the sick, 95 feeding the hungry, 96 
blessing those that cursed him, 97 and doing good to those that 
despitefully used him: 98 in all which actions we are, at this 
time especially, bound to imitate him. The Collects, as well 
as the Epistles and Gospels, for all these Sundays, are the 
same that we meet with in the old offices, excepting that the 
first was made new at the Reformation, and the last is, in the 
Liturgy of St. Ambrose, appointed for Good-Friday. 

. 2. The Sundays in Lent are by our own 
Church, as well as the Greek, generally termed Su h n ^ y n ^ nt> 
by their number, being called the first, second, 
and third Sunday, &c. in Lent ; but the three last are some- 
times distinguished by particular names of their own : the 
fourth, for instance, is with us generally called 
Midlent-Sunday : though bishop Sparrow, and M 
some others, term it Dominica Refectionis, the Sunday of 
Refreshment .- the reason of which, I suppose, is the Gospel 
for the day, which treats of our Saviour's miraculously feeding 
five thousand ; or else perhaps the first Lesson in the morning, 
which gives us the story of Joseph's entertaining his brethren. 

9 * Gospel for the first Sunday in Lent. i For the second. * For the third. 
97 For the fourth. ** For the fifth. 


The probable rise ^ n( ^ ^ e appointment of these Scriptures upon 
of Midienting or this day might probably give the first rise to a 
custom still retained in many parts of England, 
and well known by the name of Midienting or Mothering. 

Passion-Sunday ^ ne ^^ Sunday in Lent is, by the Latins 

especially, often called Passion- Sunday ; though 

I think that would be a more proper name for the Sunday fol- 

lowing : but the reason, I suppose, why that title is thrown 

back to this, is because the Sunday next before Easter is 

generally called Palm-Sundaii, in commemora- 

Palm-Sunday. P, / o . .. 11 j. T 

tion of our baviour s triumphal entry into Jeru- 
salem, when the multitude that attended him strewed palm- 
branches in his way: 99 in remembrance of which palms were 
used to be borne here with us upon this day till the second 
year of king Edward VI. 100 

SECT. XIIL Of the Passion -Week. 

Passion-week '^ HE fN wm g week was by some looked upon 
as a distinct time of fasting from the foregoing 
Lent, and as instituted upon different accounts : that being 
observed in imitation of our Saviour's fasting, &c., as has been 
already observed ; this in commemoration of his sufferings and 
passion, which were then completed. 1 But by others it was 
only accounted a continuation of the same fast in a stricter 
degree : it being generally called the great roeek? not because 
it had more hours or days in it than any other week, but be- 
cause in this week was transacted an affair of the greatest im- 
portance to the happiness of man, and actions truly great were 
performed to secure his salvation : death was conquered, the 
devil's tyranny was abolished, the partition-wall betwixt Jew 
and Gentile was broken down, and God and man were recon- 
ciled. 3 It was also called the holy f meek, from 
ow'" tnose devout exercises which Christians employed 
formerly oo- themselves in upon this occasion. They applied 
themselves to prayer, both in public and private, 
to hearing and reading God's holy word, and exercising a most 
solemn repentance for those sins which crucified the Lord of 
life. They observed the whole week with great strictness of 

Iid. Hispal. de Offlc. Eccl. lib. 1, cap. 27. Collier's History, vol. ii. p. 241. 
1 Anastaiiua Antiochenus (qui vivit 655) in Coteleri Notis in Const. Apostol. 1. 5, c. 13, 
torn. 1. p. 316, edit. Cleric. Antw. 1698, et Matthsus Monachus ibid. Vide Vales. 
in Euseb. 1. 5, c, 24, p. 247, col. 2, edit. Reading. CUrys. Horn. 30, in Gen. zi 1 
torn. i. p. 23.1. 


fasting and humiliation ; some fasting three days together ; 
some four ; and others, who could bear it, the whole six ; be- 
ginning on Monday morning, and not eating any thing again 
till cock-crowing on the Sunday morning following. And se- 
veral of the Christian emperors, to shew what veneration they 
had for this holy season, caused all lawsuits to cease, and tri- 
bunal doors to be shut, and prisoners to be set free ; 4 thereby 
imitating their great Lord and Master, who by his death at 
this time delivered us from the prison and chains of sin. 

. 2. The Church of England uses all the Ho w observed by 
means she can to retain this decent and pious the church of 
custom, and hath made sufficient provision for ng an ' 
the exercise of the devotion of her members in public ; call- 
ing us every day this week to meditate upon our Lord's suf- 
ferings, and collecting in the Lessons, Epistles, and Gospels, 
most of those portions of Scripture that relate to this tragical 
subject, to increase our humiliation by the consideration of 
our Saviour's ; to the end that with penitent hearts, and firm 
resolution of dying likewise to sin, we may attend our Saviour 
through the several stages of his bitter passion. 

8. 3. Our reformers did not much confine them- ,, ,, 

i i /-< i i f i 11 The Gospels. 

selves to the Gospels appointed for this week by 
the ancient offices ; but thought, as there was time enough to 
admit of it, it would be most regular and useful to read all the 
four Evangelists' accounts of our Saviour's passion, as they 
stand in order. To this end they have ordered St. Matthew's 
account on the Sunday, appointing the xxvith chapter for the 
second Lesson, and the xxviith, as far as relates to his crucifix- 
ion, for the Gospel.* On Monday and Tuesday is read the 
story as by St. Mark ; on Wednesday and Thursday that by 
St. Luke,f and on Good-Friday the xviiith of St. John is ap- 
pointed for the second Lesson, and the xixth for the Gospel.J 

The Epistles also that are now appointed are . fi 
more suitable to the season, than those that were 
found in older offices. 

As for the Collect, the same that is used on the . , c . 
Sunday before is appointed (as indeed a very pro- 

Both the xxvith and xxviith chapters were read for the Gospel on the Sunday before 
Sailer till the last review, and the xxviith was continued to the end of the 56th verse. 

t The xvth of St. Mark, which was the Gospel for Tuesday, and Luke xxiii., which 
was appointed for Wednesday, were in all former books read throughout. 

J Both the chapters of St. John were appointed for the Gospel in the former books. 
Cod. Theod. lib. 9, tit. 35, de Quaestione 4, torn. iii. p. 252. 


per one) to be used on the four days following till Good-Fri- 
day : on which day it is also appointed in the Liturgy of St. 
Ambrose, though in^other offices it is found, as with us, upon 
the Sunday before. 

SECT. XIV. Of the Thursday before Easter. 

Maundy-Tnurs- THIS day is called (Dies Mandati) Mandate or 
day, why so call- Maundy- Thursday , from the commandment 

which our Saviour gave his Apostles to com- 
memorate the Sacrament of his Supper, which he this day in- 
stituted after the celebration of the Passover ; and which was, 
for that reason, generally received in the evening of the day : 6 
or, as others think, from that neve commandment which he 
gave them to love one another, after he had washed their feet, 
in token of the love he bore to them, as is recorded in the 
second Lesson at morning prayer. 

. 2. The Gospel for this day is suitable to the 
EpUitle p^ a Go8 - time, as treating of our Saviour's passion ; but 

the Epistle is something different, containing an 
account of the institution of the Lord's Supper: the constant 
celebration of which on this day, both in the morning and in 
the evening, after supper, 6 in commemoration of its being first 
instituted at that time, rendered that portion of Scripture very 
suitable to the day. 

The form of re- ^' ^ n this day the Penitents, that were put 
concUing Peni- out of the church upon Ash-Wednesday, were 

received again into the church, partly that they 
might be partakers of the holy Communion, and partly in re- 
membrance of our Lord's being on this day apprehended and 
bound, in order to work our deliverance and freedom. 7 

The form of reconciling Penitents was this : the bishop went 
out to the doors of the church where the Penitents lay pros- 
trate upon the earth, and thrice, in the name of Christ, called 
them, Come, come, come, ye children, hearken to me ; I mill 
teach you the fear of the Lord. Then, after he had prayed 
for them, and admonished them, he reconciled them, and 
brought them into the church. The Penitents thus received, 
trimmed their heads and beards, and laying off their peniten- 
tial weeds, reclothed themselves in decent apparel.* 

Concil. Carthag. 3, Can. 29. Codex. Can. Eccles. Afrir. Can. 41. Concil. Car- 
thag. 3, Can. 29. Codex Can. Eccles. Afric. Can. 41. Concil. Trul. Can. 29. Aug. ad 
Jan. Ep. 118. ' Innocent. Ernst, ut citat. ab Ivo, part. 15, cap. 40, et a Barchardo, 
1. 18, c. 18. Caplt. 1. 7, c. 143. 


. 4. It may not be amiss to observe, that the The cnurch . 
church-doors used to be all set open on this day, doors always set 
to signify that penitent sinners, coming from open 
north or south, or any part of the world, should be received 
to mercy, and the Church's favour. 

SECT. XV. Of Good-Friday. 

THIS day received its name from the blessed m go ca]led 
effects of our Saviour's sufferings, which are the 
ground of all our joy, and from those unspeakable good things 
he hath purchased for us by his death, whereby the blessed 
Jesus made expiation for the sins of the whole world, and, by 
the shedding his own blood, obtained eternal redemption for 
us. Among the Saxons it was called Long -Friday ,- 9 but for 
what reasons (excepting for the long fastings and offices they 
then used) does not appear. 

. 2. The Commemoration of our Saviour's 
sufferings hath been kept from the very first age Why ^^ed as 
of Christianity, 10 and was always observed as a 
day of the strictest fasting and humiliation ; not that the grief 
and affliction they then expressed did arise from the loss they 
sustained, but from a sense of the guilt of the sins of the 
whole world, which drew upon our blessed Redeemer that 
painful and shameful death of the Cross. 

. 3. The Gospel for this day (besides its com- The Gospel> why 
ing in course) is properly taken out of St. John taken out of 
rather than any other Evangelist, because he was s< 
the only one that was present at the passion, and stood by the 
cross while others fled : and therefore, the passion being as it 
were represented before our eyes, his testimony is read who 
saw it himself, and from whose example we may learn not to 
be ashamed or afraid of the cross of Christ. 11 The . 
The Epistle proves from the insufficiency of the 
Jewish sacrifices, that they only typified a more sufficient 
one, which the Son of God did as on this day offer up, and by 
one oblation of himself then made upon the cross, completed 
all the other sacrifices, (which were only shadows of this,) and 
made full satisfaction for the sins of the whole world. In 
imitation of which Divine and infinite love, the The Collect 
Church endeavours to shew her charity to be 

9 See the thirty-seventh Canon of Elfric in Mr. Johnson's Ecclesiastical Laws, A. D. 
957. ' Euseb. Hist. Eccl. lib. 2, cap. 17, p. 57, B. Apost. Const. 1. 5, c. 13. 
11 Rupertus de Officiis Divinii, 1. 6, c. 8. 


boundless and unlimited, by praying in one of the proper Col- 
lects, that the effects of Christ's death may be as universal 
as the design of it, viz. that it may tend to the salvation of 
all, Jews, Turks, Infidels, and Heretics.* 

8. 4. How suitable the proper psalms are to 

The Psalms. , , s j , , . , 

the day, is obvious to any one that reads them 
with a due attention : they were all composed by David in 
times of the greatest calamity and distress, and do most of 
them belong mystically to the crucifixion of our Saviour; 
especially the twenty-second, which is the first for the morn- 
ing, which was in several passages literally fulfilled by his 
sufferings, and either part of it, or all, recited by him upon 
the cross. 12 And for that reason (as St. Austin tells us) 13 was 
always used upon that day by the African Church. 

8. 5. The first Lesson for the morning is 

The Lessons. /-, " -. . 

Genesis xxn., containing an account of Abra- 
ham's readiness to offer up his son ; thereby typifying that 
perfect oblation which was this day made by the Son of God : 
which was thought so proper a Lesson for this occasion, that 
the Church used it upon this day in St. Austin's time. 14 The 
second Lesson is St. John xviii., which needs no explana- 
tion. The first Lesson for the evening 15 contains a clear pro- 
phecy of the passion of Christ, and of the benefits which the 
Church thereby receives. The second Lesson 16 exhorts us to 
patience under afflictions, from the example of Christ, who 
suffered so much for us. 

SECT. XVI. Of Easter-eve. 

HOW observed in THIS ^ ve was * n tne ancient Church celebrated 
the primitive with more than ordinary devotions, with solemn 
watchings, with multitudes of lighted torches 
both in their churches and their own private houses, and 
with a general resort and confluence of all ranks of people. 17 
At Constantinople it was observed with most magnificent 
illuminations, not only within the Church, but without. All 
over the city lighted torches were set up, or rather pillars of 
wax, which gloriously turned the night into day. 18 All which 
was designed as a forerunner of that great light, even the 

* In the first Common Prayer Book of king Edward, the first of the Collect* for this 
day is appointed to be used at matins only ; the other two at the Communion. 

' See Matt, xxvll. 35, 43, 46. u Aug. in Psalm, xxi. in Pnefat. Serm. 2. 

" August. Temp. 71. Isaiah liii. il Peter ii. Greg. Nax. 
Oral. 42, torn. i. p. 67G, D. ' Euseb. Vit. Const, lib. 4, cap. 22, p. 536, A. B. 


Sun of Righteousness, which the next day arose upon the 

As the day was kept as a strict fast, so the vigil continued 
at least till midnight, the congregation not being dismissed till 
that time ; 19 it being a tradition of the Church, that our Sa- 
viour rose a little after midnight : but in the East the vigil 
lasted till cock-crowing ; the time being spent in reading the 
Law and the Prophets, in expounding the holy Scriptures, 
and in baptizing the catechumens. 20 

8. 2. Such decent solemnities would in these ,,,.,,,.,,, 

j f .... Jiuw uuHcrveu uy 

days be looked upon as popish and antichnstian : the Church of 
for which reason, since they are only indifferent En & land - 
(though innocent) ceremonies, the Church of England hath 
laid them aside : but for the exercise of the devotions of her 
true sons, she retains as much of the primitive discipline as 
she can ; advising us to fast in private, and calling us together 
in public, to meditate upon our Saviour's death, burial, ana 
descent into hell : which article of our faith the public service 
of the Church this day confirms, the Gospel 
treating of Christ's body lying in the grave, the The ^"1. and 
Epistle of his soul's descent into hell. It is true, 
the Epistle is by some people otherwise interpreted : but the 
other parts of it are, notwithstanding, very proper for Easter- 
eve ; the former part of it exciting us to suffer cheerfully, 
even though for well doing, after the example of Christ, who, 
as at this time, had once suffered for sins, the just for the un- 
just ; the latter part shewing us the end and efficacy of bap- 
tism, which was always, in the primitive Church, administered 
to the catechumens on this day. 

8. 3. Till the Scotch Liturgy was compiled, 

,i . i n 11 . 1? .1 j Ti The Collect. 

there was no particular Collect for this day ; those 
for Good-Friday, I suppose, were repeated : and that which 
was appointed in the Scotch Liturgy was different from our 
present one, which I shall therefore give the reader below.* 

SECT. XVIL Of Easter-day. 
HAVING now, as it were, with the Apostles and 
first believers, stood mournfully by the cross on 

O most gracious God, look upon us in mercy, and grant that as we are baptized 
into the death of thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ ; so by our true and hearty repent- 
ance all our sins may be buried with him, and we not fear the grave : that as Christ was 
raised up from the dead by the glory of thee, O Father, so we also may walk in newness 
of life, but our sins never be able to rise in judgment against us, and that for the merit 
of Jesus Christ, that died, was buried, and rose again for us. Amen. 

18 Const. Apost. lib. 5, cap. 18. Const. Apost. lib. 5, cap. 14, 17, 18. 

Q 2 


Good-Friday, and on the day following been again over- 
whelmed with grief, for the loss of the Bridegroom ; the 
Church this day, upon the first notice of his resurrection from 
the grave, calls upon us, with a becoming and holy transport, 
to turn our heaviness into joy, to put off our sackcloth, and 
gird ourselves with gladness. 

when first ob- ^- That in and from the times of the Apos- 
served, and why ties, there has been always observed an anniver- 
sary festival in memory of Christ's resurrection, 
(which from the old Saxon word osier, signifying to rise, we 
call Easter-day, or the day of the resurrection ; or, as others 
think, from one of the Saxon goddesses called Easter, which 
they always worshipped at this time of the year,) no man can 
doubt, that hath any insight into the affairs of the ancient 
Church : in those purer times, the only dispute being not about 
the thing, but the particular time when the festival was to be 
kept. But of this I have said enough before. 21 

8. 3. As for the manner of observing it, we 

The anthems in- / S .1 . . i . j .1 

stead of the Ve- find that it was always accounted the queen, or 
nrte Exuitemus, highest of festivals, and celebrated with the 
greatest solemnity. 22 In the primitive times the 
Christians of all Churches on this day used this morning sa- 
lutation, Christ is risen ; to which those who were saluted 
answered, Christ is risen indeed ; or else thus, and hath ap- 
peared unto Simon ,- 23 a custom still retained in the Greek 
Church. 24 And our Church, supposing us as eager of the joy- 
ful news as they were, is loath to withhold from us long the 
pleasure of expressing it ; and therefore, as soon as the Abso- 
lution is pronounced, and we are thereby rendered fit for re- 
joicing, she begins her office of praise with anthems proper to 
the day, encouraging her members to call upon one another 
to keep the feast : for that Christ our Passover is sacrificed 
for us, and is also risen from t/ic dead, and become the first- 
fruits of them that slept, &c.* 

* The first of these sentences was added at the last review : the second (which was 
the first in king Edward's first Common Prayer) was concluded with two Allelujahs, 
and the next with one. After which was inserted as follows : 

" The Prittt. Shew forth to all nations the glory of God. 
" The Amicer. And among all people his wonderful works. 

" Let us pray. 

" O God, who for our redemption didst (five thine only-begotten Son to the death of 
the cross; and, by his glorious resurrection, hast delivered us from the power of our 
enemy ; grant us so to die dally from sin. that we may evermore live with him in the 
joy of his Resurrection, through the same Christ our Lord. Amen." 

' See page 36, fcc. Greg. Naz. Orat. 42. torn. i. p. 676, C. Luke xxiv. 34. 
* Dr. Smith's Account of the Greek Church, p. 32. 


8. 4. The Psalms for the morning are Psalm ii. 

i t rni_ c. i c u- v. J i- The Psalms. 

Ivii. cxi. I he first ot which was composed by 
David, upon his being triumphantly settled in his kingdom, 
after some short opposition made by his enemies : but it is also 
(as the Jews themselves confess) a prophetical representation 
of Christ's inauguration to his regal and sacerdotal offices; 
who after he had been violently opposed, and even crucified 
by his adversaries, was raised from the dead, by the power of 
his Father, and exalted to those great offices in the successful 
exercise whereof our salvation consists. The Iviith Psalm was 
occasioned by David's being delivered from Saul, by whom he 
was pursued after he had been so merciful to him in the cave, 
when he had it in his power to destroy him ; and, in a mystical 
sense, contains Christ's triumph over death and hell. The last 
Psalm for the morning is a thanksgiving to God for all the 
marvellous works of our redemption, of which the resurrection 
of Christ is the chief; and therefore, though the Psalm does 
not peculiarly belong to the day, yet it is very suitable to the 
business of it. 

The Psalms for evening prayer are cxiii. cxiv. cxviii. The 
cxiiith was designed to set forth, in several particulars, the ad- 
mirable providence of God, which being never more discernible 
than in the great work of our redemption, this Psalm can never 
be more seasonably recited. The cxivth Psalm is a thanks- 
giving for the deliverance of Israel out of Egypt ; which being 
a type of our deliverance from death and hell, makes this 
Psalm very proper for this day. The last Psalm for the day 
is the cxviiith, which is supposed to have been composed at 
first upon account of the undisturbed peace of David's king- 
dom, after the ark was brought into Jerusalem : but it was 
secondarily intended for our Saviour's resurrection, to which 
we find it applied both by St. Matthew and St. Luke. 25 

. 5. The first Lessons for the morning and The LegsonSi 
evening service contain an account of the Pass- collect, Epistle, 
over, and of the Israelites' deliverance out of ai 
Egypt, both very suitable to the day : for by their Passover 
Christ our Passover was prefigured ; and the deliverance of 
the Israelites out of Egypt, and the drowning of Pharaoh and 
his host in the Red Sea, was a type of our deliverance from 
death and sin, which is done away by our being baptized with 
water into Christ. The Gospel and the second Lesson for the 

Matt. xxi. 42. Acts iv. 11. 


evening give us the full evidence of Christ's resurrection ; and 
the Epistle and the second Lesson for the morning teach us 
what use we must make of it. 

The Collect, Epistle, and Gospel are all very old : in the 
first book of king Edward they are appointed for the first com- 
munion ; for I have observed,* that upon the great feasts they 
had then two communions, and a distinct service at each. 
For the second communion they had the same Collect which 
we now use upon the first Sunday after Easter. The Epistle 
for that service was 1 Cor. v. 6, to ver. 9 ; the Gospel was 
Mark xvi. to ver. 9. 

SECT. XVIIL Of the Monday and Tuesday in Easter- Week. 
AMONG the primitive Christians this queen of 
betwrJn^Easter f eas ^ 8 t a8 those Fathers called it, was so highly 
and Whitsuntide esteemed, that it was solemnized fifty days to- 
formeriyob g et her, even from Easter to Whitsuntide j 27 and 

this so strictly in the Spanish Church, that even 
the rogations were amongst them deferred by an order of 
council till Whitsuntide was over ;* 9 during which whole time 
baptism was conferred, all fasts were suspended and counted 
unlawful, they prayed standing, (as they were wont to do every 
Lord's day in token of joy,) thereby making every one of 
those days in a manner equal to Sunday. As devotion abated, 
this feast was shortened ; yet long after Tertullian, even to 
Gratian's time and downwards, the whole weeks of Easter and 
Whitsuntide were reckoned as holy-days. 29 And in our own 
Church, though she hath appointed Epistles and Gospels for 
the Monday and Tuesday only of this week, which contain 
full evidences of our Saviour's resurrection ; * yet she makes 
provision for the solemn observation of the whole week, by 
appointing a preface suitable to the season for eight days to- 
gether in the office of Communion. 

Easter-week, ^- The occasion of this week's solemnity was 

why so solemnly principally intended for the expressing our joy 

for our Lord's resurrection. But among the an- 
cients there was another peculiar reason for the more solemn 

* Formerly three days were appointed as holy -days at Easter and Whitsuntide, 11 and 
then it is probable that the Wednesday also had an Epistle and Gospel. 

Page 206. Tert. de Jejuniis. c. 14, p. 552, B. De Idol. c. 14, p. 94, B. De 

Coron. Mil. c. 3, p. 102, A. Condi. Nicen. Can. 20, torn. ii. col. 37. Concil. Ge- 

rundens, Can. 2. Strabo de Offlc. Krrlcs. 1. 2, c. 34. * Gratian de Consecrat. Dist. 
S, c. 1, p. 2421. See archbishop Iilep's Constitution in Mr. Johnson's Ecclesiasti- 
cal Laws, and his note upon it, A. D. 1362, 3. 


observation of this week. For except in cases of necessity 
they administered baptism at no other times than Easter and 
Whitsuntide ; at Easter, in memory of Christ's death and re- 
surrection, (correspondent to which are the two parts of the 
Christian life represented in baptism, dying unto sin, and ris- 
ing again unto newness of life ,-) and at Whitsuntide, in me- 
mory of the Apostles being then baptized with the Holy Ghost 
and with fire, and of their having themselves at that time 
baptized three thousand souls; 31 this communication of the 
Holy Ghost to the Apostles being in some measure represented 
and conveyed by baptism. After these times, they made it 
part of their festivity the week following to congratulate the 
access of a new Christian progeny : the new-baptized coming 
each day to church in white garments, with lights before 
them, in token that they had now laid aside their works of 
darkness, and were become the children of light, and had 
made a resolution to lead a new, innocent, and unspotted life. 32 
At church, thanksgivings and prayers were made for them, and 
those that were at years of discretion (for in those times many 
such came in from heathenism) were instructed in the princi- 
ples and ways of Christianity : but afterwards, when most of 
the baptized were infants, and so not capable of such solemni- 
ties, this custom was altered, and baptism administered at all 
times of the year, as at the beginning of Christianity. 
8. 3. The first Lesson for Monday morning 33 _, T 

o J . o The Lessons. 

treats about God s sending the Israelites manna 
or bread from heaven, which was a type of our blessed Saviour, 
who was the bread of life that came down from heaven, of 
which whosoever eateth hath eternal life. The first Lesson 
for Monday evening 34 contains the history of the vanquishing 
the Amalekites, by the holding up of Moses's hands ; by which 
posture he put himself into the form of a cross, and exactly 
typified the victory which Christians obtain over their spiritual 
enemies by the cross of Christ. The smiting also of the rock, 
out of which came water, (mentioned in the same chapter,) is 
another type of our Saviour : for as the water flowing from 
the rock quenched the Israelites' thirst ; so our Saviour, smit- 
ten upon the cross, gave forth that living water, of which who- 
soever drinketh shall never thirst. The second Lessons 36 
contain full testimonies of our Saviour's resurrection ; that for 


Acts ii. 41. ss Ambr. de Initiand. c. 7, torn. iv. col. 348. ss Exod. xvL 
34 Exod. xvii. 1 Cor. x. 4. 30 Matt, xxviii. and Acts iii. 


the morning giving an historical account of it ; the other for 
the evening containing a relation of a lame man being restored 
to his feet, through faith in the name of Christ, which was an 
undeniable proof that he was then alive. 

The first Lesson for Tuesday morning 37 contains the Ten 
Commandments, which were communicated to the people 
from God by the ministry of Moses, wherein he prefigured 
our Saviour, who was to be a prophet like unto him, 38 i. e. who 
was to bring down a new law from heaven, and more perfectly 
to reveal the divine will to man. The first Lesson at even- 
ing 39 represents Moses interceding with God for the children 
of Israel, for whom (rather than God should impute to them 
their sins) he desired even to die, and be blotted out of tJie 
book of life : thereby also typifying Christ, who died and teas 
made a curse for us.* The second Lesson for the morning 41 
is a further evidence of our Saviour's resurrection ; and that for 
the evening 42 proves, by his resurrection, the necessity of ours. 

The Epistles and Gospels for these days are the same as in 
old offices ; but the Collect for Tuesday, till the last review, 
was what we now use on the Sunday after, being the same 
that in king Edward's first Common Prayer Book was ap- 
pointed for the second communion on Easter-day. 

SECT. XIX. Of the Sundays after Easter. 

. UPON the octave, or first Sunday after Easter- 
day, it was a custom of the ancients to repeat 
some part of the solemnity which was used upon 
Easter-day : from whence this Sunday took the name of Low- 
Sunday, being celebrated as a feast, though of a lower de- 
gree than Easter-day itself. In Latin it is called 
mtate'iif AIW Dominica in Albis, or rather post Albas, (sc. de- 
positas,} as some ritualists call it, i. e. tJie Sun- 
day of putting off tlie chrysoms ; because those that were 
baptized on Easter-eve, on this day laid aside those white 
robes or chrysoms which were put upon them at their bap- 
tism, and which were now laid up in the churches, that they 
might be produced as evidences against them, if they should 
afterwards violate or deny that faith which they had professed 
in their baptism. And we may still observe, that the Epistle 
seems to be the remains of such a solemnity ; for it contains 

* Exod. xx. Deut. xvlii. 15. Exod. xxxil. Gal. ill. IS. 
Luke xxiv. to rer. 13. 1 Cor. XT. 


an exhortation to new-baptized persons, that are born of God, 
to labour to overcome the world, which at their baptism they 
had resolved to do. Both that and the Gospel were used 
very anciently upon this day : but in all the old books, ex- 
cept the first of king Edward, the Collect for Easter-day was 
ordered to be repeated; but at the last review, the Collect 
prescribed in that first book was again inserted on this day ; 
it being the same which was originally appointed for the second 
communion on Easter-day itself, which was then also used on 
the Tuesday following. 

.2. As for the other Sundays after Easter, 
we have already observed, that they were all E^"^^ 
spent in joyful commemorations of our Saviour's Gospels for the 
resurrection, and the promise of the Comforter ; a^Sr? 8 
and accordingly we find, that both those grand 
occasions of joy and exultation are the principal subjects of 
all the Gospels from Easter to Whitsuntide. But, lest our joy 
should grow presumptuous and luxuriant, (joy being always 
apt to exceed,) the Epistles for the same time exhort us to 
the practice of such duties as are answerable to the profession 
of Christians ; admonishing us to believe in Christ, to rise from 
the death of sin, to be penitent, loving, meek, charitable, &c., 
having our blessed Lord himself for our example, and the 
promise of his Spirit for our strength, comfort, and guide. 

The Collect for the second Sunday was made new in 1549, 
and that for the fourth was corrected in the beginning of it* 
at the last review : but the other Collects are very old, as are 
all the Epistles and Gospels, which are very suitable to the 
season ; especially the Gospel for the fifth Sunday, which 
seems to be allotted to that day upon two accounts : first, be- 
cause it foretells our Saviour's ascension, which the Church 
commemorates on the Thursday following ; and, secondly, be- 
cause it is applicable to the rogations, which were performed 
on the three following days, of which therefore we shall sub- 
join a short account. 

SECT. XX. Of the Rogation-days. 

ABOUT the middle of the fifth century, Ma- Rogation ^ a ,. 8) 
mercus, bishop of Vienne, upon the prospect of when first OD- ' 
some particular calamities that threatened his 8erved - 

* The old beginning of it was, " Almighty God, which dost make the minds of all 
faithful men to be of one will, Grant," &c. 


diocese, appointed that extraordinary prayers and supplica- 
tions should be offered up with fasting to God, for averting 
those impendent evils, upon the three days immediately pre- 
ceding the day of our Lord's ascension; 43 from which sup- 
plications (which the Greeks call Litanies, but 
An caUed y . s ^ e Latins Rogations] these days have ever since 
been called Rogation-days. For some few years 
after, this example was followed by Sidonius, bishop of Cler- 
mont, (though he indeed hints that Mamercus was rather the 
restorer than the inventor of the rogations, 44 ) and in the be- 
ginning of the sixth century the first Council of Orleans ap- 
pointed that they should be yearly observed. 45 

. 2. In these fasts the Church had a regard, 

SeirlnstitutLn. not on ty to P re P are our minds to celebrate our 
Saviour's ascension after a devout manner ; but 
also, by fervent prayer and humiliation to appease God's 
wrath, and deprecate his displeasure, that so he might avert 
those judgments which the sins of the nation deserved ; that he 
might be pleased to bless the fruits with which the earth is at 
this time covered, and not pour upon us those scourges of his 
wrath, pestilence and war, which ordinarily begin in this season, 
why continued 3- At the Reformation, when all processions 
at the Reform- were abolished by reason of the abuse of them, 
yet for retaining the perambulation of the cir- 
cuits of parishes, it was ordered, " That the people shall once 
a year at the time accustomed, with the Curate and substan- 
tial men of the parish, walk about the parishes, as they were 
accustomed, and at their return to church make their common 
prayers. Provided that the Curate, in the said common per- 
ambulations, used heretofore in the days of rogations, at cer- 
tain convenient places, shall admonish the people to give 
thanks to God, in the beholding of God's benefits, for the in- 
crease and abundance of his fruits upon the face of the earth, 
with the saying of the hundred and fourth Psalm, Benedic, 
an'n i m mea, &c. At which time also the same Minister shall 
inculcate this and such like sentences, Cursed be he which 
translateth the bounds and doles of his nei</lil>our, or such 
other order of prayer as shall be hereafter appointed." 46 No 

48 Avtti archiepiscopi Vien. A. D. 490. Homil. in Bibliotheca SS. Patrum. Paris. 
1575, ton), vii. col. 938. And from him Greg. Turonemis, 1. 2, c. 34, apud Histor. 
Francor. Scriptores, Part*. 16S6. torn. i. p. 289, A. " Sidon. 1. 5, Ep. 14. Con- 
cil. Aurel. Can. 27, torn. iv. col. 1408, D. E. * Injunction of queen Elizabeth, 18, 
19, in bishop Sparrow's Collection, p. 73. 


such prayers indeed have been since published ; but there is 
a homily appointed, which is divided into four parts ; the three 
first to be used upon the Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, 
and the fourth upon the day when the parish make their pro- 

SECT. XXI. Of Ascension-day. 

FORTY days after his resurrection, our blessed 

. ii-i ] j -,i i_ Ascension-day. 

Saviour publicly ascended with our human nature 
into heaven, and presented it to God, who placed it at his 
own right hand, and by the reception of those first-fruits sanc- 
tified the whole race of mankind. As a thankful acknowledg- 
ment of which great and mysterious act of our redemption, 
the Church hath from the beginning of Christianity set apart 
this day for its commemoration ; 47 and for the greater solemn- 
ity of it, our Church in particular hath selected such peculiar 
offices as are suitable to the occasion ; as may be seen by a 
short view of the particulars. 

. 2. Instead of the ordinary Psalms for the 
morning, are appointed the viiith, xvth, xxist; 
and for the afternoon, the xxivth, xlviith, cviiith. The viiith 
Psalm was at first designed by David for the magnifying God 
for his wonderful creation of the world, and for his goodness 
to mankind, in appointing him to be Lord of so great a work : 
but in a prophetical sense, it sets forth his more admirable 
mercy to men, in exalting our human nature above all crea- 
tures in the world, which was eminently completed in our 
Saviour's assumption of the flesh, and ascending with it to 
heaven, and reigning in it there. The xvth Psalm shews how 
justly our Saviour ascended the holy hill, the highest heavens, 
of which Mount Sion was a type : since he was the only per- 
son that had all the qualifications which that Psalm mentions, 
and which we must endeavour to attain, if ever we de- 
sire to follow him to those blessed mansions. The xxist, or 
last Psalm for the morning, was plainly fulfilled in our Sa- 
viour's ascension, when lie put all his enemies to flight, and was 
exalted in his own strength, when he entered into everlasting 
felicity, and had a crown of pure gold set upon his head. 

The first Psalm for the evening service is the xxivth, com- 
posed by David upon the bringing the ark into the house 
which he had prepared for it in Mount Sion. And as that 

St. Chrysos. in Diem, Orat. 87, torn. v. p. 595. Const. Apost. 1. 5, c. 18. 


was a type of Christ's ascension into heaven, so is this Psalm 
a prophecy of that exaltation likewise, and alludes so very 
plainly to it, that Theodore says, it was actually sung at his 
ascension by a choir of angels that attended him. 48 The next 
is the xlviith, which was an exhortation to the Jews to bless God 
for his power and mercy in subduing the heathen nations about 
them ; but is mystically applied to the Christian Church, 
which it exhorts to rejoice and sing praise, because God is 
gone up rcith a merry noise, and tlie Lord with the sound of 
the trump: who being now very high exalted, defends his 
Church as tvitli a shield , subduing his enemies, and joining 
the princes of the people to his inheritance. In the cviiith 
Psalm, the prophet awakens himself and his instruments of 
music to give thanks to God among the people, for setting 
himself above the heavens, and his glory above all the earth ; 
which was most literally fulfilled this day in his ascension 
into heaven, and sitting down at the right hand of God. 

. 3. In the first Lesson for the morning 49 

is recorded Moses's going up to the mount to 
receive the law from God to deliver it to the Jews, which 
was the type of our Saviour's ascension into heaven, to send 
down a new law, the law of faith. The first Lesson at even- 
ing 50 contains the history of Elijah's being taken up into 
heaven, and of his conferring at that time a double portion 
of his spirit on Elisha ; which exactly prefigured our Saviour, 
who, after he was ascended, sent down the fulness of his 
Spirit upon his Apostles and disciples. The second Lessons " 

are plainly suitable to the day ; as are also the 
ei Ue ' Collect, Epistle, and Gospel, which are the same 

as we meet with in the oldest offices. 

SECT. XXII. Of the Sunday after Ascension-day. 

Expectation- DuKiKo this week the Apostles continued in 
week, why so earnest prayer and expectation of the Comforter, 
whom our Saviour had promised to send them, 
from whence it is sometimes called Expectation-roeek. The 
The Collect, Collect for this day was a little altered at the 
Epistle, and Reformation, but the Epistle and Gospel are the 
jopel. same that were used of old. The Gospel con- 

tains the promise of the Comforter, who is the Spirit of 

In Pialm zxiv. Deut. r. 2 King* ii. 

Luke xxiv. 44, and Epb. iv. to ver. 17. 


truth ; and the Epistle exhorts every one to make such use 
of those gifts which the Holy Spirit shall bestow upon them, 
as becomes good stewards of the manifold grace of God. 

SECT. XXIIL Of Whit-Sunday. 

THE feast of Pentecost was of great eminency. 
among the Jews, in memory of the Law's being 
delivered on Mount Sinai at that time ; and of 
no less note among the Christians, for the Holy Ghost's de- 
scending the very same day upon the Apostles and other 
Christians in the visible appearance of fiery tongues, and of 
those miraculous powers that were then conferred upon them. 
It was observed with the same respect to Easter, as the Jewish 
Pentecost was to their Passover, viz. (as the word imports) 
just fifty days afterwards. Some conclude, from St. Paul's 
earnest desire of being at Jerusalem at this time, 52 that the 
observation of it as a Christian festival is as old as the Apos- 
tles : but whatever St. Paul's design was, we are assured that 
it hath been universally observed from the very first ages of 
Christianity. 53 

S. 2. It was styled IPTiit-Sunday, partly be- 

.., . J.,Y. p i- ?. j i Why so called. 

cause of those vast diffusions of light and know- 
ledge which were then shed upon the Apostles in order to the 
enlightening of the world ; but principally from the white 
garments, which they that were baptized at this time put on, 
of which we have already given a particular account. 54 Though 
Mr. Hamon L'Estrange conjectures that it is derived from 
the French word huict, which signifies eight, and then Whit- 
Sunday will be Huict-Sunday ', i. e. the Eighth Sunday, viz. 
from Easter : and to make his opinion the more probable, he 
observes, that the octave of any feast is in the Latin called 
utas, which he derives from the French word huictas. 5 * In a 
Latin letter I have by me of the famous Gerard Langbain, I 
find another account of the original of this word, which he 
says he met with accidentally in a Bodleian Manuscript. He 
observes from thence, that it was a custom among our ances- 
tors upon this day, to give all the milk of their ewes and kine 
to the poor for the love of God, in order to qualify themselves 
to receive the gift of the Holy Ghost : which milk being then 

58 Acts xx. 16. M Vid. Just. Mart. Quaest. et Respons. ad Orthodox. 115. 
Idol. c. 14, p. 94, B. De Coron. Mil. c. 3, p. 102, A. Orig. adv. Cels. 1. 8, par. 2, p. 522, 
L. in Numer. 31. Horn. 25, par. 1, p. 169, A. &* Sect, xviii. . 2, and sect. xix. . 1. 
56 See Ms Annotations upon Whit-Sunday, in his Alliance of Divine Offices. 


(as it is still in some counties) called white meat, &c., therefore 
this day from that custom took the name of Whit-Sunday.* 
The Psalms ' ^' '^^ e P r P er Psalms for the morning ser- 
vice are Psalms xlviii. Ixviii. The xlviiith is an 
hymn in honour of Jerusalem, as particularly chosen for the 
place of God's worship, and for that reason defended by his 
more immediate care from all invasions of enemies. It is also 
a form of thanksgiving to God for his mercy, in permitting 
men to meet in his solemn service, and so in the mystical 
sense is an acknowledgment of his glorious mercies afforded 
to the Church of Christians under the Gospel, and conse- 
quently very suitable to this day, whereon we commemorate 
the greatest mercy that ever was vouchsafed to any Church 
in the world, viz. the immediate inspiration of the Apostles 
by the Holy Ghost, at which all that saro it marcelled ; and 
though many that were astonished mere cast down, yet 
through the assistance of the same Spirit the Church was 
that very day augmented by the access of three thousand 
souls. 5 * The other Psalm for the morning is the Ixviiith, 
sung at first in commemoration of the great deliverance af- 
forded to the Israelites, and of the judgments inflicted on 
their enemies ; and contains a. prophetical description of the 
ascension of Christ, who went up on high, and led captivity 
captive, and received gifts for men ; which benefits he soon 
after, as on this day, poured upon the Apostles, at which time 

* The letter I have is in manuscript, but seems to be a transcript of a printed letter 
of Langbain, dated from Oxford on Whitsun-eve, 1650, and writ in answer to a friend 
that had inquired of him the original of the word Whitsuntide ; in which, after he had 
hinted at some other opinions, he gives the above-mentioned account in the following 
words : " Sed cum ex variantibus Vulgi Sermonibus nihil certi hac in re pronunciari 
possit, necesse est uevwMev owep tautv ; atque adhuc liberum cuivis conjectandi relin- 
quatur arbitrium. Licebit ideo quod (dum in BodleianS nostri omne genus Manu- 
scriptos Codices pervolvo) casu mini obvenerit, hie subjicere. Extat illic MS. hoc titulo, 
de solennitatibiu Sanctorum feriandit. Author est anonymus, qui de Festo Pente- 
costes agens, luec habet : ' Judsei quatuor pra-cipua celebrant Solemnia ; Pascha, Pente- 
costen, Scenopeglam, Enctenia. Nos autem duo de illis celebramus, Pascha et Pente- 
costen, sed aha ratione. llli celebrant Pentecosten, quia tune Legem perceperunt : 
nos autem ideo, quia tune Spiritus Sanctus missus est Discipulis. llli susceperunt 
Tabulis lapideis extrinsecus scripta ad designandam eorum duritiem, quoniam usque 
spiritualem intellectum literae non pertingubant : Sed Spiritus Sanctus datus est sep- 
tuaginta duobus Discipulis in corde, digito Dei spiritualem intellectum intus dedicante. 
Ideoque Dies intellectus dicitur H'itumenday, vel item fitionenday ; quia Praedeces- 
sores nostri omne Lac Ovium et Vaccarum suarum solebant dare pauperibus illo die, 
pro Dei amorv, ut puriores efncerentur ad recipiendum donum Spiritus Sancti.' Quo- 
rum, fere ad Verbum, const-mil Manuscriptus alter hoc titulo, Doclrina quomodo 
Curatut pottit Sanctorum vita* per annum pofiulo denunciare. Et certe quod de Lacte 
Vaccarum refert, illud percognitum habeo in agro Jlamttmienii (an et alibi nescio) 
decimas Lacticiniorum venire vulgo sub hoc nomine. The White* of Kine ; apud Lei- 
cettreniei etiam Lacticlnia vulgariter dicuntur H'hitemcat.'' 
Acti 11. 41. 


the earth shook, and the heavens dropped at the presence of 
God ; who sent (as it were) a gracious rain upon his inherit- 
ance, and refreshed it when it mas weary ; and when the 
Lord gave the word, great mas the company of the preachers. 

The Psalms for the evening are Psalms civ. cxlv. The 
civth is an elegant and pious meditation on the power and 
wisdom of God, in making and preserving all the creatures 
of the world. It is used on this day, because some verses are 
very applicable to the subject of it : for we herein celebrate 
the miraculous works of the Holy Ghost, who made the clouds 
his chariot, and walked upon tlie wings of the wind : the 
earth, at first, trembled at the look of him ,- but it was after- 
wards renewed In/ his breath, and filled with the fruits of his 
works. The cxlvth Psalm is a form of solemn thanksgiving 
to God, descanting on all his glorious attributes, very proper 
for this day, whereon we declare the power of the third Per- 
son of the glorious Trinity, and talk of his worship, his glory, 
his praise and wondrous works ; we speak of the might of 
his marvellous acts, and tell of his greatness. 

. 4. The first Lesson for the morning 57 con- The Lesgong) 
tains the law of the Jewish Pentecost, or Feast Epistle, and' 
of Weeks, which was a type of ours : for as the Gospel - 
law was at this time given to the Jews from Mount Sinai, so 
also the Christians upon this day received the new evangelical 
law from heaven, by the administration of the Holy Ghost. 
The first Lesson for the evening 58 is a prophecy of the con- 
version of the Gentiles to the kingdom of Christ, through 
the inspiration of the Apostles by the Spirit of God ; the 
completion of which prophecy is recorded in both the second 
Lessons, 59 but especially in the portion of Scripture for the 
Epistle, which contains a particular description of the first 
wonderful descent of the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles, who 
were assembled together in one place, in expectation of that 
blessed Spirit, according to the promise of our Saviour men- 
tioned in the Gospel, which, together with the Collect and 
Epistle, were taken from the old Liturgies. 

SECT. XXIV. Of the Monday and Tuesday in Whitsun-iceek. 

THE Whitsun-week was not entirely festival -\vhitsun-week 
like that of Easter ; the Wednesday, Thursday, how formerly ' 
and Friday being observed as fasts," and days of observed - 

Dent. xvi. to ver. 18. Isaiah xi. * Acts x. ver. 34, and chap. xix. to ver. 21 


humiliation and supplication for a blessing upon the work of 
ordination, (which was usually on the next Sunday,) in imita- 
tion of the apostolical practice mentioned Acts xiii. 3. 60 But 
the Monday and Tuesday were observed after the same man- 
ner and for the same reasons as in the Easter- week : * so that 
what has been said concerning the observation of them, may 
suffice for these ; wherefore I shall forbear all repetitions, and 
proceed immediately to their proper services. 
The collects, ^" ^ e Collects, Epistles, and Gospels for 

Epistles, and both these days are ancient : both the Epistles 
are concerning the baptism of converts, (this 
being, as we have already noted, one of the more solemn times 
appointed for baptism,) and concerning their receiving of the 
Holy Ghost by the hands of the Apostles, (this being also a 
time for confirmation, which was always performed by the 
imposition of hands.) The Gospel for Monday seems to 
have been allotted for the instruction of the new-baptized ; 
teaching them to believe in Christ, and to become the chil- 
dren of light. The Gospel for Tuesday seems to be appoint- 
ed, as it is one of the ember or ordination weeks ; the design 
of it being to put a difference between those who are lawfully 
appointed and ordained to the ministry, and those who without 
any commission arrogate to themselves that sacred office. 

. 3. The first Lesson for Monday morning 62 

The Lessons. 3 u - . r,i c c * i. r i i 

is a history of the confusion of tongues at Babel, 
whereby the Church reminds us, that as the confusion of 
tongues spread idolatry through the world, and made men 
lose the knowledge of God and true religion ; so God pro- 
vided by the gift of tongues to repair the knowledge of him- 
self, and lay the foundation of a new religion. In the first 
Lesson for Monday evening ^ is recorded the resting of God's 
Spirit upon the seventy elders of Israel, to enable them to ease 
Moses of part of his burden in governing that numerous peo- 
ple ; which exactly prefigured the descent of the same Holy 
Spirit at this time upon the Apostles and others, to the same 
end, viz. that the care of all the churches might not lie upon 
one single person : and accordingly the second Lessons for 
this day ftl instruct us that these spiritual gifts, of whatever sort 
they be, are all given to profit withal, and therefore must 

The Wednesday was also observed formerly in England as a festival.* 1 
*' Athanas. Apolog. de Fujfi suit, . 6, torn. i. p. 323, C. Concil. Gerund. Can. 2, torn, 
iv. col. 1568, A. " See Mr. Johnson, as cited in pages 105, 225. n Gen. xl. to 
ver 10. Numb. si. ver. 16. M 1 Cor. xii. and chap. xiv. 26. 


be all made use of to edification, as to their true and pro- 
per end. 

The first Lesson for Tuesday morning c5 contains the in- 
spiration of Saul and his messengers by the Spirit of God ; and 
that at evening ^ is a prophecy of Moses, how God would in 
after-times deal with the Jews upon their repentance. The 
morning second Lesson 67 forbids us to quench the Spirit of 
God, or to despise the prophecies, uttered by it : but because 
there are many false prophets gone into the world, the second 
Lesson for the afternoon 63 warns us not to believe all teach- 
ers who boast of the Spirit, but to try them by the rules of the 
catholic faith. 

SECT. XXV. Of Trinity Sunday. 

IN all the ancient Liturgies we find that this 
day was looked upon only as an octave of Pente- ' f ho ^ cient 
cost ; the observation of it as the feast of the 
Trinity being of a later date : for since the praises of the 
Trinity were every day celebrated in the doxology, hymns, 
and creeds ; therefore the Church thought there was no need 
to set apart one particular day for that which was done on 
each. 69 But afterwards when the Arians, and such like here- 
tics, were spread over the world, and had vented their blas- 
phemies against this divine mystery, the wisdom of the 
Church thought it convenient, that though the blessed Trinity 
was daily commemorated in its public offices of devotion, yet 
it should be the more solemn subject of one particular day's 
meditation. So that from the time of pope Alexander III., if 
not before, the festival of the holy Trinity was observed in 
some Churches on the Sunday after Pentecost, in others on 
the Sunday next before Advent. Until in the year 1305, it 
was made an established feast, as it stands in our present ca- 
lendar, by Benedict XIII. 70 . ^ 

. 2. The reason why this day was chosen as why^,,^^ 
most seasonable for this solemnity, was because the Sunday after 
our Lord had no sooner ascended into heaven, w 1114 - 8111 " 1 ^- 
and the Holy Ghost descended upon the Church, but there 
ensued the full knowledge of the glorious and incomprehensi- 
ble Trinity, which before that time was not so clearly known. 

* 1 Sam. xix. ver. 18. w Deut. xxx. 7 1 Thess. v. ver. 12, to ver. 24. 

88 1 John iv. to ver. 14. Decretal. Greg. ix. 1. 2, tit. 9, c. 2, col. 596. Paris. 1601. 
10 See Alexander's Decretal. 1. 2, tit. 9, c. 2, as cited by Mr. Johnson in his Ecclesi- 
astical Laws, A. D. 1268, 35. Though I suppose for 1305, Mr. Johnson meant 1405, for 
Benedict XIII. was not chosen pope till 1394. 



The Church therefore having dedicated the foregoing solemn 
festivals to the honour of each several person by himself, 
thereby celebrating the Unity in Trinity , it was thought 
highly seasonable to conclude those solemnities, by adding to 
them one festival more to the honour and glory of the whole 
Trinity together, therein celebrating the Trinity in Unity. 
But in the Greek Church, the Monday in Whitsun-week is 
set apart for this purpose, the Sunday following being with 
them the festival of All-Saints. 71 

8. 3. This mystery was not clearly delivered to 

The Lessons. .i T LJ.L.L- i jj 

the Jews, because they, being always surrounded 
by idolatrous nations, would have easily mistaken it for a doc- 
trine of plurality of Gods : but yet it was not so much hidden 
in those times, but that any one with a spiritual eye might 
have discerned some glimmerings of it dispersed through the 
Old Testament. The first chapter in the Bible seems to set 
forth three Persons in the Godhead ; for besides the Spirit 
of God which mooed upon the waters, ver. 2, we find the 
great Creator (at the 26th verse) consulting with others about 
the greatest work of his creation, the making of man, of which 
we may be assured the Word or Son of God was one, since 
all things mere made by him, and without him rcas not any 
thing made that teas made. So that those two verses fully 
pointing out to us the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, make 
this a very proper Lesson for the solemnity of the day. The 
reason of the choice of the other first Lesson is as obvious : 
it records the appearance of the great JEHOVAH to Abraham, 
whom the patriarch acknowledges to be the Judge of all the 
earth , and who therefore, by vouchsafing to appear with two 
others in his company, might design to represent to him the 
Trinity of Persons. But this sacred mystery is no where so 
plainly manifested as in the second Lesson for the morning, 74 
which at one and the same time relates the baptism of the 
Son, the voice of the Father, and the descent of the Holy 
Ghost : which though they are (as appears from this chapter) 
three distinct Persons in number, yet the second Lesson at 
evening 75 shews they are but one in essence. 

. 4. The Epistle and Gospel are the same 
Epistieand GO- t hat j n anc i en t services were assigned for the oc- 
tave of Whit-Sunday : the Gospel especially seems 
to be very proper to the season, as being the last day of the 

" Smith's Account of the Greek Church, p. 34. John i. 3. n Genesis xviii 
" Matthew ill. 1 John v. 


more solemn time of baptism ; though they are neither of 
them improper to the day, as it is Trinity Sunday : for in both 
the Epistle and Gospel are mentioned the three Persons of the 
blessed Trinity ; and that noted hymn of the angels in heaven, 
mentioned in the portion of Scripture appointed for the Epis- 
tle, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, seems of itself to 
be a sufficient manifestation of three Persons, and but one God. 
The Collect is plainly adapted to this day, as it is Trinity Sun- 
day ; though this too is the same as in the office of Sarum. 

SECT. XXVI. Of the Sundays from Trinity Sunday to Advent. 
IN the annual course of the Gospels for Sun- T , , , 

i -i ii-f. 11 Tn e Gospels for 

days and holy-days, the chief matter and sub- the Sundays after 
stance of the four Evangelists is collected in Trunt y- 
such order as the Church thinks most convenient to make the 
deepest impression upon the congregation. The whole time 
from Advent to Trinity Sunday is chiefly taken up in com- 
memorating the principal acts of Providence in the great work 
of our redemption ; and therefore such portions of Scripture 
are appointed to be read, as are thought most suitable to the 
several solemnities, and most likely to enlighten our under- 
standing, nd confirm our faith in the mysteries we celebrate. 
But from Trinity Sunday to Advent, the Gospels are not chosen 
as peculiarly proper to this or that Sunday, (for that could 
only be observed in the greater festivals,) but such passages 
are selected out of the Evangelists as are proper for our medi- 
tation at all times, and may singularly conduce to the making 
us good Christians : such as are the holy doctrine, deeds, and 
miracles of the blessed Jesus, who always went about doing 
good, and whom the Church always proposes to our imitation. 

. 2. The Epistles tend to the same end, being 
frequent exhortations to an uninterrupted prac- thTsun^aysafter 
tice of all Christian virtues : they are all of them J 1 " 1 ? Be- 
taken out of St. Paul's Epistles, and observe the 
very order both of Epistles and chapters in which they stand 
in the New Testament, except those for the five first Sundays, 
that for the eighteenth, and the last for the twenty-fifth. 

Those for the five first Sundays are all (except 
that for the fourth) taken out of St. John and St. ***$?? 
Peter ; for which reason they are placed first, that 
they might not afterwards interrupt the order of those taken 
out of St. Paul. 

R 2 


For the variation of the Epistle for the eigh- 
teenth Sunday another reason may be given, which 
is this : It was an ancient custom of the Church 
in the Ember-weeks, to have proper services on the Wednes- 
days and Fridays, but especially on the Saturdays ; when, after 
a long continuance in prayer and fasting, they performed the 
solemnities of the Ordination either late on Saturday evening, 
(which was then always looked upon as part of the Lord's day,) 
or else early on the morning following ; for which reason, and 
because they might be wearied with their prayers and fasting 
on the Saturdays, the Sundays following had no public services, 
but were called Dominica vacantes, i. e. vacant 
wS ?o3d. Sundays. But afterwards, when they thought it 
not convenient to let a Sunday pass without any 
solemn service, they despatched the Ordination sooner on Sa- 
turdays, and performed the solemn service of the Church as 
at other times on the Sundays. But these Sundays, having 
no particular service of their own, for some time borrowed of 
some other days, till they had proper ones fixed pertinent to 
the occasion. So that this eighteenth Sunday after Trinity, 
often happening to be one of these vacant Sundays, had at the 
same time a particular Epistle and Gospel allott^i to it, in 
some measure suitable to the solemnity of the time. For the 
Epistle hints at the necessity there is of spiritual teachers, and 
mentions such qualifications as are specially requisite to those 
that are ordained, as the being enriched rcith all utterance, 
and in all knowledge, and being behind in no good gift. The 
Gospel treats of our Saviour's silencing the most learned of the 
Jews by his questions and answers ; thereby also shewing how 
his ministers ought to be qualified, viz. able to speak a word 
in due season, to give a reason of their faith, and to convince, 
or at least to confute, all those that are of heterodox opinions. 
The last Sunday, whose Epistle varies from the 
F fl r ft t hsu7d e a n y y " order of the rest, is the twenty-fifth, for which 
the reason is manifest: for this Sunday being 
looked upon as a kind of preparation or forerunner to Advent, 
as Advent is to Christmas, an Epistle was chosen, not accord- 
ing to the former method, but such a one as so clearly fore- 
told the coming of our Saviour, that it was afterwards applied 
to him by the common people, as appears by an instance men- 
tioned in the Gospel for the same day ; for when they saw the 
miracle that Jesus did, they said, This is of a truth that Pro- 


phet that should come into the world. And it was probably 
for the sake of this text, that this portion of Scripture (which 
has before been appointed for the Gospel on the fourth Sun- 
day in Lent) is here repeated ; viz. because they thought this 
inference of the multitude a fit preparation for the approach- 
ing season of Advent : for which reason, in the rubric follow- 
ing this Gospel, we see it is ordered, (according to an old 
rule of Micrologus, an ancient ritualist,) that if there are 
either more or fewer Sundays between Trinity Sunday 
and Advent, the services' must be so ordered, that this last 
Collect, Epistle, and Gospel be always used upon the Sun- 
day next before Advent ;* i. e. if there be fewer Sundays, the 
overplus is to be omitted : but if there be more, the service 
of some of those Sundays, that were omitted after the Epiph- 
any, are to be taken in fo supply so many as are wanting ; 
but which of those services the rubric does not say. And for 
that reason there is generally a diversity in the practice : some 
reading on those occasions the services next in course to 
what had been used at the Epiphany before ; and others, at 
the same time, reading the last, or two last, accordingly as one 
or both of them are wanting. The last of these practices I 
think to be preferable : partly upon the account, that when 
there is an overplus of Sundays after Trinity one year, there 
is generally a pretty full number after Epiphany the next ; so 
that if any of the services for the early Sundays after Epiph- 
any are taken in to supply those that are wanting after Trinity, 
the same services will come in turn to be read again pretty 
soon : but the chief reason why I think the latter services 
should be used, is, because the service that is appointed for 
the last Sunday after Epiphany, is a more suitable preparation 
for the season that is approaching, and makes way for the 
service for the last Sunday after Trinity, as that does for the 
services appointed for Advent. 

5. 3. All the Collects for these Sundays, to- 

. , ^, -r, . ,, , _. J ' The Collects. 

gether with the Epistles and Gospels, are taken 

* There was nothing of this rubric in the Common Prayer Book of 1549. And in all 
the other old books, except the Scotch, it was only this : " If there be any more Sun- 
days before Advent Sunday, to supply the same shall be taken the service of some of 
those Sundays that were omitted between the Epiphany and Septuagesima." To this, 
in the Scotch Liturgy, was added further as follows : " but the same shall follow the 
twenty -fourth Sunday after Trinity. And if there be fewer Sundays than twenty-five 
before Advent, then shall the twenty-third or twenty-fourth, or omitted: so 
that the twenty-fifth shall never either alter or be left out, but be always used immedi- 
ately before Ad vent-Sunday, to which the Epistle and Gospel of that do expressly relate." 


out of the Sacramentary of St. Gregory, excepting that some 
of the Collects were a little corrected and smoothed at the last 
review. I do not think it necessary to trouble the reader with 
the variations that only amend the expression : but those that 
make any alteration in the sense, he may perhaps desire to 
have in the margin.* 

SECT. XXVII. Of the Immovable Feasts in general. 

THESE festivals are all of them fixed to set days, 
thems^wes in and so could not be conveniently placed among 
the common those we have already treated of. because (they 

Prayer Book. . * - ~ ^ J 

., - /~ti 

having all or them, except those from Christmas- 
day to Epiphany, a dependence upon Easter, which varies 
every year) they happen sometimes sooner, and sometimes 
later. So that if the movable and immovable had been placed 
together, it must of necessity have caused a confusion of the 
order which they ought to be placed in ; for prevention of 
which, the fixed holy-days are placed by themselves, in the 
same order in which they stand in the calendar. 

. 2. They are most of them set apart in com- 
appointed. d memoration of the Apostles and first martyrs ; 

concerning the reason and manner of which so- 
lemnity, I have already spoken in general, page 189, &c., which 
may suffice without descending to particulars : so that now I 
shall only make a few observations on some of them, which 
may not perhaps seem wholly impertinent. 

* In all former Common Prayer Books, the Collects for the following Sundays were 
expressed as follows. 

For the second Sunday : " Lord, make us to have a perpetual fear and love of thy 
holy name : for thou never failest to help and govern them whom thou dost bring up 
in thy stedfast love : Grant this," 8rc. 

In that for the third, the words, " and comforted in all danger and adversities," were 
added in the last review. 

The Collect for the eighth began thus : " God, whose providence is never deceived, 
we humbly beseech thee," Sec., as in our present Liturpy. 

In that for the ninth, " that we, which cannot be without thee, may by thee be able 
to live," tec. 

In that for the eleventh, " Give unto us abundantly thy grace, that we running to 
thy promises, may be made partakers," &c. 

On the twelfth it ended thus : " and giving us that, that our prayer dare not pre- 
sume to ask, through Jesus Christ our Lord." 

In the Collect for the fifteenth, the words, " from all things hurtful," were added 
in 1661. 

In the sixteenth, the word " Congregation " was changed for " Church." 

The beginning of the eighteenth was thus : " I-ord, we beseech thee, grant thy peo- 
ple grace to avoid the infections of the Devil, and with pure hearts," &c. 

In the nineteenth, " Grant that the working of thy mercy may in all things," ftc. 

In the twentieth, instead of" may cheerfully " it was formerly " may with free hearts," 
See. And 

In the twenty-fourth, instead of " absolve " it was formerly " assoil." 


SECT. XXVIII. Particular Observations on some of the 
Immovable Feasts. 

CONCERNING St. Andrew we may observe, that st-Andrew - s day> 
as he was the first that found the Messiah, 76 and why observed 
the first that brought others to him, 77 so the first 
Church, for his greater honour, commemorates him first in 
her anniversary course of holy-days, and places his festival at 
the beginning of Advent, as the most proper to bring the news 
of our Saviour's coming. 

. 2. St. Thomas's day seems to be placed st . Thomas> why 
next, not because he was the second that be- commemorated 
lieved Jesus to be the Messiah, but the last that next 
believed his resurrection : which though he was at first the 
most doubtful, yet he had afterwards the greatest evidence of 
its truth ; which the Church recommends to our meditation at 
this season, as a fit preparative to our Lord's Nativity. For 
unless we believe with St. Thomas, that the same Jesus, whose 
birth we immediately afterwards commemorate, is the very 
Christ, our Lord and our God , neither his birth, death, nor 
resurrection will avail us any thing. 

. 3. St. Paul is not commemorated as the 
other Apostles are, by his death or martyrdom ; commemorated 
but by his conversion; because as it was won- byhisconver- 
derful in itself, so it was highly beneficial to the 
Church of Christ. For while other Apostles had their par- 
ticular provinces, he had the care of all the churches ; and by 
his indefatigable labours contributed very much to the propa- 
gation of the Gospel throughout the world. 

. 4. Whereas some churches keep four holy- The Puriflcation 
days in memory of the blessed Virgin, viz. the andAnnuncia- 
Nativity, the Annunciation, the Purification, and tlon ' 
the Assumption ; our Church keeps only two, viz. the An- 
nunciation and Purification ; which, though they may have 
some relation to the blessed Virgin, do yet more peculiarly 
belong to our Saviour. The Annunciation hath a peculiar re- 
spect to his Incarnation, who being the eternal Word of the 
Father, was at this time made flesh : the Purification is prin- 
cipally observed in memory of our Lord's being made mani- 
fest in the flesh, when he was presented in the temple. 

On the Purification the ancient Christians used abundance 

' John i. 38. Verse 42. 


of lights both in their churches and processions, 
^ d n y H i remembrance (as it is supposed) of our bless- 

taneu. if* i i 5 j iji ij n* 

ed Saviour s being this day declared by old Si- 
meon to be a light to lighten the Gentiles, &c., which portion 
of Scripture is for that reason appointed for the Gospel for 
the day. A practice continued with us in England till the 
second year of king Edward VI., when bishop Cranmer forbad 
it by order of the Privy Council. 78 And from this custom I 
suppose it was, that this day first took the name of Candle- 
_ . , , 8. 5. St. Matthias's day being generally dif- 

St. Matthias's O^IL J u 

day, on what day ferently observed in leap-years, viz. by some on 
iea^-yeM erved "" tlie twenty- fourth, and by others on the twenty- 
. fifth of February ; I think it not amiss to state 
the case in as few words as I can. And to do it clearly, I 
must begin with the ancient Julian year, which is known to 
have consisted of three hundred sixty-five days and almost 
six hours : but because of the inconvenience of inserting six 
hours at the end of every year, they were ordered to be re- 
served to the end of four years, when they came to a whole 
day, and then to be inserted at the twenty-fourth of February. 
For the old Roman year ended at February the twenty-third, 
and the old intercalary month was always inserted at that 
time.* And because the intercalary days (according to the 
method of the Egyptians) were never accounted any part of 
the month or year, but only an appendix to them, 80 therefore 
the Romans in the Julian year accounted the twenty-third 
day of February, i. e. the sixth of the calends of March, two 
days together, which is the reason that in our calendar, leap- 
Leap-year, vear i fl cau<ec l Bissextile, or the year in which 
whence called the sixth of the calends of March came twice 
isextue. over . Now we in England having been very an- 
ciently subjects of the Roman empire, received the Julian 
account ; and agreeable to the method of the Romans, our 
parliament, in the twenty-first year of king Henry III., A. D. 
1236, passed an act, that in every leap-year the additional day, 
and the day next going before, should be accounted but for 

* This shews Mr. Johnson's mistake in correcting Dr. Wallis for affirming the 
twenty-fourth to be the intercalary day. For certainly the day which follows the 
twenty-third, if counted for any day, must be called the twenty-fourth." 

71 Collier's History, rol. ii. page 241. Addenda to the Clergyman's Vade Me- 
cum, at the end of his two cases, pages 108, 109. Cato in Tit. Dig. . 98, expressly 
says of the practice of the Romans, Mensem intercalarem addititium esse, cninesque 
ejus dies pro momento temporis obscrvandos. 


one day. Now the additional day being inserted, as I have 
observed, between the sixth and seventh of the calends of 
March, i. e. between the twenty-fourth and twenty-third day 
of February;* it follows, that, according to the Roman way 
of reckoning, (who reckoned the calends backwards from the 
first day of the month,) the day which, in our way of reckoning, 
was in ordinary years the twenty-fourth of February, would 
in leap-years be the twenty-fifth. And consequently St. Mat- 
thias being fixed on that day, which in ordinary years was the 
twenty-fourth, must in every leap-year be observed upon 
what in our account we call the twenty-fifth ; though in the 
Roman way of reckoning both in common years and leap- 
years, it is kept the same day, viz. the sixth day inclusive 
before the first day of March. And this is according to the 
known rule, as old as Durand's time at least. 

Bissextum Sextae Martis tenuere Calendae : 
Posteriore Die celebrantur Festa Mathiae. 

And agreeable to this rule stood the rubric in relation to the 
intercalary day, in all the Missals, Breviaries, &c. to the Re- 
formation, directing also that in leap-years, St. Matthias's 
day should be always kept upon the twenty-fifth of Fe- 
bruary, which is still the order and practice in the Church of 
Rome. But in both the Common Prayer Books of king Ed- 
ward VI. that old rubric was altei^d, and the following one 
put in its room. 

Here again Mr. Johnson endeavours to correct Dr. Wallis, when he himself is 
mistaken. His words are these : " Dr. Wallis says, that the intercalary day is between 
the sixth and seventh calends of March. He certainly meant between the sixth and 
fifth. It is absurd to suppose that the first six calends, which is February the twenty- 
fourth, should be Bissextus, and the twenty-fifth simply Sextus. Primo Sextus must 
of necessity precede Bissextus. And Bissextus is but another word for the intercalary 
day. The mistake seems to have arisen from the Doctor's forgetting that the compu- 
tation of the calends is retrogradous." 8l I desire Mr. Johnson to think again, and then 
to recollect who it is that is forgetful of this retrograde computation. He rightly in- 
deed observes that Primo Sextus must of necessity precede Bissextus : but which, I 
would ask, is the Primo Sextus ? that which stands next to the fifth of the calends, or 
that which stands a day further off? Now the fifth calend of March being February 
the twenty-fifth, and the calends being to be computed in a backward order, (as Mr. 
Johnson well observes,) I would ask again, whether February the twenty-fourth is not 
the Primo Sextus ? and consequently whether the day before that (i. e. in order of time) 
be not the Bissextus or intercalary day ; and whether the intercalary day be not (as 
Dr. Wallis asserts) between the sixth and seventh calends of March, or between the 
twenty-fourth and twenty-third of February, though indeed, as we now reckon, it can- 
not be called any other than the twenty-fourth ? So that queen Elizabeth's reformers 
were not mistaken in thinking the twenty-fourth the intercalary day, as Mr. Johnson 
asserts. And therefore he himself must lay claim to the excuse he has made in the 
same page for Dr. Wailis, who now, it seems, has no need of it, viz. that " the hap- 
piest memories, with the greatest knowledge, cannot secure men against such lapses." 
' Addenda to the Clergjinan'j Vade Mecum, at the end of his two cates, paget 108, 109. 


This is also to be noted, concerning the leap-years, that the 
twenty-fifth day of February, which in leap-years is counted 
for two days, shall in those two days alter neither Psalm nor 
Lesson : but the same Psalms and Lessons which be said the 
first day shall serve also for the second day. 

This Dr. Nichols and others think to be a mistake in our re- 
formers ; and that they were not apprized which was properly 
the intercalary day : but I cannot imagine so many great men 
to be ignorant both of the rubrics and practice of their own 
Church. I therefore suppose that this alteration was made 
with design, that there might be no confusion in the observa- 
tion of the holy-day ; but that it should be kept on the twenty- 
fourth in leap-years as well as others. However, when queen 
Elizabeth's Common Prayer was compiled, it was thought 
proper to return to the old practice and rule ; and accordingly 
in that book the rubric was thus altered. 

When the years of our Lard (i. e. when the number of 
years from the birth of Christ) may be divided into four even 
parts, which is every fourth year, then the Sunday letter leap- 
eth ; * and that year the Psalms and Lessons, which serve for 
the twenty-third day of February, shall be read again the 
day following, except it be Sunday, which hath proper Les- 
sons from the Old Testament appointed in the table to serve 
to that purpose. 

Now according to this rubric St. Matthias's day must again 
be kept in leap-years, as it used to be, viz. not on the twenty- 
fourth day of February, which was looked upon in this rubric 
to be the intercalary day ; but on the day following, which we 
call the twenty-fifth. For if the Lessons for the twenty-third 
were also to be read upon the twenty-fourth in leap-years, 
then that day could not be St. Matthias. For the first Les- 
sons appointed for St. Matthias were Wisdom xix. and Ecclus. 
i., whereas the first Lessons for the twenty-third of February 
were at that time the ivth and vth of Deuteronomy. And thus 
stood the rubric till the restoration of king Charles ; when the 
revisers of our Liturgy observing, I suppose, that the twenty- 
ninth of February was in our civil computation generally 
looked upon as the intercalary day ; they thought that it 
would be more uniform, and that it would prevent more mis- 
takes in the reading of the Common Prayer, to make it so also 
in the ecclesiastical computation. For which reason the afore- 

Hence every each fourth year receives the name of Leap-year. 


said rubric was then left out, and a twenty-ninth day added to 
February, which has Lessons of its own appointed, and till 
which day the Sunday or Dominical letter is not changed : 
but whereas F used to be doubled at the twenty-fourth and 
twenty-fifth days, C, which is the Dominical letter for the 
twenty-eighth day, or else D, which is that for the first of 
March, is now supposed to be repeated on the twenty-ninth, 
notwithstanding Mr. Johnson, without giving any reason, ani- 
madverts upon me for saying so : 82 though he himself had 
formerly asserted February the twenty-ninth to be the modern 
intercalary day ; ^ and that, as I take it, upon better grounds 
than he now shews for retracting his opinion. So that there 
being now no other variation of the days, than that a day is 
added at the end of the month, St. Matthias's day must conse- 
quently be always observed on the twenty-fourth day, i. e. as 
well in leap-years as others. But notwithstanding the case is 
so clear in itself, yet some almanack-makers, still following the 
old custom of placing St. Matthias's day in leap-years on the 
twenty-fifth, and not on the twenty-fourth of February, are the 
occasion of that day's being still variously observed in such 
years. For which reason, on February the fifth, A. D. 1683, 
archbishop Sancroft (who was himself one of the reviewers of 
the Liturgy, and was principally concerned in revising the 
calendar, and whose knowledge in that sort of learning excel- 
led 84 ) published an injunction or order, requiring all Parsons, 
Vicars, and Curates, to take notice, that the feast of St. 
Matthias is to be celebrated (not upon the twenty-ffth of 
February, as the common almanacks boldly and erroneously 
set it, but] upon the twenty -fourth of February for ever, 
volietherit be leap-year or not, as the Calendar in the Liturgy, 
confirmed by Act of Uniformity, appoints and enjoins. 

Dr. Wallis indeed informs us, that " the archbishop (upon 
seeing a letter drawn up by him upon the subject, and upon 
discourse with others to the same purpose) seemed well satis- 
fied that it was his mistake ; and presumes that if he had 
continued archbishop to another leap-year, and in good cir- 
cumstances, he would have reversed his former orders, and di- 
rected the almanacks to be printed as formerly." But this I 
conceive to be only a mere presumption of the doctor's. 85 The 

81 Addenda, ut supra. ** Clergyman's Vade Mecum, vol. i. p. 207. M See Mr. 
Walton's Life of Bishop Sanderson. w Advertisement to bis Treatise concerning St. 
Matthias's day, &c., page 2. 


archbishop perhaps might think he had deviated from the an- 
cient rule : though indeed from Micrologus, 86 who lived about 
the year 1080, (two hundred years before Durand, who is the 
first that I can find to mention the contrary practice,) it ap- 
pears, the ancient custom was to keep St. Matthias, as our pre- 
sent Liturgy now enjoins, even in leap-years, upon the twenty- 
fourth. However, let the ancient custom have been what it will, 
since the archbishop's leaving out the rubric and altering the 
calendar was confirmed by the king, both in convocation and 
.parliament, it was not in his power to make any alteration 
without the consent of the same authority. 

. 6. Upon the day of St. Philip and St. James, 
S st P jame a s nd til1 the last review, the Church read the eighth 
chapter of the Acts for the morning second Les- 
son, therein commemorating St. Philip the deacon ; but now 
in the room of that she appoints part of the first chapter of St. 
John, and commemorates only St. Philip the Apostle, and St. 
James the brother of our Lord, the first bishop of Jerusalem, 
who wrote the Epistle that bears that name, part of which is 
appointed for the Epistle for the day. The other St. James, 
the son of Zebedee, for distinction sake surnamed the Great, 
(either by reason of his age or stature,) hath another day pe- 
culiar to himself in July. 

st John the Rap- ^ ' ^ t- J nn Baptist's Nativity is celebrated 
tist'g Nativity, by reason of the wonderful circumstances of it, 

why celebrated. an( j Qn account Q f the great j oy j t brought to all 

those who expected the Messiah. There was formerly another 
day (viz. August 29) set apart in commemoration of his be- 
heading. But now the Church celebrates both his nativity and 
death on one and the same day ; whereon though his myste- 
rious birth is principally solemnized, yet the chief passages of 
his life and death are severally recorded in the portions of 
Scripture appointed for the day. 

. 8. I would observe upon the Gospel ap- 
thfcotpei for'st. pointed for the festival of St. Bartholomew, 87 that 
Bartholomew's tne p ara llel place to it in St. Matthew is appointed 
to be read on St. James's day : and then indeed 
more properly, it being occasioned by the request of Zebe- 
dee's children, of which James was one. With submission, 

M In Bissextil! Anno Nativltatem S. Matt hire Apostoli columns in illi Die, que VI- 
friliam ejus proxlme sequitur, non in altrr'i. quae propter Bissextum eo Anno in eodem 
Calendario iteratur. Microlog. de Kcrlesiast. Ohservat. c. 47, apud Biblinthec. Patrum, 
torn. x. p. 159. Paris. 165*. Luke xxii. 2431. 


therefore, I should think, that a more suitable Gospel for the 
festival of St. Bartholomew would be John i. 43, to the end, 
which is the history of Nathanael's coming to our Saviour, who 
is generally allowed to be the same with Bartholomew. The 
occasion why that passage in St. Luke was affixed to this day 
was a conceit that St. Bartholomew's noble descent was the 
occasion of the strife that is there recorded. 88 But if this re- 
late to the same dispute which is mentioned by two other of 
the evangelists, viz. St. Matthew and St. Mark, it is plain that 
it was owing to another cause. 

. 9. One day in the year the Church sets apart 
to express her thankfulness to God for the many S \nl h n g e e 1 ls and 
benefits it hath received by the ministry of holy 
angels. And because St. Michael is recorded in Scripture as 
an angel of great power and dignity, and as presiding and 
watching over the Church of God with a particular vigilance 
and application, 69 and triumphing over the devil, 90 it therefore 
bears his name. 

. 10. The feast of All-Saints is not of very 

,. -, .-, ,-vi i A u L it. All-Saints day. 

great antiquity in the Church. About the year 
of our Lord 610, the pantheon, or temple dedicated to all the 
gods, at the desire of Boniface IV., bishop of Rome, was taken 
from the heathens by Phocas the emperor, and dedicated to 
the honour of all martyrs. Hence came the original of All- 
Saints, which was then celebrated upon the first of May : af- 
terwards, by an order of Gregory IV., it was removed to the 
first of November, A. D. 834, where it hath stood ever since. 
And our reformers having laid aside the celebration of a great 
many martyrs' days, which had grown too numerous and cum- 
bersome to the Church, thought fit to retain this day, where- 
on the Church, by a general commemoration, returns her 
thanks to God for them all. 

.11. The Lessons, Collects, Epistles, and Gos- The j^g^g 
pels * for all these and the other holy-days, are Collects, Epis- 
eithersuch as bear a particular relation to the tles> and Gospels 
subject of the festival, or are at least suitable to the season, as 
containing excellent instructions for holy and exemplary lives, 
it being (as I have already noted, page 189, &cc.) the design 

In all the old Common Prayer Books, the Epistle for the Purification was ordered 
to be " the same that was appointed for the Sunday," and the Gospel for the same day 
ended in the middle of the twenty-seventh verse of the chapter, whereas now it is con- 
tinued to the end of the fortieth. 

* Petrus de Natalibus in Catalogo Sanctorum, 1. 7, c. 103. 89 Dan. z. 13. 

*> Jude 9. Rev. xii. 7. 


of the Church to excite us to emulate those blessed saints, by 
setting their examples so often before us. They are most of 
them taken from ancient Liturgies, but some were (for good 
reasons) altered and changed at the Reformation.* 

It would not have been foreign to the design of these sheets, 
to have added in this place a short account of the lives of the 
Apostles and other saints, commemorated by our Church : but 
considering that this is done in several other books already 
published, I shall waive the doing it in this, being not willing 
to swell the bulk of it with any thing that is better supplied 
by other hands. If the reader be as yet destitute of any thing 
of this nature, he cannot better provide himself than with the 
late learned and most excellent Mr. Nelson's Companion for 
the Festivals and Fasts . in which he may not only satisfy his 
curiosity as to the remains we have in history concerning 
those blessed saints, whose virtues we commemorate ; but he 
will also be supplied with proper meditations and devotions 
for each day : a book which, next to the Bible and Common 
Prayer, and the WTiole Duty of Man, I would heartily re- 
commend as the most useful one I know, to all sincere mem- 
bers of the Church of England. 




WHATEVER benefits we now enjoy, or hope here- 
after to receive from Almighty God, they are all 
purchased by the death, and must be obtained 

The present Collect for St. Andrew's day wai first inserted in the second book of 
king Edward VI. That which was in his first book was this that follows : " Almighty 
God, which hast given such grace to thy Apostle St. Andrew, that he counted the sharp 
and painful death of the cross to be an high honour and great glory ; grant us to take 
and esteem all troubles and adversities which shall come unto us for thy sake, as things 
profitable for us towards the obtaining of everlasting life, through Jesus Christ our Lord." 

The Collect for the Conversion of St. Paul in all the old books was this : " God, which 
hast taught all the world through the preaching of thy blessed Apostle, St. Paul, grant, 
we beseech thee, that we, which have his wonderful conversion in remembrance, may 
follow and fulfil the holy doctrine that he taught, through Jesus Christ our Lord." 

In the Collect for the festival of St. Philip and St. James, after " the way, the truth, 
and the life," in the same books followed, "as thou hast taught St. Philip and other 
the Apostles, through Jesus Christ our Lord." 

t The title of this Office in the first book of king Edward was, " The Supper of the 
Lord, and the Holy Communion, commonly called the Mass." 


through the intercession of the holy JESUS. We are therefore 
not only taught to mention his name continually in our pray- 
ers ; but are also commanded, by visible signs, to represent 
and set forth to his heavenly Father his all-sufficient and me- 
ritorious death and sacrifice, as a more powerful way of inter- 
ceding and obtaining the divine acceptance. So that what 
we more compendiously express in that general conclusion of 
our prayers through Jesus Christ our Lord, we more fully 
and forcibly represent in the celebration of the holy eucharist : 
wherein we intercede on earth, in conjunction with the great 
intercession of our High Priest in heaven, and plead in the 
virtue and merits of the same sacrifice here which he is con- 
tinually urging for us there. And because of this near alli- 
ance between praying and communicating, we find the eu- 
charist was always, in the purest ages of the Church, a daily 
part of the Common Prayer. And therefore, though the 
shameful neglect of religion with us has made the imitation 
of this example to be rather wished for than expected ; yet it 
shews us, what excellent reason our Church had to annex so 
much of this office to the usual service on all solemn days. 

. 2. As to the primitive and original form of 
administration, since it does not appear that our formsodminis- 
Saviour prescribed any particular method, most tration different 

. , ' , , ,.,' \ T . ' . and various. 

Churches took the liberty to compose Liturgies 
for themselves ; which perhaps being only the forms used by 
the founders of each Church, a little altered and enlarged, 
were, in honour of those founders, distinguished by their 
names. For thus the Liturgies of Jerusalem, Alexandria, and 
Rome, have been always called St. James's, St. Mark's, and 
St. Clement's. But, however, none of these being received as 
of divine institution ; therefore St. Basil and St. Chrysostom, 
St. Ambrose and St. Gregory, in after-ages, each of them 
composed a Liturgy of their own. And so the excellent com- 
pilers of our Common Prayer, following their example, no 
otherwise confined themselves to the Liturgies that were be- 
fore them, than out of them all to extract an office for them- 
selves : and which indeed they performed with so exact a 
judgment and happy success, that it is hard to determine whe- 
ther they more endeavoured the advancement of devotion, or 
the imitation of pure antiquity. 

But Bucer being called in (as I have observed elsewhere) 
to give his opinion of it, this momentous and principal office 


of our Liturgy had the misfortune to suffer very great alter- 
ations. Some amendment in the method it might possibly 
have borne ; but the practice of foreign churches, and not 
primitive Liturgies, being always with him the standard of 
reformation, the most ancient forms and primitive rites were 
forced to give way to modern fancies. It is true, some of 
these were again restored at the last review ; but it is still 
much lamented by learned men, that some other additions 
were not made at that time, that so every thing might have 
been restored which was proper or decent, as well as every 
thing left out that was superstitious or offensive. 
The communion J- 3- What these particulars are, shall be 
office designed shewn hereafter in their proper places. In the 

dtere u nt e time a mean time I sha11 here obse r v e, that the office 
from morning originally was designed to be distinct, and to be 
introduced with the Litany, as I have observed 
before, 1 and consequently to be used at a different time from 
morning prayer : for in all the Common Prayer Books before 
the last, so many as intended to be partakers of the holy 
Communion, were to signify their names to the Curate over- 
night, or else in the morning before the beginning of morn- 
ing prayer or immediately after. The design of which rubric 
was partly that the Minister (by this means knowing the 
number of his communicants) might the better judge how to 
provide the elements of bread and wine sufficient for the 
occasion ; but chiefly (as appears from the following rubrics) 
that he might have time to inform himself of the parties who 
intended to receive, that so if there were any among them not 
duly qualified, he might persuade them to abstain of their 
own accords ; or, if they obstinately offered themselves, ab- 
solutely reject them. Now the rubric supposing, that this 
might be done immediately after morning prayer, as well as 
before it began, we must necessarily infer, that there was 
sufficient time designed to be allowed between the two ser- 
vices, for the Curate not only to provide the elements, but 
also to confer with and advise his communicants. I know 
indeed that Alesse, in his translation of the Liturgy for the 
use of Bucer, applies the word after to the beginning of 
morning prayer, translating the rubric (though without either 
reason or authority) after this manner : Quotquot cupiunt 
par ticipes fieri sacra: Communionis, indicabunt nomina sua 

> See page* 1C5, 1C6. 


Pastori pridie, aut mane, priusquam inchoentur Matutinee, 
vel immediate post principium : which another Latin trans- 
lation, published in queen Elizabeth's time, expresses plainer, 
vel immediate post principium matutinarum prccum. But 
how is it possible that the Curate could either take their 
names, or confer with those that came, whilst he was other- 
wise employed in reading morning prayers? The words 
immediately after, therefore, must plainly refer to the ending 
of morning prayers ; after which, those who had not offered 
themselves before, were required to come and signify their 
names, that so the Curate might know what sort of persons 
he should have to communicate with him, before he pro- 
ceeded to the Communion Office. This rubric indeed was 
altered at the last review ; so that now all that intend to com- 
municate are required to signify their names at least some 
time the day before. But then the design of this alteration 
was not that both offices should be united in one, but that the 
Curate might have a more competent time to inquire of, and 
consult with, those that offered themselves to communicate. 3 
The offices are still as distinct as ever, and ought still to be 
read at different times. A custom which bishop Overal says 
was observed in his time in York and Chichester ; 3 and the 
same practice, Mr. Johnson tells us, prevailed at Canterbury 
long since the Restoration, as it did very lately, if it does not 
still, at the cathedral of Worcester. 4 It is certain that the 
Communion Office still every where retains the old name of 
the Second Service ; and bishop Overal, just now mentioned, 
imputes it to the negligence of Ministers, and the carelessness 
of people, that they are ever huddled together into one office. 

SECT. I. Of the Rubrics before the Communion Office. 

FROM what has been said just now above, the 
design of the first rubric sufficiently appears, viz. ^^i' to^bl 
That the Curate, by knowing, at least some time judges of the et- 
the day before, the names of all that intend to communicants. 
be partakers of the holy Communion, may judge 
what quantity of bread and wine will be sufficient, and also 
may have time enough to learn, whether those that offer 
themselves to the Communion are fit to receive. For, 

* See the account of all the Proceedings of the Commissioners, 1661, p. 15, and the 
Papers that passed between the Commissioners, p. 129. 3 See Dr. Nichols's addi- 

tional Notes, p. S6. * Clergyman's Vade Mecum, p. 12, third edition. 



. 2. If any of those be an open or notorious 
h!ave^x>wer't nd ev " liver, or have done any wrong to his neigh- 
repei scandalous bours by word or deed, so that the congregation 
be thereby offended; the Curate, having know- 
ledge thereof, shall call him and advertise him, that in any 
wise he presume not to come to the Lord's table until he hath 
openly declared himself to have truly repented, and amended 
his former naughty life, that the congregation may thereby be 
satisfied, which before were offended ; and that he hath re- 
compensed the parties to whom he hath done wrong, or at least 
declare himself to be in full purpose so to do, as soon as he 
conveniently may. 

The same order shall the Curate use with those between whom 
he perceiveth malice and hatred to reign; not suffering them to 
be partakers of the Lord's table, until he know them to be re- 
conciled. And if any one of the parties so at variance be con- 
tent to forgive, from the bottom of his heart, all that the other 
hath trespassed against him, and to make amends for that he 
himself hath offended ; and the other party will not be persuad- 
ed to a godly unity, but remain still in his frowardness and 
malice; the Minister in that case ought to admit the penitent 
person to the holy Communion, and not him that is obstinate. 

Now here we must distinguish between absolutely repelling 
and shutting out any one from the Communion, as by a judi- 
cial act, and only suspending him for a time, till the Minister 
has opportunity to send his case to the Ordinary. The first 
of these is what the rubric cannot be understood to imply : 
for by the laws of the land, both ecclesiastical and civil, none 
are to be shut out from this Sacrament, but such as are noto- 
rious delinquents, and none are notorious but such as the sen- 
tence of the law hath, either upon their own confession, or 
full conviction, declared so to be. And this is conformable 
both to the Imperial Edict, and the practice of the Church, 
as long ago as St. Austin. The first hath this established law : 
" We prohibit all, both bishops and presbyters, from shutting 
out any one from the Communion, before some just cause be 
shewn for which the holy canons require it to be done." 8 
And as to the ancient usage, St. Austin speaks very plain ; 
"We cannot," saith he, "repel any man from the Communion, 
unless he has freely confessed his offence, or hath been ac- 

Norel. 123, e. 11, Collat. 9, Tit. 15, c. 11. 


cused and convicted in some ecclesiastical consistory or se- 
cular court." 

But now all this plainly refers to the power of secluding from 
the Communion judicially and with authority ; whereas the 
design of this rubric is only to enable the Curate to refuse to 
administer to any of his congregation (of whose ill life and 
behaviour he has received sudden notice) till he can have 
opportunity of laying his case before the Ordinary. For by a 
clause, added at the last review, it is provided, That every 
Minister, so repelling/ any, as is specified in this, or the next 
precedent paragraph of this rubric, shall be obliged to give 
an account of the same to the Ordinary, tvithin fourteen days 
after at the farthest, and the Ordinary is to proceed against 
the offending person according to the canon. The hundred 
and ninth canon, I suppose, is meant, which requires the Or- 
dinary to punish all such notorious offenders by the severity 
of the laws, and not to admit them to the Communion till they 
be reformed. 

But here I know it may be objected, that the persons, whom 
the Curate is by this rubric empowered to repel, are declared 
to be such as are notorious evil livers, and that I have already 
allowed that none are notorious but such as the sentence of 
the law has declared so to be. But to this I answer, that no- 
toriety in this place is taken in a lower degree ; the rubric 
using the words open and notorious for the same thing, and 
explaining those to be notorious by whom the congregation is 
offended. That it cannot mean those whom the law has de- 
clared to be notorious, is plain, because such are supposed to 
be already shut out from the Communion, and consequently the 
Curate must himself have received notice from his Ordinary 
not to admit them : whereas the persons, whom the rubric 
provides against, are such as the Ordinary is supposed not yet 
to have heard of, whom therefore it requires the Curate to 
send him notice of, in order that he may proceed against them 
according to law ; and whom, in the mean while, the Curate 
is empowered by this rubric (which is itself a law, being 
established by the Act of Uniformity} to refuse the Commu- 
nion, if, after due admonition to keep away, he obstinately 
offers himself to receive : insomuch that no damage from any 
prior law can accrue to him from a conscientious execution of 
the latter. And that this is no novel or unnecessary power is 
plain from the practice of the ancient Church ; in which though 

s 2 


all open offenders, as soon as known, were put under censure, 
yet if before censure they offered themselves at the Commu- 
nion, they were repelled. This is evident from St. Chrysos- 
tom, 6 who does not more earnestly press the duty, than he 
does plainly assert the authority of the sacerdotal power to 
effect it. " Let no Judas," saith he, " no lover of money be 
present at this table ; he that is not Christ's disciple, let him 
depart from it. Let no inhuman, no cruel person, no un- 
compassionate man, or unchaste, come hither. I speak this 
to you that administer, as well as to those that partake : 
for it is necessary I speak these things to you, that you 
may take great care, and use your utmost diligence to dis- 
tribute these offerings aright. For no small punishment 
hangeth over your heads, if knowing any man to be wicked, 
you suffer him to be partaker of this table ; for his blood 
shall be required at your hands. Wherefore, if he be a ge- 
neral, or a provincial governor, or the emperor himself, that 
cometh unworthily, forbid him and keep him off ; thy power 
is greater than his. If any such get to the table, reject him 
without fear. If thou darest not remove him, tell it me ; I 
will not suffer it, I will yield my life rather than the Lord's 
body to any unworthy person : and suffer my own blood to be 
shed, before I will grant that sacred blood to any but to him 
that is worthy." 

But here again it has been objected, that " all persons, be- 
fore they are admitted into any office, are obliged by our laws 
to receive the sacrament as a qualification , and consequently 
that the Minister is obliged by the same laws, to admit any 
person that offers himself upon this occasion, to the holy 
Communion, however unfit he may have rendered himself by 
his life and actions." But in answer to this, it must be con- 
sidered, that the power which Christ himself invested his 
Church with, of admitting persons into her communion, and 
excluding them from it, is what no human laws can deprive 
her of. And therefore when the laws require men to receive 
this holy Sacrament to qualify themselves for offices, they al- 
ways suppose that they must first qualify themselves accord- 
ing to the holy laws of the Church, which are founded on those 
of the Gospel. So that it would be a very great injury to our 
legislators (as being a very uncharitable opinion of them) to 
imagine, that if an unbaptized, or excommunicate person, a 
deist, or notorious sinner, should happen to obtain an office, 

* Chrysoat. Horn. fiS, in Matt. zxri. 


that they intend to oblige the Church to admit persons, under 
these bad dispositions, to be partakers of the blessed Eucharist. 
The primitive Church was so cautious in this respect, that 
even persons in the highest stations were rejected, if they of- 
fered themselves unworthily. Of which we have a remarkable 
instance in the case of the emperor Theodosius, whom St. 
Ambrose boldly and openly refused, upon the commission of 
a barbarous crime. The story being worth the reader's notice, 
I shall therefore give it in a few words. There being a sedition 
among the people of Thessalonica, the emperor ordered the 
guard to fall on them in heat, who in that hurry and confusion 
destroyed several thousands of these poor wretches. Soon 
after which, he coming to Milan, was going to offer himself at 
St. Ambrose's church to receive the Communion. But the 
good bishop (when he heard of it) met him courageously at 
the church doors, and obliged him to return, and first repent 
himself of his crime. " With what eyes," saith he, " can you 
behold the temple of him who is the common Lord of all ? 
With what feet can you tread this holy place ? How can you 
put out those hands to receive the blessed elements, which are 
yet reeking with innocent blood ? How can you take the pre- 
cious blood into that mouth, which gave out such barbarous 
and bloody orders? Depart therefore, and take heed that you 
do not increase your first crime by a second. Submit your- 
self to the bond which the Lord of the world has been pleased 
to bind you with, which is only medicinal, and intended to 
work your cure." 7 This repulse the emperor acquiesced in, 
and offered himself no more to those holy rites, till he had in 
tears repented of the sad effects of his hasty anger. I have 
chosen to give this instance, because it is what the Church of 
England has thought fit to record in her Homilies, and to 
mention with marks of approbation and applause. 8 
. But besides persons excommunicated, and _ 

, -i i Other persons 

those above mentioned, there are other persons, disqualified from 
by the laws of our Church, disabled from com- ^^miHw- 
municating : such as are of course all schismatics, 
to whom no. Minister, when he celebrate th the Communion, 
is wittingly to administer the same, under pain of suspension, 9 
But of these too, unless they have been legally convicted, the 
Minister who repels them is obliged upon complaint, or being 

> Theod. Hist. Eccl. 1. 5. In the second part of the Homily of the Right Use of 
the Church. Can. 27. 


required by the Ordinary, to signify the cause thereof unto 
him, and therein to obey his order and direction. 10 And fur- 
ther, by a rubric at the end of the Order of Confirmation, 

none are to be admitted to the holy Communion, 
^"firmed* C " unt ^ 8UC ^ limc as he be confirmed, or be ready 

and desirous to be confirmed. The like provision 
is made by our Provincial Constitutions, which allow none to 
communicate (unless at the point of death) but such as are 
confirmed, or at least have a reasonable impediment for not 
being confirmed : u and the Glossary allows no impediment to 
be reasonable, but the want of a bishop* near the place. And 
and strangers lastly, all strangers from other parishes ; the Min- 
from other ister is by the canons 12 required to forbid and 

to remit such home to their own parish churches 
and ministers, there to receive the Communion rcith the rest 
of their neighbours. 

. 3. The last rubric concerning the covering 
cernmg the situ- an ^ situation of the Communion table, was first 
ationoftheCom- added in the second Common Prayer Book of 

munion table. , . T,, -, T7T ., . . **, , . 

king Ldward VI., there being no other rubric 
in his first book than this, The priest, standing humbly afore 
the middes of the altar, shall saie the Lord's Prayer, inc.* 
For altar was the name by which the holy board was con- 
stantly distinguished for the first three hundred years after 
Christ ; during all which time it does not appear that it was 
above once called table, and that was in a letter of Dionysius 
of Alexandria to Xystus of Rome. And when in the fourth 
century Athanasius called it a table, he thought himself obliged 
to explain the word, and to let the reader know that by table 

* In the first book of king Edward also, before this rubric, there was another in- 
serted in relation to the habits which the Ministers were to wear at the Communion, 
which I have already given in page 99, &c., to which was annexed this that follows, 
" Then shall the Clerks sing in English for the Office or Introit (as they call it) a Psalm 
appointed for that day." The Introits also I have already spoke to in page 204. Though 
I do not know how to reconcile this order for singing it before the Minister begins the 
office, with another rubric which stands in the same book immediately after the prayer, 
" Almighty God, unto whom all hearts bo open," &c., which orders, " that the Priest 
then shall say a Psalm appointed for the Introit : which Psalm ended, the Priest" was 
also then "to say, or else the Clerks were to sing, III Lord have mercy upon us, 
III Christ have meroy upon us, III Lord have mercy upon us." 

Then the Priest standing at God's board was to begin, " Glory be to God on high." 

The Clerks, " And in earth peace, good-will towards men : " and so on to the end of 
the hymn in our present Post-Communion-offlce. 

Then the Priest was to turn him to the people, and say, " The Lord be with you." 

Answer. " And with thy spirit." 

The Priest. " Let us pray. 

And then came the Collect for the day, and one of the Collects for the king. 

Con. 27. Prov. Linw. cap. de sacr. Unct. > Can. 28. 


he meant 'altar, that being then the constant and familiar 
name. 13 Afterwards indeed both names came to be promiscu- 
ously used ; the one having respect to the oblation of the eu- 
charist, the other to the participation : but it was always placed 
altar-wise in the most sacred part of the Church, and fenced 
in with rails to secure it from irreverence and disrespect. 

But at the beginning of the Reformation, an unhappy dis- 
pute arose, viz. whether those tables of the altar-fashion, 
which had been used in the popish times, and on which masses 
had been celebrated, should still be continued : this point was 
first started by bishop 'Hooper, who, in a sermon before the 
king in the fourth year of his reign, declared, " That it would 
do well, that it might please the magistrate, to turn altars into 
tables, according to the first institution of Christ ; to take 
away the false persuasion of the people, which they have of 
sacrifice, to be done upon the altars ; for as long (says he) as 
altars remain, both the ignorant people and the ignorant and 
evil persuaded priest will always dream of sacrifice." u This 
occasioned not only a couple of letters from the king and 
council, one of which was sent to all the bishops, and the 
other to Ridley, bishop of London ; (in both which they were 
required to pull down the altars ;) but also that, when the Li- 
turgy was reviewed in 1551, the abovesaid rubric was altered, 
and in the room of it the present one was inserted, viz. The 
table having at the Communion time a fair white linen cloth 
upon it, shall stand in the body of the church, or in tlie chan- 
cel, where morning and evening prayer are appointed to be 
said. And the priest standing at the north side of the table, 
shall say tlie Lord's Prayer with the Collect following. 
But this did not put an end to the controversy ; another dis- 
pute arising, viz. whether the table placed in the room of the 
altar ought to stand altar-wise, i. e. in the same place and 
situation as the altar formerly stood ? This was the occasion 
that in some churches the tables were placed in the middle 
of the chancels, in others at the east part thereof next to the 
wall; some again placing it endwise, and others placing it at 
length. 15 Bishop Ridley endeavoured to compromise this 
matter, and therefore, in St. Paul's cathedral, suffered the 
table to stand in the place of the old altar ; but beating down 
the wainscot partition behind, laid all the choir open to the 

13 See all this proved in Mr. Johnson's Unbloody Sacrifice, &c., chap. ii. sect. 3, vol. 
i. p. 300, &c. See Heylin's Antidot. Lincoln, page 105. Huggard's Display 
of Protestants, p. 81, printed anno 1556, as cited in Heylin's Antidot. Lincoln, p. 50. 


east, leaving the table then to stand in the middle of the 
chancel, 16 which indeed was more agreeable to the primitive 
custom. 17 Under this diversity of usage, things went on till 
the death of king Edward ; when queen Mary coming to the 
throne, altars were again restored wherever they had been 
demolished : but her reign proving short, and queen Elizabeth 
succeeding her, the people, (just got free again from the ty- 
ranny of popery,) through a mistaken zeal, fell in a tumultuous 
manner to the pulling down of altars : though indeed this hap- 
pened for the generality only in private churches, they not 
being meddled with in any of the queen's palaces, and in but 
very few of the cathedrals. And as soon as the queen was 
sensible of what had happened in other places, she put out an 
injunction 18 to restrain the fury of the people, declaring it to 
be no matter of great moment, whether there were altars or 
tables, so that the Sacrament mas duly and reverently ad- 
ministered ; but ordering, that where an altar was taken down, 
a holy table should be decently made, and set in the place 
where the altar stood, and there commonly covered as thereto 
belonged, and as should be appointed by the visitor, and so to 
stand, saving when the communion of the Sacrament was to 
be distributed , at which time the same was to be placed in 
good sort within the chancel, as tliereby the Minister might 
be more conveniently heard of the communicants in his prayer 
and ministration, and the communicants also more conveni- 
ently and in more number communicate with the said Min- 
ister. And after tlie Communion done, from time to time 
ttte same holy table was to be placed wltere it stood before. 
Now it is plain from this injunction, as well as from the 
eighty-second canon of the Church, (which is almost verbatim 
the same,) that there is no obligation arising from this rubric 
to move the table at the time of the Communion, unless the 
people cannot otherwise conveniently hear and communicate. 
The injunction declares, that the holy table is to be set in the 
same place where the altar stood, which every one knows was 
at the east end of the chancel. And when both the injunc- 
tion and canon speak of its being moved at the time of the 
Communion, it supposes that the Minister could not other- 
wise be heard : the interposition of a belfry between the 
chancel and body of the church (as I have already observed, 

" Act* and Monument*, part ii. p. 700. " See Bingham's Antiquities, 1. 8, c. 6, 
(.11. i See the Injunction in Bishop Sparrow'* Collection, p. 84. 


p. 108, &c.) hindering the Minister in some churches from 
being heard by the people, if he continued in the chancel. So 
that we are not under any obligation to move the table, unless 
necessity requires. But whenever the churches are built so 
as the Minister can be heard, and conveniently administer 
the Sacrament at the place where the table usually stands, he 
is rather obliged to administer in the chancel, as appears from 
the rubric before the Commandments, as also from that before 
the Absolution, by both which rubrics the Priest is directed 
to turn himself to the people. From whence I argue, that if 
the table be in the middle of the church, and the people con- 
sequently round about the Minister, the Minister cannot turn 
himself to the people any more at one time than another. 
Whereas if the table be close to the east wall, the Minister 
stands on the north side, and looks southward, and conse- 
quently, by looking westward, turns himself to the people. 

. 4. Wherever it be placed, the Priest is ob- 
liged to stand at the north side, (or end thereof, to 'stanTat^he 
as the Scotch Liturgy expresses it ; which also or- ^J 1 slde of the 
ders, that it shall stand at the uppermost part 
of the chancel or church,} the design of which is, that the 
Priest may be the better seen and heard ; which, as our altars 
are now placed, he cannot be but at the north or south side. 
And therefore the north side being the right hand or upper 
side of the altar, is certainly the most proper for the officiating 
Priest, that so the assisting Minister (if there be one) may not 
be obliged to stand above him. And bishop Beveridge has 
shewn that wherever, in the ancient Liturgies, the Minister is 
directed to stand before the altar, the north side of it is always 
meant. 19 

. 5. The covering of the altar with a fair The table to be 
white linen cloth, at the time of the celebration covered with a 
of the Lord's Supper, was a primitive practice, 20 
enjoined at first, and retained ever since for its decency. In 
the Sacramentary of St. Gregory, 21 this covering is called 
palla altaris, the pall of the altar ; to distinguish it, I suppose, 
from the corporis palla, or the cloth that was thrown over the 
consecrated elements. And the Scotch Liturgy orders, that 
the holy table at ilie Communion time should have a carpet, 
and a fair white linen cloth upon it, with other decent furni- 

i Bev. Pandect, vol. ii. p. 76, . 15. See also Renaudotius's Liturgies, torn. ii. p. 
24. *> Optat. Milev. 1. 6, p. 113. Hieron. in Ep. ad Nepotianum. * l In Ord. Diac. 


ture, meet for the high mysteries there to be celebrated. And 
by our own canons, 22 at all other times, when divine service is 
performed, it is to be covered reith a carpet of silk, or rather 
decent stuff, thought meet by the Ordinary of the place, if 
any question be made of it ; which was originally designed 
for the clean keeping of the said [white linen] cloth .- a though 
the chief use of it now is for ornament and decency. 

SECT. II. Of the Lord's Prayer. 

why used at the THERE can be no fitter beginning for this sacred 
beginning of the ordinance, which so peculiarly challengeth Christ 
for its author, than that divine prayer which owes 
its original to the same person, and which St. Jerome tells us, 34 
Christ taught his Apostles, on purpose that they should use it 
at the holy Communion. To which the primitive Fathers 
thought it so peculiarly adapted, that they generally expounded 
that petition, Give us this day our daily bread, of the body of 
Christ, the bread of life, which in those times they daily re- 
ceived for the nourishment of their souls. 25 

SECT. TO.. Of the Collect for Purity. 

why used before As tne P e P le were to be purified before the 
the Command- first publication of the law, 26 so must we have 
clean hearts before we be fit to hear it ; lest, if 
our minds be impure sin take occasion by the commandment 
to stir up concupiscence : "" for prevention of which, when the 
Commandments were added in the second book of king Ed- 
ward, it was thought proper that this form should immediately 
precede them : not but that the form itself was in our first Li- 
turgy, and, as far as appears, in the oldest offices of the West- 
ern Church. 

SECT. IV. Of the Ten Commandments. 

THESE divine precepts of the moral law as much 
H wa here. placed oblige Christians as they did the Jews : we vowed 
to keep them at our baptism, and we renew that 
vow at every Communion : and therefore it is very fit we 
should hear them often, and especially at those times when we 
are going to make fresh engagements to observe them. Upon 

Can. 82. See an order of queen Elizabeth, A. D. 1561, in Heylin's Antidot. 

Lincoln, p. 45. ' Hieron. adv. Pelag. 1. 3, c. 5, torn. ii. p. 596, C. * Tert. de 

Oral. Dom. c. 6, p. 131, 1). 132, A. Cyprian, in Oral. Dora. p. 146, 147. Exod. 

xix. 14. Horn. vii. 8. 


which account, since we are to confess all our sins before we 
come to this blessed Sacrament of pardon, the Church pru- 
dently directs the Minister, now standing in the most holy 
place, to turn himself to the people,* and from thence, like 
another Moses from Mount Sinai, to convey God's laws to 
them, by rehearsing distinctly all the Ten Commandments ; 
by which, as in a glass, they may discover all their offences, 
and, still kneeling, may, of ter every Commandment, ask God 
mercy for their transgression thereof (i. e. as the Scotch Li- 
turgy expresses it, of every duty therein, either according to 
the letter, or to the mystical importance of the said Com- 
mandment) for the time past, and grace to keep the same for 
the time to come.} 

SECT. V. Of the two Collects for the King. 

ST. PAUL seems to command that we should 
pray for kings in all our prayers: 48 and in the ^ekta? for 
primitive Church they always supplicated for their 
princes at the time of the celebration of the holy Eucharist; 99 
where, by virtue of the sacrifice of Christ's death commemor- 
ated, those great requests might be likely to prevail. 

. 2. In our Liturgy these prayers do not (as ^y placed next 
in the Roman Missal) disturb the prayer of Con- after the Com- 
secration, but, as the office is now compiled, are man<Jments - 
more conveniently placed here : the king is custos utriusque 
tabulce, defender of both tables of the law, and therefore we 
properly pray for him just after the Commandments. Nor do 
our prayers for him less aptly precede the daily Collect : since 
when we have prayed for outward prosperity to the Church, 
the consequent of the king's welfare, we may very seasonably 
in the Collect pray for inward grace, to make it completely 
happy. :f For variety here are two prayers, but they both tend 
to the same end, and only differ a little in the form. 

SECT. VI. Of the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel. 

IT is evident, that long before the dividing the or the Collect, 
Bible into chapters and verses, it was the custom 

* This direction of " turning to the people " was first added in the Scotch Liturgy. 

t These latter words, " for the time past," &c., were added at the last review : though 
indeed no part of the rubric, nor of the Commandments themselves, were in the first 
book of king Edward VI., nor, as far as I can find, in any ancient Liturgy. 

t In all the former Common Prayer Books, except the Scotch, it seems as if the Col- 
lect for the day was used before that for the king. For the old rubric was this : " Then 
shall follow the Collect for the day, with one of these two Collects following for the king." 

28 1 Tim. ij. 1,2. Liturg. S. Jacob. S. Chrys. S. Bas. Vide Euseb. de Vita Con- 
stant. 1. 4, c. 45, p. 549. 


both of the Greek and Latin Churches to read some select 
portions of the plainest and most practical parts of the New 
Testament, first for the Epistle, and then for the Gospel, at 
the celebration of the holy Eucharist, 30 in imitation perhaps of 
the Jewish mode of reading the history of the Passover before 
the eating of the paschal lamb. 31 

. 2. As for the antiquity, matter, and suitable- 
t 8 ! 16 ne ss of the several Collects, Epistles, and Gos- 
pels, I have already spoken at large. I shall on- 
ly make this one remark more, that as our Saviour's disciples 
roent before his face to every city and place, whither he him- 
self mould come ,- 32 so here the Epistle, as the word of the 
servant, is read first, that it may be as a harbinger to the Gos- 
pel, to which the last place and greatest honour is reserved, 
as being the word of their great Master. And for this reason 
I suppose it was ordered by the advertisements published in the 
seventh year of queen Elizabeth, 33 and by the twenty-fourth 
of our present canons, that the principal Minister, at the 
celebration of the Communion, should be as- 

tpistler and .7-7 xf 7 -ri 

Gospeier, why sisted foith a (jrospeler and iLpistler agreea- 
bly ; i. e. with one Minister to read the Epistle 
and another to read the Gospel, as is still generally the cus- 
tom in cathedral churches ; which was also provided for by 
the rubrics in king Edward's first book, which orders that the 
priest, or he that is appointed, shall read the Epistle in a place 
assigned for that purpose, (which from the modern practice 
I take to be on the south side of the table ;) and that immedi- 
ately after the Epistle ended, the priest, or one appointed, 
(which, as appears from the next rubric, might be a deacon,) 
shall read the Gospel. 

. 3. The custom of saying Glory be to thee, O 
Mytag U GoV f be Lord, when the Minister was about to read the 
to thee, o Lord, holy Gospel, and of singing Hallelujah, or saying, 
tlquuy what " Thanks be to God for his holy Gospel, when he 
had concluded it, is as old as St. Chrysostom j 34 
but we have no authority for it in our present Liturgy. The 
first indeed was enjoined by king Edward's first Common 
Prayer Book, and so the custom has continued ever since ; 
and I do not find how it came to be left out of the rubric after- 
wards. It certainly could have nothing objected against it, 
and therefore it is restored in the Scotch Liturgy ; which also 

*> Just. Mart. Ap. I. Clem. Const. Apost. lib. 2, c. 56, 57. " Buxtorf. Lex. Chald. 
*> Luke x. 1. "In BUhop Sparrow's Collection, page 124, 125. Liturg. 8. Chrys. 


ordered, that, when the Presbyter shall say, So endeth the 
holy Gospel, the people shall answer, Thanks be to thee, O 
Lord. In our own Common Prayer Book the Priest has no 
direction to say, The Gospel is ended ; the reason of which 
some imagine to be, because it is still continued in the Creed 
that followeth. 

. 4. In St. Augustine's time the people always standing up at 
stood when the Lessons were read, to shew their the Gospel, why 
reverence to God's holy word : 35 but afterwards, C( 
when this was thought too great a burden, they were allowed 
to sit down at the Lessons, and were only obliged to stand 
(as our present order, which was first inserted in the Scotch 
Common Prayer Book, now enjoins us) at the reading of the 
Gospel, 38 which always contains something that our Lord 
did, spoke, or suffered in his own person. By which gesture 
they shewed they had a greater respect to the Son of God 
himself, than they had to any other inspired person, though 
speaking the word of God, and by God's authority. 

SECT. VII. Of the Nicene Creed. 

As the Apostles' Creed is placed immediately why placed after 
after the daily Lessons, so is this after the Epis- the Epistle and 
tie and Gospel : both of them being founded GospeL 
upon the doctrine of Christ and his Apostles. As therefore 
in the foregoing portions of Scripture we believe with our heart 
to righteousness, so in the Creed that follows, we confess with 
our mouth to salvation. 

S. 2. This is commonly called the Nicene . 

X-Y? i- / XL L ii_/^j An account of it. 

Creed, as being, for the greatest part, the Creed 
that was drawn up by the first general Council of Nice, in the 
year 325, but enlarged by a fuller explication of some articles 
about the year 381, especially in relation to the divinity and 
procession of the Holy Ghost, in order to a more particular 
confutation and suppression of the Arian and Macedonian 
heresy. For which reason it was enjoined by the third Coun- 
cil of Toledo to be recited by all the people in Spain before 
the Sacrament, to shew that they were all free from heresy, 
and in the strictest league of union with the catholic Church. 37 
And since in this sacrament we are to renew our baptismal 
vow, (one branch of which was, that we would believe all the 

35 Augustin. Serm. 300, in Append, ad torn. v. col. 504, B. 38 Const. Ap. 1. 2, c. 56. 
Niceph. 1. 9, c. 18. Isid. Pelus. 1. 1, Ep. 136. Soz. 1. 7, c. 19. Can. 2, torn. v. col. 
1009, E. 


Articles of the Christian faith,} it is very requisite that, be- 
fore we be admitted, we should declare that we stand firm in 
the belief of those articles. 

SECT. VIII. Of the Rubric after the Nicene Creed. 

AFTER the Creed follows a rubric of directions, 
* t 2SS?* instructing the Priest what he is to publish, or 
make known to the people. I do not find any 
such rubric in the first Common Prayer Book of king Edward 
VI. ; and in all the rest, quite down to the Restoration, a de- 
claration of the holy-days only was ordered to be made after 
the Sermon or Homily was ended. 

why the Curate 2 - This * 8 tne ^ rst tmn g our rubric men- 
is to bid holy- tions now, viz. that the Curate shall declare 
unto the people rvhat holy -days or fasting -days 
are in the meek following to be observed. The first reason 
of which was, lest the people should observe any such days 
as had been formerly kept, but were laid aside at the Reforma- 
tion : and therefore the Bishops inquired in their visitations, 
nliether any of their Curates bid any other days than mere 
appointed by the new calendar?* This danger is now pretty 
well over ; there being no great fear of the people's observing 
superstitious holy-days. But there is still as much reason for 
keeping up the rubric, since now they are run into a contrary 
extreme, and, instead of observing too many holy-days, regard 
none ; which makes it fit that the Curate should discharge his 
duty, by telling them beforehand, what holy-days will happen, 
and then leaving it upon his people to answer for the neglect, 
if they are passed over without due regard. 

when to give ^ -^ nd t ^ ien a ^ so Of occasion be} shall 
notice of the notice be given of the. Communion: though by 
rammon. another rubric, just before the first exhortation, 
this is supposed to be done after sermon. For there it is or- 
dered, that when the Minister giveth warning for the celebra- 
tion of the holy Communion, (which he shall always do upon 
the Sunday, or some holy -day immediately preceding,} after the 
Sermon or Homily ended, he shall read the exhortation follow- 
ing. The occasion of this difference was the placing of this 
rubric of directions, at the last review, before the rubric con- 
cerning the Sermon or Homily. For by all the old Common 
Prayer Books, immediately after the Nicene Creed, the Sermon 

* Archbishop Grindal, Art. VIII., 1576, for the whole province. 


was ordered ; and then after that the Curate was to declare 
unto the people, whether there were any holy-days or fasting- 
days in the week following, and earnestly to exhort them to 
remember the poor, by reading one or more of the sentences, 
as he thought most convenient by his discretion. This was the 
whole of that rubric then. All the remaining part was added 
at the Restoration, as was also the rubric above cited just be- 
fore the exhortation. Now it is plain by that rubric, that the 
warning to the Communion was intended to be given after the 
Sermon ; and therefore I should have imagined that there was 
no design to have changed the places of the two rubrics here, 
but only to have added some other directions concerning the 
proclaiming or publishing things in the church : and that con- 
sequently the placing of them in the order they now stand, might 
have been owing to the printer's, or some other mistake ; but 
that I observe in the next rubric the priest is ordered to re- 
turn to the Lord's table, which supposes that he has been in 
the pulpit since he was at the table before ; and therefore in- 
clines me to believe that the rubrics were transposed with 
design ; and that the intent of the revisers was, that when 
there was nothing in the Sermon itself preparatory to the 
Communion, both this and the other rubric should be com- 
plied with, viz. by giving warning in this place, that there 
will be a Communion on such a day, and then reading the 
exhortation after Sermon is ended. 

. 4. At this time also briefs, citations, and ex- ^^ thln to 
communications are to be read. But nothing is to be published, and 
be proclaimed or published in the church, during w 
the time of divine service, but by the Minister : nor by him any 
thing but what is prescribed in the rules of the Common Prayer 
Book, or enjoined by the King, or by the Ordinary of the place. 
All this was undoubtedly added, to prevent the custom, that 
still too much prevails in some country churches, of publish- 
ing the most frivolous, unbefitting, and even ridiculous things 
in the face of the congregation. 

SECT. IX. Of the Sermon. 
SERMONS have been appointed from the be- 
ginning of Christianity, 39 to be used upon all ST 
Sundays and holy-days, but especially when the 

59 Const. Ap. 1. 8, c. 5. Augustin. de Civ. Dei, 1. 22, c. 8. Concil. VasenSe 1, Can. 
9, torn. iii. col. 1459, A. Concil. 6, Constant. Can. 19, torn. vi. col. 1151, C. 


Lord's Supper was to be administered. For by a pious and 
practical discourse suited to the holy Communion, the minds 
of the hearers are put into a devout frame, and made much 
fitter for the succeeding mysteries. 

Formerly per- ^' This province indeed, in ancient times, 
formed by bi- was generally undertaken by the bishops, who at 
first voluntarily, and afterwards by injunction, 
preached every Sunday, unless hindered by sickness : * but 
however, in the absence of the bishop, this duty was perform- 
ed by presbyters, and by his permission in his presence. 41 

. 3. The reason of its being ordered here, is 
^eref M because the first design of them was to explain 
some part of the foregoing Epistle and Gospel/ 2 
in imitation of that practice of the Jews mentioned in Nehe- 
miah viii. 8. For which reason they were formerly called 
Postillis, (quasi post ilia, sc. Evangelia^) because they fol- 
lowed the Gospel. 

8. 4. The Homilies mentioned in the rubric, 

Of the Homilies. > i i ,. i // i 

are two books of plain sermons, (tor so the word 
signifies,) set out by public authority, one whereof is to be 
read upon any Sunday or holy-day, when there is no sermon. 
The first volume of them was set out in the beginning of king 
Edward VI. 's reign, having been composed (as it is thought) 
by archbishop Cranmer, bishop Ridley, and Latimer, at the 
beginning of the Reformation, when a competent number of 
Ministers, of sufficient abilities to preach in a public congre- 
gation, was not to be found. The second volume was set out 
in queen Elizabeth's time, by order of Convocation, A. D. 
1563. And that this is not at all contrary to the practice of 
the ancient Church, is evident from the testimony of Sixtus 
Sinensis, who, in the fourth book of his Library, saith, " That 
our countryman Alcuinus collected and reduced into order, 
by the command of Charles the Great, the homilies of the 
most famous doctors of the Church upon the Gospels, which 
were read in churches all the year round." He says they 
were all in number 209 : but where that work lies hid, is not 

Bidding of pray- 5 - ! designed in this place to have added a 
en enjoined by paragraph concerning the form of Bidding of 

Prayers, which the Church enjoins, by the fifty- 

Ciin. 19, Troll. Mogun.cap. 25. ' Possid. in Vit. Auguit. Vid. Augut. 
Sennonei de Temp. 


fifth canon, to be used by every Minister before his Sermon, 
Lecture, or Homily : and from thence to have taken occa- 
sion to have hinted at the irregularity and ill consequences of 
the Petitionary Form, which is now the general practice. But 
rinding it necessary to be more particular than I at first fore- 
saw, if I proposed to give any tolerable satisfaction ; the design 
immediately swelled into too large a compass to be inserted in 
a work of so general a nature. For this reason I have chosen 
to publish it in a little treatise by itself: by which means too 
I hope it will be more known, than if it had only been treated 
of in a few pages here. For the sake of those who may be 
desirous to look into the question, I have inserted the title at 
the bottom of the page, 43 not without hopes that my sincere 
endeavours may contribute a little to put a stop to the custom 
of praying in the pulpit, which the reader will there see has 
once been attended with fatal consequences, and which has 
been discountenanced and prohibited almost in every reign, 
since the Reformation, by our governors and superiors both in 
Church and State. 

SECT. X. Of the Offertory, or Sentences, and the Rubrics that follow. 

AFTER the confession of our faith in the Ni- 
cene Creed, or else after the improvement of it n^^yTuty. 
in the Sermon or Homily, follows the exercise of 
our charity, without which our faith mould be dead.^ The 
first way of expressing which, is by dedicating some part of 
what God has given us to his use and service, which is fre- 
quently and strictly commanded in the Gospel, hath the best 
examples for it, and the largest rewards promised to it ; being 
instead of all the vast oblations and costly sacrifices which the 
Jews did always join with their prayers, and the only charge- 
able duty to which Christians are obliged. It is, in a word, 
so necessary to recommend our prayers, that St. Paul pre- 
scribes, 45 and the ancient Church, in Justin Martyr's time, 
used to have collections every Sunday. 46 

However, when we receive the Sacrament, it is by no means 

Bidding of Prayer before Sermon, no mark of disaffection to the present govern- 
ment : or, an historical vindication of the fifty-fifth canon. Shewing that the form of 
Bidding Prayers has been prescribed and enjoined ever since the Reformation, and 
constantly practised by the greatest divines of our Church ; and that it has been lately 
enforced both by his present Majesty, and our right reverend diocesan the lord bishop 
of London. By Charles Wheatly, M. A., Lecturer of Saint Mildred's in the Poultry. 
T.ondon : printed for A. Bettesworth, at the Red Lion, and M. Smith, at Bishop Beve- 
ridge'g Head in Pater-noster Row. Price It. James ii. 17. ** 1 Cor. xvi. 1, 2. 
Just. Martyr. Apol. 1, c. 88, p. 132. 



to be omitted. When the Jews came before the Lord at the 
solemn feasts, they mere not allowed to appear empty , but 
every man mas required to give as he was able, according to 
the blessing of tJie Lord, which he had given him." And our 
Saviour (with respect, no doubt, to the holy table, as Mr. 
Mede excellently proves 4 ") supposes that we should never 
come to the altar without a gift?* but always imitate his prac- 
tice, whose custom of giving alms at the passover made his 
disciples mistake his words to him that bare the bag. 80 And 
it is very probable that at the time of receiving the Sacrament 
were all those large donations of houses, lands, and money 
made. 51 For when those first converts were all united to 
Christ and one another in this feast of love, their very souls 
were mingled ; they cheerfully renounced their property, and 
easily distributed their goods among those to whom they had 
given their hearts before. None (of ability) were allowed to 
receive without giving something ; 62 and to reject any man's 
offering, was to deny him a share in the benefit of those com- 
fortable mysteries. 83 

. 2. Wherefore, to stir us up more effectually 
Th< sent<Sces the * instate their pious example, as soon as the 
Sermon or Homily is ended, the Priest is direct- 
ed to return to the Lord's Table, and begin the Offertory, 
saying one or more of the sentences following, as he thinketh 
most convenient in his discretion, i. e. according to the length 
or shortness of the time that the people are offering, as it was 
worded in king Edward's first Common Prayer, and from 
thence in the Scotch one.* These are in the place of the an- 
tiphona or anthem which we find in the old Liturgies after 
the Gospel, and which, from their being sung whilst the peo- 
ple made their oblations at the altar, were called 
why <^ted ofler- offertory.'* The sentences which our Church 
has here selected for that purpose are such as 
contain instructions, injunctions, and exhortations to this 
great duty ; setting before us the necessity of performing it, 

* In the Scotch Liturgy. Matt. v. 16. Matt. vii. 12. Luke xix. 8. vi. 10. 1 Tim. 
v i. 7. 1 John iii. 1 7. with all that follows in our book, are omitted : and Gen. iv. 3, to the 
middle of the Sth verse, Exod. xxv. 2. Deut. xvl. 16, 17. 1 Chron. xxix. 10, 11, and part 
of the 12th, Hth, and the 17th verses; Psalm xcvi. 8. Matt. xii. 41,42,43, 44, are added. 

Deut. xvi. 16, 17. Mr. Mede of the Altar or holy Table, sect. 2, p. 390. 

Matt. v. 23, 24. John "xiii. 29. " Acts ii. 44, 45, 46. Cyprian, de Oper. 
et Elcemos. p. 203, &c. M Concil. Elib. Can. 28, torn. i. col. 973, E. Concil. Carthag. 
4, Can. 93, 94, torn. ii. col. 1207, B. * Vide Menard. in Greg. Sacrament, p. 582, Pa- 
ris. 1642. Vide et Mabilion de Liturgia Gallicana, p. 8, Paris. 1685. 


and the manner of doing it. Some of them (viz. those from 
the sixth to the tenth inclusively, unless the ninth be except- 
ed) respect the clergy. And it was with an eye, Ahng and other 
I suppose, to this difference, that in the last re- devotions, how 
view there was a distinction made in the rubric d 181 ' 11 ^" 811 ^- 
that follows these sentences, between the alms for the poor, 
and the other devotions of the people. In the old Common 
Prayer there was only mention made of the latter of these, 
viz. the devotions of the people, by which alms for the poor 
were then meant, as appears from its being then ordered to 
be put into the poor man's box. But then the clergy were 
included in other words, which ordered, that upon the offer- 
ing-days appointed, every man and woman should pay to the 
Curate the due and accustomed offerings. But of this I 
shall have occasion to say more, when I come to treat of the 
rubrics at the end of this office. I shall only observe further 
here, that the words alms for the poor being added at the 
last review, by which undoubtedly must be understood all 
that is given for their relief ; it is plain, that by the other de- 
votions of the people is now intended something distinct from 
the said alms. And if so, then the offerings for the clergy, or 
their share in the collections, must certainly be meant, as is 
plain from the design of the above-mentioned sentences, which 
have a direct and immediate regard to them. It is well known, 
that in the primitive times the clergy had a liberal mainten- 
ance out of what the people offered upon these occasions. 55 
Now, indeed, whilst they have a stated and legal income, the 
money collected at these times is generally appropriated to the 
poor : not but that where the stated income of a parish is not 
sufficient to maintain the clergy belonging to the Church, 
they have still a right to claim their share in these offerings. 

II. Whilst these sentences are in reading, 
the deacons, church-mar dens, or other fit per- By roUected. be 
sons, are to receive the alms for the poor, and 
other devotions of the people. 66 The deacons are the most 
proper persons for this business, it being the very office for 
which their order was instituted. 57 And for this reason the 
Scotch Liturgy does not allow the church- 
wardens to do it, but at such times when tliere 
are no deacons present.* It is now indeed grown 

* Whilst the presbyter distinctly pronounceth some or all of these sentences for the 
K Cypr. Ep. 34, 36. Rubric after the Sentences. * Acts vi. 

T 2 


a custom with us for the church-wardens to perform this office, 
viz. to gather the alms and devotions of the congregation, 
which, by all the books before the Scotch Liturgy, they were 
ordered, as I have observed, to put into the poor mans box ; 
not, I presume, into that fixed in the church, but into a little 
box which the church-wardens or some other proper persons 
carried about with them in their hands, as is still the custom 
at the Temple church in London. Now indeed they are or- 
dered to make use of a decent basin to be provided by the 
priest for that purpose. With which, in most places, espe- 
cially here in town, they go to the several seats and pews of 
the congregation. Though in other places they collect at the 
entrance into the chancel, where the people make their offer- 
ings as they draw towards the altar. This last way seems the 
most conformable to the practice of the primitive Church, which, 
in pursuance of a text delivered by our Saviour, 58 ordered that 
the people should come up to the rails of the altar, and there 
make their offerings to the priest. 69 

And with an eye, I suppose, to this practice, the deacons, 
or church-wardens, or whosoever they be that collect the 
alms and other devotions of the people, are ordered by the 
present rubric to bring it reverently to the priest (as in their 
name) mho is humbly to present and place it upon the holy 
table,-* in conformity to the practice of the ancient Jews, 
who, when they brought their gifts and sacrifices to the 
temple, offered them to God by the hands of the priest. 

III. *And if there be a Communion, the priest 
w^ne^wheifand ** ^ ien a ^ so to P^ ace upon t/ie table so much 
by whom to be bread and wine as he shall think sufficient. 
ubie ed n the Which rubric being added to our own Liturgy 
at the same time with the word oblations, in 
the prayer following, (i. e. at the last review,) it is clearly 
evident, as bishop Patrick has observed, 60 that by that word 
are to be understood the elements of bread and wine, which 
the priest is to offer solemnly to God, as an acknowledgment 
of his sovereignty over his creatures, and that from thence- 

offertory, the deacon, or (if no such be present) one of the church-warden*, shall receive 
the devotions of the people there present in a basin provided for that purpose. Scotch 

In the Scotch Liturfry, " And when all have offered, he shall reverently brinp the 
basin with the oblations therein, and deliver it to the presbyter, who shall humbly 
present it before the Lord, and set it upon the holy table." 

Matt. r. 23. M Greg. Naz. in Laud. Basilil, Orat. 20, torn. i. Theodoret. de 

Theodosio. * Christian Sacrifice, p. 77. 


forth they might become properly and peculiarly his. For in 
all the Jewish sacrifices, of which the people were partakers, 
the viands or materials of the feast were first made God's by 
a solemn oblation, and then afterwards eaten by the commu- 
nicants, not as man's, but as God's provision ; who, by thus 
entertaining them at his own table, declared himself recon- 
ciled and again in covenant with them. And therefore our 
blessed Saviour, when he instituted the new sacrifice of his 
own body and blood, first gave thanks and blessed the ele- 
ments, i. e. offered them up to God as Lord of the creatures, 
as the most ancient Fathers expound that passage : who, for 
that reason, whenever they celebrated the holy eucharist, 
always offered the bread and wine for the Communion to 
God, upon the altar, by this, or some such short ejaculation, 
Lord, rve offer thee thy own, out of what thou hast boun- 
tifully given us. 61 After which they received them, as it were, 
from him again, in order to convert them into the sacred 
banquet of the body and blood of his dear Son. 62 In the an- 
cient Church, they had generally a side-table near the altar, 
upon which the elements were laid till the first part of the 
Communion service was over, at which the catechumens were 
allowed to be present ; but when they were gone, the ele- 
ments were removed and placed upon the holy altar itself, 
with a solemn prayer. 63 Now though we have no side-table 
authorized by our Church, yet in the first Common Prayer of 
king Edward VI. the priest himself was ordered in this place 
to set both the bread and wine upon the altar :* but at the 
review in 1551, this and several other such ancient usages 
were thrown out, I suppose, at the instance of Bucer and 
Martyr. After which the Scotch Liturgy was the first where- 
in we find it restored : but there the presbyter is directed to 
offer up and place the bread and wine prepared for the Sacra- 
ment upon the Lord's table, that it may be ready for that service. 
And Mr. Mede, having observed our own Liturgy to be de- 
fective in this particular, 64 was probably the occasion, that, in 

The whole rubric in king Edward's first book was this : " Then shall the Minister 
take so much bread and wine as shall suffice for the persons appointed to receive the 
holy Communion, laying the bread upon the corporas, or else in the paten, or in some 
other comely thing prepared for that purpose : and putting the wine into the chalice, or 
else in some fair and convenient cup, prepared for that use, (if the chalice will not serve,) 
putting thereto a little pure and clean water ; and setting both the bread and wine 
upon the altar," &c. 

' See St. Chrysostom's and other Liturgies. M See this proved in Mr. Mede's 

Christian Sacrifice, c. 8, p. 372, &c. Lit. Chrys. Mr. Mede, as above, p. 375, 376. 


the review of it after the Restoration, this primitive practice 
was restored, and the bread and wine ordered by the rubric to 
be set solemnly upon the table by the Priest himself. From 
whence it appears, that the placing the elements upon the 
Lord's table, before the beginning of morning prayer, by the 
hands of a clerk or sexton, (as is now the general practice,) 
is a profane and shameful breach of the aforesaid rubric ; and 
consequently that it is the duty of every Minister to prevent 
it for the future, and reverently to place the bread and wine 
himself upon the table, immediately after he has placed on 
the alms. 

Mixing water ^ ^ n ^e rubric I have given, out of king 
with the wine, a Edward's first Liturgy, the Minister, when he 
UceTbu^not^s- P ut ^e wine into the chalice, was directed by the 
sentiai to the rubric to put thereto a little pure and clean rva- 

Sacrament. mi_- J J ' f '^ 

ter. Ihis was ordered m conformity to a very 
ancient and primitive practice, and with an eye perhaps to our 
Saviour's institution. For the wine among the Jews being 
very strong, it was generally their custom, as at their ordinary 
meals, so also at the passover, to qualify it with water : M and 
therefore, since the cup which our Saviour blessed was proba- 
bly one of those which were prepared for that feast, 66 some 
have concluded that, at the time of the institution, he made 
use of wine in which water had been mixed. But of this they 
can produce no certainty of proof. For though it is allowed 
that the Jews often mingled their wine, yet it does not appear 
that they always did so, or thought it necessary. For Dr. 
Lightfoot observes, that he that drank pure mine performed 
his duty ,- 67 and Buxtorf adds further, that it was indifferent 
whether it was mixed or not, and that they drank it sometimes 
one way and sometimes the other : 63 so that we must not af- 
firm that our Saviour's cup was certainly mixed, before we are 
assured whether the wine which he had prepared for his last 
passover was so. Our Saviour intimates, that what he had 
delivered to his Apostles was the fruit of the vine ; fi8 and Dr. 
Lightfoot observes, from the Babylonish Talmud, that this was 
a term which the Jews used in their blessing for wine mixed 
with water, to distinguish it from pure wine, which they called 

* R. Ob. de Bartenora, et Maimonides in Mishnam, de Benedict, cap. 7, sect. 5. 

Dr. Light foot's Temple-Service, vol. i. p. 966, and bishop Hooper of Lent, part 2, 
chap. 3. *> Lightfoot. ut supra, p. 691. et Hor. Hebr. in Matt. xxvi. 27, vol. ii. p. 160. 
De Pritnae Coens Ritibus et Forma, sect. 20, as cited by Mr. Drake in his Latin Ser- 
mon. Matt. xxvi. 29. 


the fruit of the tree." 10 But now, not to insist upon the ab- 
surdity of calling it the fruit of the vine, from its being mixed 
with water, which makes it less the fruit of the vine than it 
was in its purity ; it is plain that this expression, wherever we 
meet with it in other places of Scripture, is used to denote the 
pure product of the tree. 71 From whence we may be assured, 
that in the time of our Saviour, no such distinction as this had 
obtained : nor indeed does the Mishna itself allow of it : for 
the determination of the wise men is, that wine is to be called 
the fruit of the vine, as well before the mixture as after it. 72 
And the reason why they give it a particular blessing, calling 
it the fruit of the vine, instead of the fruit of the tree, is not 
upon the account of its being mixed with water, but because 
the vine is more excellent than any tree besides. 73 And if this 
distinction fail, I do not know that there is so much as a hint 
given in Scripture, from whence we may judge whether the 
wine used by our Saviour was mixed or not ; which yet we 
might reasonably expect to have found, if our Lord had de- 
signed the mixture as essential. Though were it ever so clear, 
that the cup was mixed ; yet if it does not also appear that it 
was mixed with design, our Saviour's practice would no more 
oblige us to mix it now, than it would that we should conse- 
crate unleavened bread. For it is certain that our Saviour, at 
the time of institution, used unleavened bread : 74 and yet since 
the reason of his doing so was, because there was no other at 
that time in the house ; our Church thinks it sufficient, in her 
present rubric, to prescribe such bread as is usual to be eaten. 
Consequently since he made use of wine that was mixed, only 
because he found it ready prepared, or at most because the 
strength of the wine used in that country required it ; there- 
fore our Church thinks it not necessary to mix it with us, be- 
cause we ordinarily drink it pure. But I say this upon sup- 
position that it could be clearly proved that the cup which our 
Saviour used was mixed ; whereas I have shewn that there is 
no intimation in Scripture about it. Nor do any of the first 
Fathers assert or mention it. Origen (who is the first that 
speaks either one way or the other) says, that our Saviour 
administered in wine unmixed, 75 which he would not sure have 

70 Hor. Hebr. ut supra. n Isa. xxxii. 12. Hab. iii. l'7. Zech. viii. 12. serumlum 
1XX. Mark xii. 2. Luke xx. 10. Vide et Vorstium de Hebraismis N. T. c. 23. 

75 Tract. de Benedict, cap. 7, sect. 5, vid. et R. Ob. de Bartenora, ac Maimon. in locum. 
Ibid. cap. 6, vide et Surenhus. et R. Ob. de Bart, in locum. ' Exod. xii. 15, 19. 
Matt. xxvi. 17. Mark xvi. 12. Luke xxii. 7. 7i Horn. 12, in Hieremiam. 


done, had there been any certain tradition, or so much as a 
general opinion, to the contrary. We do not indeed deny, but 
that, before his time, the mixture was the general practice of 
the Church : 76 but then it is no where said, that this was done 
in conformity to our Saviour's institution ; but since the same 
wine, perhaps, that was prepared for the Communion, served 
also for the love-feasts, (which, in the first ages of the Church, 
were always held at the same time, 77 ) water might be mixed 
with it, for what we know, to prevent those disorders, which, 
even in the Apostles' time, were apt to arise from their drink- 
ing of it to excess : 78 or possibly it might be instituted as an 
emblem of the indissoluble union between Christ and his 
Church, as St. Cyprian explains it ; ~' 9 or, lastly, (as is asserted 
by some other of the ancients,) to be more expressive and sig- 
nificant of that blood and water which flowed from our Sa- 
viour's side, when he was pierced upon the cross. 80 St. Cy- 
prian indeed pleads strenuously for the mixture, and urges it 
from the practice and example of our Lord ; 81 but then it is to 
be observed, that he is arguing against those who used water 
alone, (for fear the heathens should discover them by the 
smell of the wine,) and therefore might insist upon the mix- 
ture as necessary, because otherwise the wine was the part 
that was wanting ; which he plainly enough allows to be the 
only essential in the cup, when he asserts that wine alone 
would be better than pure water. 82 For if both of them were 
essential, neither of them could be said to be better than the 
other. And for the same reason it is, that some other Fathers 
and Councils enjoin the mixture so strictly, viz. because the 
Encratites and others, who looked upon wine and flesh to be 
forbidden, would administer the cup in the sacrament of the 
eucharist, with pure water alone. 83 Though it is true the 
Armenians, who administered in pure wine alone, are equally 
condemned by the Council in Trullo, 81 who produce the au- 
thority of St. James's and St. Basil's Liturgies against them : 
to which may be added, the Liturgies under the name of St. 

* Just. Mart. Apol. 1, cap. 85, p. 125, 128. Iren. 1. 4, cap. 57, p. 357, et 1. 5, cap. 2, p. 
307. Clem. Alex. Ptedag. 1. 2, cap. 2. " 1 Cor. xl. Jude 12. Ignat. ad Smyrn. . 8. 

65. Clem. Alex. Freda*. 1. 2, cap. 1. Tertull. Apol. cap. 39. Const. Ap. 1. 2, cap. 28. 
1 Cor. xl. Ad Cecil. Ep. 63, p. 148, &c. * Ambrou. de Sacr. 1. 5, cap. 1. 

Gennad. de Eccles. Dogm. c. 75. Theophylact. in Johan. xix. 34. Martin Bracar. 
Collect. Canon, cap. 55. "' Cypr. ut supra. M Sacramentum re! illius admonere et 
initruere no* debet, ut in sacriflciii Dominlcls VInum POTIUS ofleramua. Ibid. 

"* Epiphan. Haer. 46, torn. i. p. 392. Aug. de Hn?res. cap. 64. Fabulii 
Hareticor. 1. 1, c. 20, tom. 4, p. 208. M Can. 32, torn. 6, col. 1156, 1157. 


Mark and St. Chrysostom, and that which is contained in the 
eighth book of the Constitution. 85 And indeed it must be 
confessed, that the mixture has, in all ages, been the general 
practice, and for that reason was enjoined, as has been noted 
above, to be continued in our own Church, by the first re- 
formers. And though in the next review the order for it was 
omitted, yet the practice of it was continued in the king's 
chapel royal, all the time that bishop Andrews was dean of 
it ; 86 who also in the form that he drew up for the consecration 
of a church, &c., expressly directs and orders it to be used. 87 
How it came to be neglected in the review of our Liturgy in 
king Edward's reign, I have not yet been able to discover. I 
am apt to suspect that it was thrown out upon some objection 
of Calvin or Bucer, who were no friends to any practice for 
its being ancient and catholic, if it did not happen to suit with 
their fancy or humour. But whatever may have been the 
cause of laying it aside, since there is no reason to believe it 
essential ; and since every Church has liberty to determine 
for herself in things not essential ; it must be an argument 
sure of a very indiscreet and over-hasty zeal, to urge the 
omission of it as a ground for separation. 

SECT. XI. Of the Prayer for the whole State of Christ's Church. 

THE alms, and devotions, and oblations of the 
people being now presented to God, and placed H u^dhe P re riy 
before him upon the holy table ; it is a proper 
time to proceed to the exercise of another branch of our 
charity, I mean that of intercession. Our alms perhaps are 
confined to a few indigent neighbours ; but our prayers may 
extend to all mankind, by recommending them all to the 
mercies of God, who is able to supply and relieve them all. 
Nor can we at any time hope to intercede more effectually for 
the whole Church of God, than just when we are about to 
represent and shew forth to the divine Majesty that meritori- 
ous sacrifice, by virtue whereof our great High Priest did 
once redeem us, and for ever continues to intercede for us in 
heaven. For which reason we find that the ancient and 
primitive Christians, whenever they celebrated these holy 
mysteries, used a form of intercession for the whole catholic 

* Cap. 12. ** See the primitive Rule of Reformation, according to the first Li- 

turgy of king Edward VI., page 20, printed in quarto, 1688. 8: Sparrow's Collection, 
395, 396. 


Church." But there is this difference between our practice 
and theirs, that whereas we use it immediately after the placing 
the elements upon the table ; it is in all the ancient Litur- 
gies, except in St. Mark's and the Ethiopian, deferred till 
after the consecration. 
_ , S. 2. In the primitive Church too their prayers 

Prayers for the ji.i-.xuj 

dead an ancient were more extensive, and took in the dead as 

p^ct c ice h lic wel1 as the l' vin g : not tnat tne y hcicl any notion 
of the Romish purgatory, or so much as imagined 
that those whom they prayed for were racked or tormented 
with any temporary pain. There were some of the ancients, 
it is true, who believed (and it seems to have been the cur- 
rent opinion from Origen downwards) that the trial we shall 
undergo at the last great day will be a state of purgation ; 
which they imagined to consist of a probational fire, through 
which all must pass, (even the prophets and apostles, and the 
Virgin Mary herself not excepted,) and which shall differently 
affect us, as we shall be differently prepared : 89 and upon this 
perhaps some of them might found the prayers they used for 
the departed saints. Others again believed that Christ should 
reign a thousand years upon earth, before the final day of 
judgment ; and also supposed that the saints should rise to 
enjoy and partake of this happy state, before the general re- 
surrection of the dead: 90 and therefore they prayed for the 
souls of the deceased, that they might not only rest in peace 
for the present, but also obtain part in the first resurrection." 
However they all agreed in this, that the interval between 
death and the end of the world is a state of expectation and 
imperfect bliss, in which the souls of the righteous wait for 
the completion and perfection of their happiness at the con- 
summation of all things : and therefore, whilst they were 
praying for the catholic Church, they thought it not improper 

* Chrys. Liturg. et Horn. 52, in Eustath. et Horn. 26, in Mat. et Horn. 37, in Act. et 
de Sacerdot. 1. 6, c. 4. Cyril. Catech. MysUg. 5, n. 6. Const. A post. 1. 8, c. 12. 

Origen. in Exod.xv. Horn. 6, et in Psalm xxxvi. Horn. 3. Lactant. lust it-it. 1. 7, 
c. 21, p. 653. Basil, in Isa. IT. 4, torn. i. p. 932. Greg. Nyss. de Mortuis Oral. torn. 
lii. p. 638. Greg. Naz. Oral. 39, torn. i. p. 636. Ambros. Enarrat. in Psalm xxxvi. 
}. 26, torn. i. col. 789, 790, et in Psalm cxviii. Si-rni. 3, . 14 17, torn. i. col. 997, 998, 
et Si-rni. 20, col. 1225, 1226, edit. Benedict. Paris. 1686. Hieron. in Mai. iii. torn. iii. 
col. 1825, et 1. 1, adv. Pelag. torn. iv. col. 502, edit. Benedict. Paris. 1704. Aug. Re- 
ipons. ad Quest. 1. Dulcit. torn. vi. col. 121, 126, 128, et Enchirid. de Fide, Spe, et 
Charitate, cap. 67,68, 69, in torn. eod. col. 221, 222, et de Civ. Dei, 1. 20, c. 25, torn, 
vii. col. 609, edit. Benedict. Paris. 1685. Consule etiam Estium in 1 Cor. iii. 13. 

* St. Barnabas, c. 15. Just. Mart. Trypho, p. 306, &c. Irenceus, 1. 5, c. 30, 31, 32, 
&c. Tertull. adv. Marcion. 1. 3, c. 24. Lactant. Institut. 1. 7, c. 14, 15, 24, Sec. 

*' Tertull. de Monogam. c. 10. Ambros. de Obitu Valentin, ad finem, et in Psalm i. 


to add a petition in behalf of that larger and better part of it 
which had gone before them, that they might all together at- 
tain a blessed and glorious resurrection, and be brought at 
last to a perfect fruition of happiness in heaven. 92 By this 
means they testified their love and respect to the dead, de- 
clared their belief in the communion of saints, and kept up in 
themselves a lively sense of the soul's immortality. And with 
this intent a petition for the deceased was continued by our 
reformers, in this very prayer of which we are now discours- 
ing, in the first Common Prayer Book of king Edward VI. 
But this, with a larger thanksgiving for the examples of the 
saints,* than what we now use, was left out of the second book, 
upon the exceptions of Bucer 93 and Calvin, 94 and the words, 
militant here on earth, were added to the exhortation, Let us 
pray for the whole state of Christ's Church, in order to limit 
the prayer to the living only. The substance of the thanks- 
giving indeed was added again afterwards, first to the Scotch 
Liturgy, and then to our own at the last review : though that 
in the Scotch Liturgy f keeps closest to the words in the first 

* In the Common Prayer of 1549, the words, "all Christian Kings, Princes, and 
Governors," were not inserted, nor the words, "and especially to this Congregation 
here present." But after the petition for those that are " in trouble, sorrow, need, sick- 
ness, or any other adversity," the prayer went on thus : " And especially we commend 
unto thy merciful goodness, the Congregation which is here assembled in thy name, to 
celebrate the commemoration of the most glorious death of thy Son. And here we do 
give unto thee most high praise and hearty thanks, for the wonderful grace and virtue 
declared in all thy Saints, from the beginning of the world, and chiefly in the glorious 
and most blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of thy Son Jesus Christ our Lord and God, and 
in the holy Patriarchs, Prophets, Apostles, and Martyrs, whose examples (O Lord) and 
stedfastness in thy faith, and keeping thy holy Commandments, grant us to follow. We 
commend unto thy mercy, O Lord, all other thy servants which are departed hence 
from us, with the sign of faith, and now do rest in the sleep of peace : Grant unto them, 
we beseech thee, thy mercy and everlasting peace, and that at the day of the general 
Resurrection, we and all they which be of the mystical body of thy Son, may altogether 
be set on his right hand, and hear that his most joyful voice, Come unto me, O ye that 
be blessed of my Father, and possess the kingdom which is prepared for you from the 
beginning of the world. Grant this, O Father, for Jesus Christ's sake, our only Medi- 
ator and Advocate." 

t " And to all thy people give thy heavenly grace, that with meek heart and 
due reverence, they may hear and receive thy holy word, truly serving thee When 
in holiness and righteousness all the days of their life. [And we commend c < > e m'm'u. no 
especially unto thy merciful goodness the congregation which is here assem- n ion. thew 
bled in thy name, to celebrate the commemoration of the most precious death ord thus 
of thy Son, and our Saviour Jesus Christ.]" Then the petition for all in ad- fYmto 
versity : after which as follows : " And we also bless thy holy name for all be left out. 
those thy servants, who having finished their course in faith do now rest from 

w Tertull. ut supra, et de Coron. Mil. c. 3, 4, et Exhortat. ad Castitat. c. 11. Cypr. Ep. 
1, et 55. Euseb. in Vit. Constant. 1. 4, c. 71. Arnob. adv. Gentes sub fine, 1. 4. Cyril. 
Catech. Mystag. 5. Ambros. ut supra. Epiphan. Haer. 75. Aerian. n. 7. Chrysost. de 
Sacerdot. lib. 6, cap. 4, et in Moral. Horn. 3, in Ep. ad Philip, et Horn. 41, in 1 Cor. 
Aug. de Cura pro Mortuis gerenda, c. 4, et Confess. 1. 9, c. 13, et Const. Apost. 1. 8, c. 
41, 42, 43. Script. Anglican, p. 467, 468. 9 * Epistola ad Bucerum, as cited in 
A Coal from the Altar, page 38. 


book of king Edward. And though the direct petition for the 
faithful departed is still discontinued, yet, were it not for the 
restriction of the words, militant here on earth, they might be 
supposed to be implied in our present form, when we beg of 
God that me WITH THEM may be partakers of his heavenly 

SECT. XII. Of the Exhortations on the Sunday or Holy-day 

before the Communion. 
GREAT mysteries ought to be ushered in with 

Due preparation ,1 i n n j 

neces&ary to the the solemnities ot a great preparation : God gave 
receiving the Sa- th e Israelites three days' warning of his design to 

publish the Law, 95 and ordered their festivals to 
be proclaimed by the sound of a trumpet some time before. 1 * 
The Paschal Lamb (the type of Christ in this sacrament) was 
to be chosen and kept by them four days, to put them in mind 
of preparing for the celebration of the passover : OT and Chris- 
tians, having more and higher duties to do in order to this holy 
feast, ought not to have less time or shorter warning. Where- 
fore, as good Hezekiah published, by particular expresses, his 
intended passover long before ; 9!i so hath our Church prudently 
ordered timely notice to be given, that none might pretend to 
stay away out of ignorance of the time, or unfitness for the 
duty, but that all might come, and with due preparation. 

. 2. The ancient Church indeed had no such 
no'ExhortaUons exhortations : for their daily, or at least weekly 
ch the i primit ' ve commumon8 made it known that there was then 

no solemn assembly of Christians without it ; and 
every one (not under censure) was expected to communicate. 
But now, when the time is somewhat uncertain, and our long 
omissions have made some of us ignorant, and others forget- 
ful of this duty ; most of us unwilling, and all of us more or 
less indisposed for it; it was thought both prudent and ne- 
cessary to provide these exhortations, to be read when the 
Minister gives warning of the Communion, which he is always 

their labours. And we yield unto thee most high praise and hearty thanks for the won- 
derful grace and virtue declared in all thy servants, who have been the choice vessels 
of thy grace, and the lights of the world in their several generations : most humbly be- 
seeching thee, that we may have grace to follow the example of their stedfastncss in 
thy faith, and obedience to thy holy Commandments, that at the day of the general Re- 
surrection, we, and all they which are of the mystical body of thy Son, may be set on 
his right hand, and hear that his most joyful voice, Come, ye blessed of my Father, In- 
herit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. Grant this, O 
Father, for Jesus Christ's sake, our only Mediator and Advocate. Amen." 

Exod. xlx. 15. Lev. xxv. 9. Numb. x. 2. * Exod. xil. 3, 6. w 2 Chron. xxx. 


to do, upon the Sunday or some Holy-day immediately pre- 

. 3. As to the composures themselves, they The U8efulne86 
are so extraordinary suitable, that if every com- of these com- 
municant would duly weigh and consider them, posl 
they would be no small help towards a due preparation. The 
first contains proper exhortations and instructions how to pre- 
pare ourselves : the latter is more urgent, and applicable to 
those who generally turn their backs upon those holy myste- 
ries, and shews the danger of those vain and frivolous excuses 
which men frequently make for their staying away. For 
which reason it is appointed by the rubric to be used instead 
of the former, whenever the Minister shall observe that the 
people are negligent to come.* 

* In the Common Prayer of 1549, only the first of these exhortations was inserted, 
and that pretty different from our present one in words, though much the same in 
sense : it was a little enlarged towards the conclusion in relation to auricular and se- 
cret confessions, which I shall have another occasion to take notice of hereafter." And 
in that book it was designed, as now, to be read on some day before the Communion 
to which the people were to be exhorted. The second exhortation was not added till 
1552. And then it was appointed to be used at the Communion-time (immediately after 
the prayer for the whole state of Christ's Church) " at certain times when the Curate 
should see the people negligent to come to the holy Communion." And therefore it be- 
gan, " We be come together at this time (dearly beloved brethren) to feed at the Lord's 
Supper ; unto the which, in God's behalf, I bid you all that are here present," and so 
on as in the present form, till after the words " how severe punishment hangeth over 
your heads for the same" it went on thus, to reprove a custom, which it seems then 
prevailed, of some people's standing gazing in the church (whilst others communicated) 
without receiving. " And whereas ye offend God so sore in refusing this holy banquet, 
I admonish, exhort, and beseech you, that unto this unkindness ye will not add any 
more. Which thing ye shall do, if ye stand by as gazers and lookers on them that com- 
municate, and be not partakers of the same yourselves. For what thing can this be 
accounted else, than a further contempt and unkindness unto God ? Truly it is a great 
unthankfulness to say, Nay, when ye be called ; but the fault is much greater when 
men stand by, and yet will neither eat nor drink the holy Communion with others. I 
pray you, what can this be else, but even to have the mysteries of Christ in derision ? 
It is said unto all, Take ye and eat ; take and drink ye all of this ; do this in remem- 
brance of me. With what face then, or with what countenance shall ye hear these 
words ? What will this be else but a neglecting, a despising and mocking of the testa- 
ment of Christ ? Wherefore rather than ye should do so, depart ye hence, and give 
place to them that be godly disposed. But when you depart, I beseech you, ponder 
with yourselves from whence ye depart. Ye depart from the Lord's table, ye depart 
from your brethren, and from the banquet of most heavenly food. These things if ye 
earnestly consider, ye shall by God's grace return to a better mind ; for the obtaining 
whereof we shall make our humble petitions while we shall receive the holy Commu- 
nion." And thus stood this form till the restoration of king Charles II., during all 
which time that which is in our present book the first exhortation, stood the second in 
the old books, as being " sometimes also to be said at the discretion of the Curate." 
But in 1GG2, they were both somewhat altered and transposed, and adapted to be used 
upon a Sunday or Holy-day before the Communion, which occasioned the first sentence 
to that which is at present our first exhortation to be then added. Though indeed 
they are now all of them so altered in the expression, and transposed in their order, 
that the more curious reader, that thinks the difference worth examining, must look 
into the originals ; there being no way of giving him an exact account of them here, 
but by transcribing them at length, which will take up more room than I know how 
to allow. 

" Chap. . Sect. IT. T. 


How this rubric 4> ^ ow ^ ru ^ ) " c ^ at orders these exhort- 
w to be reconciled ations to be read after tlie Sermon or Homily 
theNiwne^id. ** ended, may be reconciled to the rubric that 
orders the Minister to give notice of the Commu- 
nion before Sermon, I have already shewed upon that place. 

SECT. XIII. Of the Exhortation at the Communion. 

Thedesi of it ^ HE ^ ormer exhortations are designed to in- 
crease the numbers of the communicants, and 
this to rectify their dispositions ; that so they may be not only 
many but good. In the ancient Greek Church, besides all 
other preparatory matters, when the congregation were all 
placed in order to receive the Sacrament ; the Priest, even 
then standing on the steps to be seen of all, stretched out his 
hand, and lifted up his voice in the midst of that profound 
silence, inviting the worthy, and warning the unworthy to for- 
bear.* 100 Which if it were necessary in those blessed days, 
how much more requisite is it in our looser age, wherein men 
have learned to trample upon Church discipline, and to come 
out of fashion at set times, whether they be prepared or not ! 
Every one hopes to pass in the crowd ; but knowing the terror 
of the Lord, though the people have been exhorted before, and 
though they are now come with a purpose of communicating, 
and are even conveniently placed for the receiving of the holy 
Sacrament, yet the Priest again exhorts them in the words of 
St. Paul, diligently to try and examine themselves before t/wy 
presume to eat of that bread, and drink of that cup, &c.f 

Agreeably to which the clause in the first of our present exhortations, " Therefore 
if any of you be a blasphemer of God," &c., to the words, " body and soul," was in all 
the former books inserted in this exhortation, between the words " sundry kinds of 
death," and " judge therefore yourselves," &c. And in the first English Communion 
Office published in the year 1547, the same clause was still more aptly appointed to be 
said after this exhortation, " to them which were ready to take the Sacrament. After 
which the Priest was to pause a while to see if any man would withdraw himself: (and 
if he perceived any so to do, he was then to commune with him privately at convenient 
leisure, and see whether he could with good exhortation bring him to grace.) After a 
little pause, the Priest was to say, Ye that do truly," &c.> 

t In all the books between the first of king Edward and our present one, this ex- 
hortation was to be added to one of the others, which, as I have shewed in the pre- 
ceding note, were, during all that time, appointed to be used upon the day of Commu- 
nion. But in king Edward's first book the rubric ordered this immediately to follow 
the Sermon or Homily, i. e. " if the people were not exhorted " in the said Sermon or 
Homily itself " to the worthy receiving of the holy Sacrament :" and that too only 
where Communions were not frequent : for by the rubric that immediately follows the 
exhortation in the same book, it is allowed, that " in cathedral churches or other places 
where there is daily Communion, it shall be sufficient to read this exhortation above 
written once in a month : and that in parish churches, upon the week-days, it may be 
left unsaid." 
Chrysoit. Horn. 27, in ix. ad Hebr. torn. iv. p. 524, 529. I Sparrow's Collection, p. 22. 


8. 2. The ordering that the communicants _ 

, <-> , ,7 7 7 ^ JT_ /. The Commum- 

shall be conveniently placed for the receiving of cants when and 
the holy Sacrament, before the Minister reads J}? t * ^*' 
the exhortation, seems to have an eye to an old 
custom, still retained in some country churches, where the 
communicants kneel down in rows one behind another, and 
there continue till the Minister comes to them. In the first 
Common Prayer of king Edward, it is thus ordered, just after 
the Offertory or Sentences : Then so many as shall be par- 
takers of the holy Communion shall tarry still in the choir, 
tlie men on the one side, and the women on the other side ; 
where it may be remarked, that the separating the men from 
the women, and allotting to each sex a distinct place, was 
what was very strictly observed in the primitive Church. 8 

SECT. XIV. Of the Invitation. 
THE feast being now ready, and the guests pre- T , . 

, . " ,, T, . , , , r . The design of it. 

pared with due instruction, the Priest (who is 
the steward of those mysteries) invites them to draw near ; 
thereby putting them in mind, that they are now invited into 
Christ's more special presence, to sit down with him at his 
own table : (and therefore I think it would be more proper if 
all the communicants were, at these words, to come from the 
more remote parts of the Church as near to the Lord's table 
as they could.) But then he adviseth them, in the words of 
the primitive Liturgies, 3 (i. e. according to our present book,) 
to draw near with faith, without which all their bodily ap- 
proaches will avail them nothing, it being only by faith that 
they can really draw near to Christ, and take this holy Sacra- 
ment to their comfort. But seeing they cannot exercise their 
faith as they ought, until they have heartily confessed and re- 
pented of their sins ; therefore he further calls upon them to 
make their humble confession to Almighty God, meekly kneel- 
ing upon their knees.* 

SECT. XV: Of the Confession. 
BESIDES the private confession of the closet, 
and that made to the Priest in cases of great fit 
doubt, there was anciently a general prayer for 
forgiveness and mercy in the public service of the Church, used 

* In king Edward's first book, it was" to Almighty God, and to his holy Church 
here gathered together in his name, meekly kneeling," &c. In all the other old ones 
" to Almighty God, before the congregation here gathered together in his holy name," &c. 

* Const. Apost. 1. 2, c. 57. s MTU p 6/3ov Kai niintut Ti/offtX^eTe. Liturg. S. 
Chrys. et S. Jacob. 


by all the communicants when they were come to the altar. 4 
And since Christ's sufferings are here commemorated, it is 
very reasonable we should confess our sins which were the 
causes of them : and since we hope to have our pardon sealed, 
we ought first with shame and sorrow to own our transgres- 
sions, for his honour who so freely forgives them : which the 
congregation here does in words so apposite and pathetical, 
that if their repentance be answerable to the form, it is im- 
possible it should ever be more hearty and sincere.* 

SECT. XVLOfthe Absolution. 

The necessity of WHEN the discipline of the ancient Church 
it before the Sa- was in force, no notorious offender could escape 

the censures that his sin deserved : nor was he 
admitted to the Sacrament without a public and solemn ab- 
solution upon his repentance. But this godly discipline being 
now every where laid aside, (to the great detriment of the 
Church,) it is so much the more necessary to supply it by a 
general Confession and Absolution : of which see more upon 
the morning and evening service. 

. 2. As to this particular form, it shall suffice 
Whyu p 8 i^e nthi8 to note that it is in imitation of that ancient form 

of blessing recorded, Numb. vi. 24, &c. And 
since it is certain that there is such a power vested in the 
Ministers of the Gospel, as to support the spirit of a dejected 
penitent, by assuring him of a pardon in the name of God; 
there can be no fitter opportunity to exercise it than now, viz. 
when so many humbled sinners are kneeling before him, and 
begging forgiveness at his hands : which therefore thus com- 
ing accordingly from a person commissionated by Christ for 
this end, ought to be received with faith and gratitude, since 
it is the only way to quiet people's consciences, now revela- 
tions are ceased. 

SECT. XVII. Of the Sentences of Scripture. 

The advantage ^ T * 8 8O necessary for every one that would 
of them in thu receive comfort and benefit by this blessed Sa- 
crament, to have a lively faith, and a mind freed 

In all the Common Prayer Books " this general Confession was to be made in the 
name of all those that were minded to receive the Holy Communion, either by one of 
them, or by one of the Ministers, or by the Priest himself: " but by the Scotch Liturgy 
It was confined " to the Presbyter himself, or the Deacon," and from thence by our 
own (upon the exception of the Presbyterians at the last review) " to one of the Min- 
isters, both he and all the people humbly kneeling upon their knees." 

Chrys. Horn. 18. in 2 Cor. viii. torn. iii. p. 647, lin. 12, &c. 


from unreasonable fears ; that the Church, lest any should 
doubt of the validity of the foregoing Absolution, hath subjoin- 
ed these Sentences ; which are the very promises on which it is 
grounded, and so overflowing with sweet and powerful com- 
forts, that if duly considered they will satisfy the most fearful 
souls, heal the most broken hearts, and utterly banish the 
blackest clouds of sorrow and despair. 

SECT. XVIII. Of the Lauds and Anthem. 

AFTER we have exercised our charity, repent- 
ance, and faith, the next part of the office is The ^jf* of 
thanksgiving, which is so considerable a part of 
our present duty, that it hath given name to the whole, and 
caused it to be called the Eucharist or Sacrifice of Praise. 
And here we begin with the Lauds and Anthem, which, toge- 
ther with most of the remaining part of the office, are purely 
primitive, near as old as Christianity itself, being to be found 
almost verbatim amongst the ancient writers. 5 Having there- 
fore exercised our faith upon the foregoing sentences, and so 
got above this world, we are now ready to go into the other, 
and to join with the glorified saints and angels, in praising 
and adoring that God who hath done so great things for us. 
In order to this, the Minister calls upon us to 
lift up our hearts, viz. by a most quick and ^'^j^/ 01 " 
lively faith in the most high God, the supreme 
Governor of the whole world, which being ready to do, we 
immediately answer, We lift them up unto the 
Lord , and so casting off all thoughts of the world, ^* ^ ^ 
turn our minds to God alone. 

. 2. And our hearts being now all elevated together, and 
in a right posture to celebrate the praises of God, the Minis- 
ter invites us all to join with him in doing it, Pr Jjetus - v 
saying, Let us give thanks unto our Lord God: thanks, &c. 
which the people having consented to and ap- Am. it is meet 
proved of, by saying, It is meet and right so to and right> &c - 
do ; he turns himself to the Lord's table, and acknowledg- 
eth to the divine Majesty there specially present, 
that It is very meet, right, and our bounden *%**. 
\duty, that me should at all times, and in all 
places, give thanks, &c. 

Const. Apost. 1. 8, 12. Liturg. S. Jacob. S. Chrysost. S. Basil. Cyril. Catech. 
iMystag. S. 


. 3. But this, in the primitive Church, was 
on ly the introduction to the tv-^apioTta, properly 
used in the pri- 80 ca lled, which was a great and long thanks- 

mitive Church. . . /~, j r- 11 i_- c 

giving to God lor all his mercies of creation, 
providence, and redemption, from whence the whole service 
took the name of eucharist or tltanksgiving '. For in all the 
ancient Liturgies, as soon as ever the aforesaid words were 
pronounced, there was immediately subjoined a commemora- 
tion of all that God had done for man from the foundation of 
the world, and more particularly in the great and wonderful 
mystery of our redemption. And in some part or other of 
this solemn glorification, was always included the trisagion or 
seraphical hymn that follows next in our own Liturgy ; which 
was sung, as with us, by the Minister and whole congregation 
jointly,* after which the Minister again went on alone to 
finish the thanksgiving. We have no where else indeed so 
long a thanksgiving as that in the Constitutions ; 6 but the 
length of this is no argument against its antiquity. For Justin 
Martyr, when he describes the Christian rites and mysteries, 
says, that " as soon as the common prayers were ended, and 
they had saluted one another with a kiss, bread and wine 
was brought to him who presided over the brethren, who re- 
ceiving them, gave praise and glory to the Father of all things, 
through the name of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, and 
make Ev-^apiariav iirl TTO\V, a very long thanksgiving, for the 
blessings which he bestowed upon them." 7 Afterwards indeed, 
as devotion grew cold, this long doxology was contracted ; 
but still so that the two greatest blessings of God, i. e. the 
creation and redemption by Christ, together with the words 
of institution, were always set forth, and thanks given to God 
for these things. And this is supposed to have been accord- 
ing to our Saviour's own example. For the Jews at the Pass- 
over constantly commemorated their redemption from Egypt, 
their settlement in the good land which they then possessed, 
and all the other blessings which God had bestowed upon 
them : * and therefore it is not to be doubted but that as our 
Saviour imitated the ceremonies 'of the Jews in so many other 

* This is only to be understood of the latter part of it, where it begins with Holy, 
holy, holii, tic., where the chorus came in ; the former part of it being only pronounced 
by the Minister himself; and so it was used in our own Church during the time of 
king Edward's first Liturgy. 

L. 8, c. 12. i Just. Mart. Apol- 1- c. 86, p. 125, 126. Vide et Cyril. Catech. 

Mystag. 3, n. 5. Vide Fagium in Deut. viii. 


particulars of this holy Sacrament ; so also, when he gave 
thanks, 9 he used a form to the same purpose ; only adding a 
thanksgiving for the redemption of the world by his sufferings 
and death, which was probably what he ordered his Apostles 
to perform, when he commanded them to do this in remem- 
brance of him, and to shew forth his death till lie come. 10 
And accordingly we find, that all the ancient Liturgies have 
an eucharistical prayer, agreeable in all points to that de- 
scribed by Justin Martyr, (excepting in its length, to which 
that in the Constitutions only comes up,) setting forth the mer- 
cies of God in our creation and redemption, and particularly 
in the death and resurrection of his Son. The Roman Missal, 
I believe, was the first that omitted it ; and the omission of it 
there might perhaps be the occasion of its not being taken 
notice of when our own Liturgy was compiled. For the more 
solemn festivals indeed there are some short prefaces provided 
to commemorate the particular mercies of each season : but 
upon ordinary occasions (as our Liturgy stands now) we have 
no other thanksgiving than what these lauds contain. 

SECT. XIX. Of the Trisagium. 

THE Minister now looking upon himself and Therefore with 
the rest of the congregation as Communicants angels and arch- 
with the Church triumphant ; and all of us ap- angels ' 
prehending ourselves, by faith, as in the midst of that blessed 
society; we join with them in singing forth the praises of 
the most high God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, saying, 
Therefore with angels, and archangels, and with all the com- 
pany of heaven, we laud and magnify thy glorious name, ever- 
more praising thee, and saying, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God 
of Hosts, heaven and earth are full of thy glory, \_Hosanna in 
the highest, blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord*~\ 
Glory be to thee, Lord most high. 

. 2. That the angels were present at the per- 
formance of divine mysteries, hath been the t A n & el p Vesen?al 
opinion of both Heathens and Christians ; " and the performance 
that they are especially present at the Lord's 3 lvta 
Supper, is generally received. 12 For since Jesus 

* The words thus enclosed [ ] were only in the first book of king Edward. 

9 Matt. xxvi. 26. Mark xiv. 23. Luke xxii. 19. 1 Cor. xi. 24. 10 Luke xxii. 19. 

1 Cor. xi. 25. n Aui'/iomc tTriffnoiroi't tieiuiv icpiT-i'. xai jUWmpMt* opyiaffTuv, esse di- 

cit Plutarch, lib. de Orac. Angelo Orationis adhuc adstante. Tertull. de Oral. c. 12, p. 

134, B. i* Chrys. in Ephes. i. Horn. 3, torn. iii. p. 778, 1. 30, 31. 

U 2 


by bis death bath united heaven and earth, it is fit that, in 
this commemoration of his passion, we should begin to unite 
o>|r voices with the heavenly choir, with whom we hope to 
praise him to all eternity. For which end the Christians of 
the very first ages took this hymn into their office for the Sa- 
crament, 13 being of divine original, 11 and from the word holy 
thrice repeated in it, called by the Greeks Tpivaytov, the Tri- 
, or Thrice Holy. 

SECT. XX. Of the proper Prefaces. 

why to b re- ON t ^ ie g reater festivals there are proper pre- 
peated eight days faces appointed, which are also to be repeated, 
in case there be a Communion, for seven days 
after the festivals themselves,* (excepting that for Whit-Sun- 
day, which is to be repeated only six days after, because 
Trinity-Sunday, which is the seventh, hath a preface peculiar 
to itself;) to the end that the mercies may be the better re- 
membered by often repetition, and also that all the people 
(who in most places cannot communicate all in one day) may 
have other opportunities, within those eight days, to join in 
praising God for such great blessings. 

8. 2. The reason of the Church's lengthening 

Christian festi- ? ,, , . , - ,, , , , . 

vais, why length- ut these high feasts for several days, is plain: 
ened out for se- the subject-matter of them is of so high a nature, 

vend days. j i ^u . 

and so nearly concerns our salvation, that one 
day would be too little to meditate upon them, and praise 
God for them as we ought. A bodily deliverance may justly 
require one day of thanksgiving and joy : but the deliverance 
of the soul by the blessings commemorated on those times, 
deserves a much longer time of praise and acknowledgment. 
Since therefore it would be injurious to Christians to have 
their joy and thankfulness for such mercies confined to one 
day; the Church, upon the times when these unspeakable 
blessings were wrought for us, invites us, by her most season- 
able commands and counsels, to fill our hearts with joy and 
thankfulness, and let them overflow eight days together. 

. 3. The reason of their being fixed to eight 
Ttehfdays 1 . days, is taken from the practice of the Jews, 

who by God's appointment observed their greater 
festivals, some of them for seven, and one, viz. the feast of 

In king Edward's first book they were only appointed for the days themselves. 
" See the note in page 291 . " Isa. vi. 3. 


Tabernacles, for eight days. 19 And therefore the primitive 
Church, thinking that the observation of Christian festivals 
(of which the Jewish feasts were only types and shadows) 
ought not to come short of them, lengthened out their higher 
feasts to eight days. 

Though others give a quite different and mystical reason, 
viz. that as the octave or eighth day signifies Eternity, (our 
whole lives being but the repetition or revolution of seven 
days;) so the Church, by commanding us to observe these great 
feasts for eight days, (upon the last of which especially, great 
part of the solemnity is repeated which was used upon the first,) 
seems to hint to us, that if we continue the seven days of this 
mortal life in a due and constant service and worship of God ; 
we shall, upon the eighth day of eternity, return to the first 
happy state we were created in. 

. 4. But whatever the rise of this custom was, 
we are assured that the whole eight days were The pr e S ff" e s fthe 
very solemnly observed : on which they had al- 
ways some proper preface relating to the peculiar mercy of 
the feast they celebrated ; to the end that all, who received at 
any of those times, should, besides the general praises offered 
up for all God's mercies, make a special memorial proper to 
the festival. 

. 5. In the Roman Church they had ten of 
them, 16 but our reformers have only retained five ' he SXf 
of the most ancient ; all which (except that for 
Trinity-Sunday, retained by reason of the great mystery it ce- 
lebrates) are concerning the principal acts of our Redemption, 
viz. the Nativity, Resurrection, and Ascension of our Saviour, 
and of his sending the Holy Ghost to comfort us. 

SECT. XXL Of the Address. 

THE nearer we approach to these holy myste- 
ries, the greater reverence we ought to express; ^fn^hf/'piace! 
for since it is out of God's mere grace and good- 
ness, that we have the honour to approach his table ; it is at 
least our duty to acknowledge it to be a free and undeserved 
favour, agreeing rather to the mercy of the giver, than to the 

i* Leviticus xxiii. 36. w Viz. For Low-Sunday, for Ascension-day, for Pentecost, 
for Christmas-day, for the Apparition of our Lord, for the Apostles, for the Holy Trin- 
ity, for the Cross, for the Lent-Fast, and for the Blessed Virgin. Johnson's Ecclesias- 
tical Laws, A. D. 1 175, 14. Though I do not know what should be meant by the Appa- 
rition of our Lord, except it be his Epiphany, or else his Transfiguration, 


deserts of the receivers. And therefore, lest our exultations 
should savour of too much confidence, we now allay them with 
this act of humility, which the Priest offers up in the name of 
all them that receive the Communion ; therein excusing his 
own and the people's unworthiness, in words taken from the 
most ancient Liturgies. 

. 2. In the Scotch Common Prayer this Ad- 

dress is ordered to be said just before the Min 
fice in the Scotch jgter receives : and in the same place it stands 

in the first Liturgy of king Edward. Though 
the whole Communion-office in king Edward's first book is so 
very different, as to the order of it, from what it is now, that 
there can be no shewing how it stood then, but by a particu- 
lar detail, which I shall therefore give in the margin.* The 
Scotch Liturgy is something different from this,f though either 
of them I take to be in a more primitive method than our own. 

SECT. XXII. Of the Prayer of Consecration. 
THE ancient Greeks and Romans would not taste of their 

* The beginning of the Communion-office in king Edward's first book, as far as to 
the Collect for the king, I have already given in page 262. After which it proceeds in 
this order. The Epistle ; the Gospel ; the Nicene Creed ; then the Exhortation to be 
used at the time of the Communion ; and after that stands the Exhortation to be used 
on some day before : then the Sentences ; the Lauds, Anthem, and Prefaces ; the Prayer 
for " the whole State of Christ's Church," with the Prayer of Consecration ; the Prayer 
of Oblation, (of which hereafter ;) the Lord's Prayer, with this introduction, " As our Sa- 
viour Christ hath commanded and taught us, we are bound to say, our Father." After 
which the Priest was to say, " The peace of the Lord be always with you :" the Clerks, 
" And with thy spirit." Then the Priest, " Christ our Paschal Lamb is offered for us, 
once for all, when he bare our sins in his body on the Cross ; for he is the very Lamb of 
God that taketh away the sins of the world : wherefore let us keep a joyful and holy 
feast with the Lord." Then came the Invitation, the Confession, the Absolution, with 
the comfortable Sentences out of Scripture : after those the Prayer of Address ; imme- 
diately after which the Minister received, and distributed to the Congregation. And 
during the Communion time the Clerks were to sing, beginning as soon as the Priest 
received, " O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world, Have mercy upon 
us : O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world, Grant us thy peace." When 
the Communion was ended, the Clerks were to sing the Post-Communion, which con- 
sisted of the following Sentences of Scripture, which were to be "said or sung, every 
day one," viz. Matt. xvi. 24. xxiv. 13. Luke i. G8, 74, 75. xii. 43. 46, 47. John iv. 23. v. 
14. viii. 31, 32. xii. 3G. xiv. 21. xv. 7. Rom. viii. 31, 32, 33, 34. xiii. 12. 1 Cor. i. 30, 31. 
iii. 16, 17. vi. 20. Ephes. v. 1, 2. This done, the Salutation passed between the Minister 
and the People, " The Lord be with you. And with thy spirit." And then the Minis- 
ter concluded the office with the second prayer in our present Post-Communion and the 
blessing. How these several forms, or the rubrics that belong to them, differ from the 
forms that we use now, I must shew as I am treating upon the several particulars. I 
only set down the order of them here, to give the reader a general view of the whole. 

t In the Scotch Liturgy, after the prayer of Consecration follows immediately a pray- 
er of Oblation, (which is the same with the first prayer that follows the Lord's Prayer 
in our Post-Communion, beginning, " O Lord and heavenly Father," &c., but intro- 
duced with a proper introduction, which shall be given by and by.) After this prayer of 
Oblation follows the Lord's Prayer; then comes the Address, and then the Priest re- 
ceives and administers. After all have communicated is said the prayer, " Almighty 
and everliving God," Sec., and to on as in ours. 


ordinary meat and drink till they had hallowed 
it by giving the first parts of it to their gods : " The ***&*> of 
the Jews would not eat of their sacrifice till 
Samuel came to bless it : 18 and the primitive Christians al- 
ways began their common meals with a solemn prayer for a 
blessing: 19 a custom so universal, that it is certainly a part of 
natural religion : how much more then ought we to expect 
the prayers of the Priest over this mysterious food of our 
souls, before we eat of it ! especially since our Saviour him- 
self did not deliver this bread and wine until he had conse- 
crated them by blessing them, and giving thanks. So that 
this prayer is the most ancient and essential part of the whole 
Communion-office ; and there are some who believe that the 
Apostles themselves, after a suitable introduction, used the 
latter part of it, from those words, who in the same niffht* 1 
&c., and it is certain that no Liturgy in the world hath altered 
that particular. 

. 2. But besides this, there was always in- A prayer for the 
serted in the primitive forms, a particular pe- descent of the 
tition for the descent of the Holy Ghost upon ^SSuJ" 
the Sacramental Elements, which was also con- the primitive 
tinued in the first Liturgy of king Edward VI., 
in very express and open terms. Hear us, merciful Fa- 
ther, toe beseech thee, and with thy Holy Spirit and Word 
vouchsafe to bl-\-ess and sane -\-tify these thy gifts and crea- 
tures of Bread and Wine, that they may be unto us the Body 
and Blood of thy most dearly beloved Son Jesus Christ, who 
in the same night, &c. This, upon the scruples of Bucer, 
(whom I am sorry I have so often occasion to name,) was 
left out at the review in the fifth of king Edward ; and the 
following sentence, which he was pleased to allow of, inserted 
in its stead ; viz. Hear us, O merciful Father, ice most humbly 
beseech thee, and grant that we receiving these thy creatures of 
Bread and Wine, according to thy Son our Saviour Jesus 
Chrisfs holy Institution, in remembrance of his Death and Pas- 
sion, may be partakers of his most blessed Body and Blood, who 
in the same night, &c. In these words, it is true, the sense of 
the former is still implied, and consequently by these the 
Elements are now consecrated, and so become the Body and 
Blood of our Saviour Christ. 

Alex, ab Alex. Gen. Dier. 1. v. c. 21. 18 1 Samuel ix. 13. 19 Tert. Apol. 

c. 39, p. 32, B. Matt. xxvi. 26. 1 Cor. xi. 24. * l Alcuin. de Divin. Offic. c. 39. 


In the rubric indeed, after the form of Ad- 
attributed th^ ministration, the Church seems to suppose that 
c n ?, cration of the Consecration is made by the words of Insti- 

the Elements. . - , . , > .-_.-, . , 

tution : for there it says, that if the consecrated 
Bread and Wine be all spent before all have communicated, 
the Priest is to consecrate more according to the form before 
prescribed ; beginning at [Our Saviour Christ in the same 
night, &c.]yr the blessing of the Bread ; and at [Likewise 
after supper, &c.] for the blessing of the Cup. This rubric 
was added in the last review : but to what end, unless to save 
the Minister some time, does not appear. But what is very 
remarkable is, that it was taken from the Scotch Liturgy, 
which expressly calls the words of Institution the mords of 
Consecration * though the compilers of it had restored the 
sentence that had been thrown out of king Edward's second 
Common Prayer, and united it with the clause in our pre- 
sent Liturgy,! imagining, one would think, that the Ele- 
ments were not consecrated without them. For though all 
Churches in the world have, through all ages, used the 
words of Institution at the time of Consecration ; yet none, I 
believe, except the Church of Rome, ever before attributed 
the Consecration to the bare pronouncing of those words 
only : that was always attributed, by the most ancient Fathers, 
to the prayer of the Church. 22 The Lutherans and Calvinists 
indeed both agree with the Papists, that the Consecration is 
made by the bare repeating the words of Institution; 23 the 
reason perhaps of which is because the words of Institution are 
the only words recorded by the Evangelists and St. Paul, as 
spoken by our Saviour when he administered to his disciples. 

* "To the end there may be little left, he that officiates is required to consecrate 
with the least, and then if there be want, the words of Consecration may be repeated 
again, over more, either Bread or Wine : the Presbyter beginning at these words in 
the Prayer of Consecration, (Our Saviour in the night that he was betrayed, 8rc.)" 
Scotch Liturgy, in the fifth rubric at the end of the Communion-office. 

t " Hear us, O merciful Father, we most humbly beseech thee, and of thy Almighty 
goodness vouchsafe so to bless and sanctify with thy Word and Holy Spirit these thy 
gifts and creatures of Bread and Wine, that they may be unto us the Body and Blood 
of thy most dearly beloved Son ; so that we receiving them according to thy Son our 
Savionr's holy Institution, in remembrance of his Death and Passion, may be par- 
taken of the same his most precious Body and Blood ; who in the night," &c. Scotch 

* TV 4.' txm tlxafna-rnQtiaav TPO^. Just. Mart. Apol. 1, c. 86, p. 129. n<xxr 
aiouffot dp-roif IbVioutv amua ftroufvotn AH* r'n* tvxti*. Orig. contra Cell. lib. 8. 
See also Constit. Apost. 1. 8, c. 12. Cyril. Hieros. Catech. Mystag. 8, p. 289. Optat. 
adv. Parmen. lib. 6. Basil, de Splr. Sanct. c. 27. Chrysost. Homil. in ('irmelerii 
Appellationem. August, de Trinitat. 1. S, c. 4. *> See their Book of Reformation 
of Doctrine, Administration of their Sacraments, &c. printed at London, by John 
Day, 1547. 


But then it should be considered, that it is plain enough that 
our Saviour used other words upon the same occasion, though 
the very words are not recorded : for the Evangelists tell us, 
that he gave thanks and blessed the Bread and Wine : and 
this sure must have been done in other words than those 
which he spoke at the delivery of them to his disciples : for 
blessing and thanksgiving must be performed by some words 
that are addressed to God, and not by any words directed to 
men : and therefore the words which our Saviour spake to 
his disciples could not be the whole Consecration of the Ele- 
ments, but rather a declaration of the effect which was pro- 
duced by his consecrating or blessing them. And therefore I 
humbly presume, that if the Minister should at the Consecra- 
tion of fresh Elements, after the others are spent, repeat again 
the whole form of Consecration, or at least from those words, 
Hear us, merciful Father, &c., he would answer the end 
of the rubric, which seems only to require the latter part of 
the form from those words, who in the same night, &c. be al- 
ways used at such Consecration. 

And this is certainly a very essential part of the service. For 
during the repetition of these words, the Priest performs to 
God the representative sacrifice of the death and passion of 
his Son. By taking the bread into his hands, and breaking 
it, he makes a memorial to him of our Saviour's body, broken 
upon the cross ; and by exhibiting the wine, he reminds him 
of his blood there shed for the sins of the world ; and by laying 
his hands upon each of them at the same time that he repeats 
those words, Take, cat, this is my body, &c., and Drink ye all 
of this, &c., he signifies and acknowledges that this comme- 
moration of Christ's sacrifice so made to God, is a means in- 
stituted by Christ himself to convey to the communicants the 
benefits of his death and passion, viz. the pardon of our sins, 
and God's grace and favour for the time to come. 

-.-, i j A T_ i . i ii Breaking the 

r or this reason we find, that it was always the bread a cere- 
practice of the ancients, in consecrating the Eu- mony always 

i i iiij/n o i used by the an- 

chanst, to break the bread, (alter our baviour s dent church in 
example,) to represent his passion and cruci- ^"*harist ingthe 
fixion. 24 The Roman Church indeed, instead of 
breaking the bread for the communicants to partake of it, only 
breaks a single wafer into three parts, (of which no one par- 

See this proved in Mr. Bingham's Antiquities, book 15, chap. 3, vol. vi. page 
713, &c. 


takes,) for the sake of retaining a shadow at least of the ancient 
custom. They acknowledge, it is true, that this is an altera- 
tion from the primitive practice : but then they urge that they 
had 'good reasons for making it, viz. lest in breaking the 
bread some danger might happen of scattering or losing some 
of the crumbs or particles ; M as if Christ himself could not 
have foreseen what dangers might happen, or have given as 
prudent orders as the pope, concerning his own institution. 

Very judiciously, therefore, did our good re- 
crw8?another he f ormers (though they ordered these mords before 
ceremony that rehearsed to be said, turning still to the altar, 
TtTht'sMneUme. foithout any elevation or shewing the sacrament 
to the people, yet) restore these other ceremo- 
nies to avoid superstition : and yet this very restoration of 
them is charged as superstitious byBucer; 27 who therefore 
objects to them, and prevails for the leaving them all out, as 
well as the above-mentioned petition for the descent of the 
Holy Ghost, together with the crossings that were then also 
used during the pronunciation of the said petition. The tak- 
ing of the Bread and the Cup into the hands, has indeed 
since been restored, viz. first to the Scotch Liturgy, and then 
to our own, even at the request of the Presbyterians, at the 
last review. 28 But the signing of them with the cross has ever 
since been discontinued : though I do not know that there is 
an ancient Liturgy in being, but what shews that this sign was 
always made use of in some part or other of the office of Com- 
munion. 29 Such a number of crossings indeed as the Roman 
Missal enjoins, renders the service theatrical ; and are not to 
be met with in any other Liturgy : but one or two we always 
find ; so much having been thought proper, on this solemn 
occasion, to testify that we are not ashamed of the Cross of 
Christ, and that the solemn service we are then about is per- 
formed in honour of a crucified Saviour. And therefore as 
the Church of England has thought fit to retain this ceremony 
in the ministration of one of her Sacraments, I see not why 
she should lay it aside in the ministration of the other. For 
that may very well be applied to it in the ministration of the 
Eucharist, which the Church herself has declared of the Cross 

* Salmero. Tract. 30. in Act. Ap. Chamier. de Euch. 1. 7, c. 11, n. 26, p. 384. 

*> Rubric after the prayer of Consecration in the first book of king Edw. VI. 

*' Censur. apud Script. Anglican, p. 472. '' See the Proceedings of the Commis- 
ion ITS, &rc. p. 18, and the Reply, p. 130. * Vide et Chrysostom. Demons trat. Quod 
Christiu sit Deus, c. 9, et Aug. Horn. 1 18, in Johan. 


in Baptism, viz. That it was held in the primitive Church as 
well by the Greeks as the Latins, with one consent, and great 
applause : at what time, if any had opposed themselves against 
it, they ivould certainly have been censured as enemies of the 
name of the Cross, and consequently of Christ's merits, the sign 
whereof they could no better endure 

. 3. But besides this, our Liturgy at that time The rayerof Ob _ 
suffered a more material alteration : the prayer lation mangled 
of Oblation, which by the first book of king Ed- and dis P laced - 
ward was ordered to be used after the prayer of Consecration, 
(and which has since been restored to the Scotch Common 
Prayer,*) being half laid aside, and the rest of it thrown into 
an improper place ; as being enjoined to be said by our pre- 
sent rubric, in that part of the office which is to be used after 
the people have communicated ; whereas it was always the 
practice of the primitive Christians to use it during the act 
of Consecration. For the holy Eucharist was, from the very 
first institution, esteemed and received as a proper sacrifice, 
and solemnly offered to God upon the altar, before it was re- 
ceived and partaken of by the communicants. 31 In conformity 
whereunto, it was bishop Overall's practice to use the first 
prayer in the Post-Communion office between the Consecra- 
tion and the Administering, 32 even when it was otherwise 
ordered by the public Liturgy. 

. 4. In the beginning of this prayer, instead Avanousread . 
of those words, ONE oblation of himself once ing in this 
offered, which are now printed in most Common prayer - 
Prayer Books ; I have seen some that read OWN oblation of 
himself once offered ; and so, among others, does Dr. Nichols 
give it us, in his edition of it, which he says he corrected 
from a sealed book ; though in several sealed books which 

* In the first book of king Edward, and in the Scotch Liturgy, the first prayer in 
our Post-Communion is ordered immediately to follow the prayer of Consecration with 
this beginning : " Wherefore, O Lord and heavenly Father, according to the Institution 
of thy dearly beloved Son our Saviour Jesus Christ, we thy humble servants do cele- 
brate and make here before thy divine Majesty, with these thy holy gifts, the memorial 
which thy Son hath willed us to make ; having in remembrance his blessed Passion, 
mighty Resurrection, and glorious Ascension, rendering unto thee most hearty thanks 
for the innumerable benefits procured unto us by the same : entirely desiring thy fa- 
therly goodness," &c., as the first prayer goes on in our Post-Communion. And in 
king Edward's book, towards the end of the same prayer, after the words, " Our bound- 
en duty and service," it follows thus : " and command these our prayers and suppli- 
cations, by the ministry of thy holy angels, to be brought up into thy holy tabernacle, 
before the sight of thy divine Majesty, not weighing our merits," &c. 

31 Can. 30, A. D. 1603. si The reader may see the subject exhausted to the utmost 
satisfaction, by the learned and reverend Mr. Johnson, in his treatise on the Unbloody 
Sacrifice and "Altar. See Dr. Nichols's addit. Notes, p. 49. 


I have collated myself, I have always found it one, as it is 
generally in the common books. However, the words, as 
they are, are not a tautology, (as some object,) but very copi- 
ous and elegant, and alluding to that portion of Scripture in 
Hebrews x. where the one oblation of Christ is opposed to the 
many kinds of sacrifices under the law, and the once offered 
to the repetition of those sacrifices. 

. 5. Dr. Nichols, in his note upon this prayer, 
and M a i t 1 this r t0 ha8 delivered his opinion, that it ought to be said 
prayer, and in the by the Minister upon his knees ; and the reason 
nion1iffiTe mu ~ he & ives tor ifc is because it is a prayer. But that 
reason would hold for kneeling at several other 
prayers both in this and in other offices, which yet the rubric 
directs shall be us'ed standing. As to this prayer indeed, the 
rubric does not mention any posture that the Minister shall 
be in at the saying it : for as to those words, standing before 
the table, I am of opinion, that they only relate to the posture 
of the Minister whilst he is ordering the elements ; though 
in the Old Common Prayer Book it is very plain that they 
referred to the posture in which the Minister was to say the 
prayer ; the rubric then being no more than this, Then the 
Minister standing up, shall say as followeth. The rubric in 
the Scotch Liturgy is something larger, but, as I shall shew 
in the next paragraph, directly orders the Priest to stand. 
But as the rubric is now enlarged, the construction shews that 
the word standing must refer to another thing. However, 
since the rubric, before the additions to it, was so very express 
for the Minister's standing at the Consecration ; I think it is 
very probable, that if they who made those additions had in- 
tended any alteration of the posture, they would certainly have 
expressed it. For Ministers that had been always used to 
stand when they consecrated, could never imagine that the 
new rubric directed them to kneel, when there was not one 
word of kneeling, but an express direction for standing, at the 
ordering of the elements, without any following prescription 
for kneeling at this prayer, even in this new rubric. And I 
take it for granted, that whenever the Church does not direct 
the Minister to kneel, it supposes him to stand. Though Dr. 
Nichols will not allow of this ; 't because," he says, " there is 
not one rubric which obliges the Minister to kneel in all the 
Post-Communion service ; and yet he does not know any one 
that has contended for the posture of standing in the perform- 


ance of that part of the service." What the doctor has known, 
I cannot tell : but I can affirm the direct contrary, that I never 
knew one that contended for the posture of kneeling in the 
performance of that part of the service. But if any have done 
so, T am apt to think that they act contrary to the intention of 
the Church. For that she supposes the Minister to stand dur- 
ing that part of the service, I think is plain from her not order- 
ing him to stand up whilst he gives the blessing, which she 
certainly would have done, if she had supposed him to have 
been kneeling before. And indeed in most parts of the whole 
Communion-office the Priest is directed to stand. In the be- 
ginning of the office he is ordered to say the Lord's Prayer, 
with the Collect following, standing ; and so he is to con- 
tinue whilst he repeats the Commandments : then follows one 
of the two Collects for tlie king, the Priest standing as before. 
Whilst he says the prayer for the whole state of Christ's 
Church, there is no posture mentioned : but since both the 
sentences before it, and the exhortation (at the time of Com- 
munion) after it, are without doubt to be said standing, and 
yet no mention made that there shall be any change of posture 
during all that time ; it seems very evident that the Church 
designed that prayer to be said standing. At the general con- 
fession indeed it is very fit that the Minister should kneel, and 
therefore he is there directed to do so. And though any one 
knows in reason that he should stand at the absolution, yet 
that too is particularly mentioned in the rubric. From thence 
again to the address, before the prayer of Consecration, that 
being all an act of praise, he is to stand: but there again he 
is directed to kneel : but then at the end of it he is ordered to 
stand up, and, after the ordering of the bread and wine, to say 
the prayer of consecration, without any direction to kneel. 
Nor indeed would that be a proper posture for him whilst he 
is performing an act of authority, as the consecrating the ele- 
ments must be allowed to be. Nor is he from hence to the 
end of the office to kneel any more, except just during the 
time of his own receiving. So that through the whole office 
he is ordered to kneel but three times, viz. at the general con- 
fession, the prayer of address, and at his receiving the ele- 
ments . which being three places where there least wants a 
rubric to direct him to kneel, (since, if there was no such 
rubric, a Minister would of his own accord kneel down at those 
times,) and yet there being an express direction at each of 


those places for him to kneel ; it is very evident, that where 
the rubric gives no such direction, the Minister is always to 

. 6. If it be asked whether the Priest is to 
We'st'beto'say 8av tn * 8 P ra y er standing before the table, or at 
thu prayer stand- the north-end of it ; I answer, at the north-end 
mgj>efore the Q f ^ . ^ accor< Ji n g to the rules of grammar, the 
participle standing must refer to the verb order- 
ed, and not to the verb say. So that whilst the Priest is or- 
dering the bread and mine, he is to stand before the table : 
but when he says the prayer, he is to stand so as that lie may 
with the more readiness and decency break tltc bread before 
the people, which must be on the north-side. For if he stood 
before the table, his body would hinder the people from see- 
ing : so that he must not stand there : and consequently he 
must stand on the north-side ; there being, in our present ru- 
bric, no other place mentioned for performing any part of this 
office. In the Romish Church indeed they always stand be- 
fore the altar during the time of consecration; in order to 
prevent the people from being eye-witnesses of their operation 
in working their pretended miracle : and in the Greek Church 
they shut the chancel door, or at least draw a veil or curtain 
before it, I suppose, upon the same account. 33 But our 
Church, that pretends no such miracle, enjoins, we see, the di- 
rect contrary to this, by ordering the Priest so to order the 
bread and -mine, that he may with the more readiness and 
decency break the bread, and take the cup into his hands, be- 
fore the people. And with this view, it is probable, the Scotch 
Liturgy ordered, that during tin' time of consecration the 
presbyter should stand at such a part of the holy table, where 
he may with tlie more ease and decency use both his hands. . 

SECT. XXIIL Of the Form of Administration. 

THE holy symbols being thus consecrated, the 
inenuto blfde- communicants must not rudely take every one 
Hveredby the his own part ; because God, who is the master of 
^muJmf h the feast, hath provided stewards to divide to 
every one their portion. Some persons indeed 
have disliked the Minister's delivering the holy elements to 
each communicant ; pretending that it is contrary to the prac- 
tice of our Saviour, who bid the Apostles take the cup and di- 

Smith's Account of the Greek Church, p. 135. 


vide it among themselves.^ But one would think that any 
one that reads the context would perceive that this passage 
does not relate to the eucharist, but to the paschal supper; 
since it appears so evidently from the nineteenth and twenti- 
eth verses of the same chapter, that the Sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper was not instituted till after that cup was drank. 
But as to the manner of his delivering the Sacrament, the 
Scriptures are wholly silent ; and consequently we have no 
other means to judge what it was, but by the practice of the 
first Christians, who doubtless, as far as was convenient and 
requisite, imitated our Saviour in this as well as they did in 
other things : and therefore since it was the general practice 
among them for the Minister to deliver the elements to each 
communicant, we have as much authority and reason as can 
be desired to continue that practice still. 

. 2. The Minister therefore that celebrateth 
is first to receive the communion in both kinds Fir c S je* the 
himself; then to proceed to deliver the same to 
the Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, in like manner, (i. e. in 
both kinds,) if any be present, (that they may help the chief 
Minister, as the old Common Prayer has it, or him that cele- 
brateth, as it is in the Scotch Liturgy,) and after 
that to the people also in order. And this is con- And peopie * 
sonant to the practice of the primitive Church, 
in which it was always the custom for the clergy to commu- 
nicate within the rails of the altar, and before the Sacrament 
was delivered to the people. 35 

S. 3. The rubric further directs, that the Com- 

. ,, j ,. j i ,. ., T Into their hands. 

mumon must be delivered both to the clergy 
and laity into tJicir hands ; which was the most primitive and 
ancient way of receiving. 36 In St. Cyril's time they received 
it into the hollow of their right hand, holding their left hand 
under their right in the form of a cross. 37 And in some few 
ages afterwards, some indiscreet persons pretending greater 
reverence to the elements, as if they were defiled with their 
hands, put themselves to the charges of providing little saucers 
or plates of gold to receive the bread, until they were forbid- 
den by the sixth general Council. 38 Another abuse the Church 
of Rome brought in, where the Priest puts it into the people's 

34 Luke xxii. 17. & Const. Ayost. 1. 8, c. 13. Concil. Laod. Can. 19. Concil. Tolet. 
4, Can. 17. ** Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 1. 6, c. 43, p. 245, B. Chrys. in Ephes. i. Horn. 3, 
torn. iii. p. 778, Hn. 16. 37 Cyril. Catech. Myst. 5, 18, p. 300. & Can. 101, torn. vi. 
col. 1186, A. 


mouths, lest a crumb should tall aside ; which custom was 
also retained in the first book of king Edward VI., though a 
different reason was there alleged ; the rubric ordering that 
although it be read in ancient writers that the people many 
years past, received at the Priesfs hands, the Sacrament of the 
Body of Christ in their own hands, and no commandment of 
Christ to the contrary ; yet forasmuch as they many times con- 
veyed the same secretly away, kept it with them, and diversely 
abused it to superstition and wickedness : lest any such thing 
hereafter should be attempted, and that an uniformity might be 
used throughout the whole realm, it was thought convenient the 
people should commonly receive the Sacrament of Christ's 
Body in their mouths, at the Priest's hand. But however 
Bucer censuring it, as savouring too much of an unlawful 
honour done to the elements, 40 it was discontinued at the next 
review, when the old primitive way of delivering it into the 
people's hands was ordered in the room of it. 

. 4. The communicants are 'enjoined, whilst 
probaMyre- 8 they receive this blessed Sacrament, to be all 
ceived in a pos- meekly kneeling. What posture the Apostles 

ture of adoration. 3 ,. i 

received it in, is uncertain ; but we may proba- 
bly conjecture that they received it in a posture of adoration. 
For it is plain that our Saviour blessed and gave thanks both 
for the bread and wine ; and prayers and thanksgivings, we 
all know, were always offered up to God in a posture of ador- 
ation : and therefore we may very safely conclude that our 
blessed Saviour, who was always remarkable for outward re- 
verence in devotion, gave thanks for the bread and wiue in 
an adoring posture. 

Now it is very well known that it was a rule with the Jews 
to eat of the passover to satiety : and therefore, since they 
had already satisfied hunger, they cannot be supposed to have 
eaten or drank so much of the holy eucharist as that they 
needed repose while they did it: and since, as we have al- 
ready hinted, they rose from their seats to bless the bread, it 
cannot be imagined, that, without any reason, they would re- 
solve to sit down again during the moment of eating it ; and 
then, though they rose immediately a second time at the bless- 
ing which was performed before the delivery of the cup, 
that they immediately sat down again to taste the wine, as if 

81 See the last rubric at the end of the Common ion -office in king Edward's first book. 
Script. Anglican, p. <62. 


they could neither eat nor drink the smallest quantity without 

This indeed does not amount to a demonstration, but is yet 
a very probable conjecture ; and shews how groundlessly they 
argue, who, from the Apostles eating the passover sitting or 
leaning upon the leftside, (which was the table-gesture among 
those nations,) conclude, that they ate the eucharist in the 
same posture, because it was celebrated at the same time. 

But besides, we may observe that the passover" The example of 
itself was, at the first institution of it, command- the Apostles does 
ed to be eaten standing and in haste? 1 to express not bmd us- 
the haste they were in to be delivered out of their slavery and 
bondage: but afterwards, when they were settled in the Land 
of Promise, they ate it in a quite contrary posture, viz. sitting, 
or lying down to it, as to a feast, to signify they were then at 
rest, and in possession of the land. And with this custom 
(though we do not find any where that it was ever commanded, 
or so much as warranted by God) did our blessed Saviour 
comply, and therefore doubtless thought that the alteration of 
the circumstances was a justifiable reason for changing the 
ceremonies. But was it ever so certain that a table-gesture 
was used at the institution of the Eucharist, yet it is very rea- 
sonable, since the circumstances of our blessed Saviour are 
now different from what they were at the institution, that our 
outward demeanour should also vary. The posture which 
might then be suitable in the Apostles is not now suitable in 
us : while he was corporally present with them, and they con- 
versed with him as man, without any awful dread upon them, 
which was due to him as the Lord of heaven and earth, no 
wonder if they did use a table-posture : but then their fami- 
liarity ought to be no precedent for us, who worship him in 
his glory, and converse with him in the Sacrament, as he is 
spiritually present ; and who therefore would be very irreverent 
to approach him in any other posture than that of adoration. 

As to the punctual time when the posture of 
kneeling first began, it is hard to determine; but ^StJj^ 18 
we are assured that it hath obtained in the West- 
ern Church above twelve hundred years ; and though an- 
ciently they stood in the East, 42 yet it was with fear and 
trembling, with silence and downcast eyes, boning themselves 
in the posture of worship and adoration.* 3 

41 Exod. xii, 11. Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 1. 7, c. 9, p. 255, B. 

Cyril. Catech. Mystag. 5, . 19, p. 301. 


But it is now the custom of the Greek, Ro- 
* rnan ' Lut heran, and most Churches in the world, 

to receive kneeling : nor do any scruple it, but 
they who study pretences to palliate the most unjustifiable 
separation, or designed neglect of this most sacred ordinance. 
The < re And it is worth observing, that they who at 

ceives P th^ Sacra- other times cry out so much against the Church 
ment sitting. Q f E n gi an d f or retaining several ceremonies, 
which, though indifferent in themselves, they say become un- 
lawful by being abused by superstition and popery, can, in this 
more solemn and material ceremony, agree even with the pope 
himself, (who receives sitting,} rather than not differ from the 
best and purest Church in the world." 

Nor may I pass by unobserved that the posture 
8i int n rodu y c rd hom of sit ting was first brought into the Church by the 

Arians ; who stubbornly denying the divinity of 
our Saviour, thought it no robbery to be equal with him, and 
to sit down with him at his table ; for which reason it was 
justly banished the reformed Church in Poland, by a general 
synod, A. D. 1583. And it is the pope's opinion of his being 
St. Peter's successor, and Christ's vicegerent, which prompts 
him to use such familiarity with his Lord. 45 

. 5. As for the words of Administration ; the 
Th f fir8 t part of them, viz. The Body, or The Blood 

of our Lord Jesus Christ, was the only form used 
in St. Ambrose's time at the delivery of the Bread and Wine, 46 
to which the receivers answered, Amen" both to express their 
desire that it might be Christ's body and blood unto them, 
and their firm belief that it was so. The next words, pre- 
serve thy body and soul unto everlasting life, were added by 
St. Gregory : 48 and these with the former were all that were 
to be used at the delivery of the elements, during the first 
Common Prayer Book of king Edward VI. But these words, 
I suppose, being thought at that time to savour too much of 
the real presence in the Sacrament, which was a doctrine that 
then was thought to imply too much of transubstantiation to 
be believed ; they were therefore left out of the second book, 
and the following words prescribed in the room of them, Take 
and eat this, &c., or Drink this, &c., as in the latter part of 
our present forms. But these on the other side reducing the 

44 Durand. Rational. 1. 4, c. 54, numb. 5. 4S Durand. ibid. 4 Ambr. de Sacr. 
1. 4, c. 5, torn. iv. col. 368, O. ' Liturg. Clement. Basil. JEthiopic. Cyril. Catech. 
Mytag. 5, MS. " Vide Durand. de Rit. Eccle*. Cathol. 1. 2, c. 55, numb. 16, p. 287. 


Sacrament to a bare eating and drinking in remembrance of 
the death and passion of our Lord ; they were in a little time 
as much disliked as the former. And therefore upon queen 
Elizabeth's accession to the throne, (whose design and endea- 
vour was to unite the nation as much as she could in one 
doctrine and faith,) both these forms were enjoined to be used 
(as we have them still) to please both parties. Though in the 
Scotch Liturgy the last clause was again thrown out, and the 
former only (which was prescribed by the first book) retained, 
with a direction to the receiver to say jlmen . which is un- 
doubtedly the most agreeable to the primitive practice, and to 
the true notion of the Eucharist. 

. 6. Where there are two or more Ministers Communionin 
present, it is the custom for the chief Minister, or one kind ex- 
for him that consecrates, to administer only the ammed - 
body, and for another to follow and administer the cup. 
Agreeable to an old rubric in king Edward's first Liturgy, 
which orders, that if there be a Deacon or other Priest, then 
shall he follow with the chalice: and as the Priest ministereth 
the Sacrament of the Body, so shall he (for more expedition) 
minister the Sacrament of the Blood, in form before written. 
For our Church does not (with the Roman Church) rob the 
people of half the Sacrament, but administers to the laity as 
well as the clergy under both kinds. The Romanists indeed 
pretend that Christ administered under both kinds only to the 
Apostles, whom he had made priests just before, and gave no 
command that it should be so received by the laity. But we 
would ask whether the Apostles were not all that were then 
present? If they were, in what capacity did they receive it? 
how did they receive the bread before the Hoc facite, (Do 
this,} as priests, or as laymen ? It is ridiculous to suppose 
those words changed their capacity: though if we should al- 
low they did, yet it would only relate to consecrating, and not 
to receiving. But if Christ only gave it to the Apostles as 
priests, it must necessarily follow, that the people are not at 
all concerned in one kind or other ; but that each kind was 
intended only for priests. For if the people are concerned, 
how came they to be so ? Where is there any command, but 
what refers to the first institution ? So that it had been much 
more plausible, according to this answer, to exclude the peo- 
ple wholly, than to admit them to one kind, and to debar 
them of thie other. 

x 2 


Not so, say they, because Christ himself administered the 
Sacrament to some of his disciples under one kind only. 43 But 
to make out this we require, first, that it be proved that 
Christ did then administer the Sacrament ; or, secondly, if he 
did, that the cup was not implied; since breaking of bread, 
when taken for an ordinary meal in Scripture, does not ex- 
clude drinking at it. 

When we appeal to the practice of the primitive ages, they 
leave us : and the most impartial of them will allow that the 
custom of communicating under one kind only, as is now used 
in the Church of Rome, was unknown to the world for a thou- 
sand years after Christ. 50 In some cases (it is true) they dip- 
ped the bread in the wine, as in the case of baptized infants, 
(to whom they administered the Eucharist in those primitive 
times,) and of very weak, dying persons, who could not other- 
wise have swallowed the bread ; and also that by this means 
they might keep the Sacrament at home against all emergent 
occasions. And this probably might in time make the way 
easier for introducing the Sacrament under the kind of bread 

. 7. When all have communicated, the Minis- 
ter " directed to return to the Lord's Table, and 
reverently place upon it what rcmaineth of the 
consecrated elements, covering the same with a fair linen cloth ; 
which by the ancient writers and the Scotch Liturgy (in which 
this rubric first appeared) is called the Corporal, from its 
being spread over the Body or consecrated Bread,* 1 and some- 
times the Pa//, 52 I suppose for the same reason. The insti- 
tution of it is ascribed to Eusebius, bishop of Rome, who lived 
about the year 300. 63 And that it was of common use in the 
Church in the fifth century, is evident from the testimony of 
Isidore Peleusiota, who also observes that the design of using 
it was to represent the body of our Saviour being wrapped in 
fine linen by Joseph of Arimathea. 54 

SECT. XXIV. Of the Lord's Prayer. 

IT is rudeness in manners to depart from a 

inVdevotloiu 1 * fri en ^' 8 house so soon as the table is removed, 

and an act of irreligion to rise from our common 

49 Lttke xxiv. 30. * Secundum antiquam Krclesia> consuetudinem, omnes tarn 
corpori quam aanguini communicabant : quod etiam adhuc in quibusdam Ecrlesiis 
tenratur. Aquln. in Johan. vl. > Alrulr. de Offlc. Divin. 
Can. Obs. " Vid. Gratian. de CoMt. Dist. 2. * Isid. Peleus. Ep. 123. 


meals without prayer and thanksgiving : how much more ab- 
surd and indecent then would it be for us to depart abruptly 
from the Lord's Table ! Our Saviour himself concluded his 
last Supper with a hymn, 55 (supposed to be the Paschal Hal- 
lelujah,} in imitation of which all Churches have finished this 
feast with solemn forms of prayer and thanksgiving. 

. 2. The Lord's Prayer is placed first, and 
cannot indeed be any where used more properly : pray^'why 
for having now received Christ in our hearts, used first after 
it is fit the first words we speak should be his : 
as if not only we, but Christ lived and spake in us. We 
know that to as many as receive Christ, he gives power to be- 
come the sons of God, 56 so that we may now all with one heart 
and one voice address ourselves cheerfully to God, and very 
properly call him, Our Father, &c. 

. 3. The Doxology is here annexed, because 
all these devotions are designed for an act of 
praise, for the benefits received in the holy Sa- 

SECT. XXV. Of the first Prayer after the Lord's Prayer. 

I HAVE already observed, that in the first 
Common Prayer of king Edward VI. and in that 
drawn up for the Church of Scotland, this first prayer in the 
Post-Communion was, with a proper introduction, ordered to 
be xised immediately after the prayer of Consecration : not 
but that what remains of it is very proper to be used after 
communicating. For St. Paul beseeches us, by the mercies 
of God, to present our bodies a living sacrifice, holy and ac- 
ceptable to God, as our reasonable service. 61 And the Fathers 
esteemed it one great part of this office to dedicate ourselves 
to God. For since Christ hath put us in mind of his infinite 
love in giving himself for us, and in this Sacrament hath given 
himself to us ; and since we have chosen him for our Lord, 
and solemnly vowed to be his servants ; it is very just and 
reasonable, that we should also give up ourselves wholly to 
him in such a manner as this form directs us. 

SECT. XXVI. Of the second Prayer after the Lord's Prayer. 
WHEN we communicate often, it may be very 

tfi J i_ i r i i l The design of it. 

grateful, and sometimes very helpful to our de- 

Matt. xxvi. 30. <* John L 12. " Rom. xii. 1. 


votions, to vary the form : for which cause the Church hath 
supplied us with another prayer ; which, being more full of 
praises and acknowledgments, will be most suitable when our 
minds have a joyful sense of the benefits received in this Sa- 
crament : as the former, consisting chiefly of vows and reso- 
lutions, is most proper to be used when we would express our 
love and duty. 

SECT. XXVII. Of the Gloria in Excelsis, or the Angelic Hymn. 
To conclude this office with an hymn, is so 
Gl on 7 hiKh t0 &c 0d direct an imitation of our Saviour's practice, 58 
that it hath ever been observed in all Churches 
and ages. And though the forms may differ, yet this is as 
ancient as any now extant. The former part of it is of an 
heavenly original, being sung by angels at our Saviour's nati- 
vity ; M and was from thence transcribed into the oriental 
Liturgies, especially St. James's, where it is thrice repeated. 
The latter part of it is ascribed to Telesphorus about the year 
of Christ 139; and the whole hymn, with very little differ- 
ence, is to be found in the Apostolical Constitutions, 60 and was 
established to be used in the Church-service by the fourth 
Council of Toledo about a thousand years ago. 61 In the pre- 
sent Roman Missal it stands in the beginning of this office, as 
it does also in the first Common Prayer of king Edward VI., 
where it immediately follows the Collect for Purity ; though 
it is now, I think, placed much more properly at the close of 
the Communion, when every devout communicant being full 
of gratitude, and longing for an opportunity to pour out his 
soul in the praises of God, cannot have a more solemn and 
compact form of words to do it in than this. In the Greek 
Church it makes a constant part of the morning devotions, as 
well upon ordinary days, as upon Sundays and holy-days ; 
only with this difference, that upon ordinary days it is only 
read, whereas upon more solemn times it is appointed to be 
sung. 62 

SECT. XXVIII. Of the final Blessing. 

THE people were always dismissed from this 
ordinance by a solemn blessing pronounced by 
the Bishop if present, or, in his absence, by the 

Matt. xxvL 30. Luke ii. 14. Lib. vil. cap. 48. Can. 13, torn. T. 
col. 1710, A. * Dr. Smith'* Account of the Greek Church, p. 224. 


Priest: 63 and none were allowed to depart till this was given 
by the one or the other. 64 

The form here used is taken chiefly from the words of 
Scripture : the first part of it from Philippians iv. 7, and the 
latter part being no other than a Christian paraphrase upon 
Numbers vi. 24, &c. 

SECT. XXIX. Of the additional Prayers. 

LEST there should be any thing left unasked in 

\ji i 


this excellent office, the Church hath added six Of the additional 

Collects more to be used at the Minister's discre- 
tion : concerning which it will be sufficient to observe, that 
they are plain and comprehensive, and almost every sentence 
of them taken out of the Bible, and are as proper to be joined 
to any other office as this. For which reason the rubric al- 
lows them to be said as often as occasion shall serve, after the 
Collects either of Morning or Evening Prayer, Communion or 
Litany, by the discretion of the Minister. 

When they are added to the Communion-office The rubric before 
on Sundays and holy-days that have no Commu- these Collects, 
nion, they are ordered to be said after the offer- ^ e v <i with the" 
tory : from whence some have imagined that the first rubric after 
Prayer for the Church militant is part of the 
offertory ; because in the first rubric, at the end of the whole 
office, that prayer, on such days, is always to be used, and 
then one or more of these Collects are to follow. But that 
the offertory only signifies the sentences that are read whilst 
the alms and other devotions of the people are collecting, I 
have already had occasion to mention. 65 To reconcile this 
difference, therefore, the reader must observe, that by the 
first book of king Edward VI. the prayer for Christ's Church 
was never to be read but when there was a Communion. So 
that then if there was no Communion, these Collects were 
properly ordered to be said after the offertory. But the Com- 
munion-office being afterwards thrown into a different form, 
the prayer for the Church militant was added to that part of 
the service, which was ordered to be read on Sundays and 
other holy-days that had no Communion, without altering the 
rubric of which I am now speaking. And this is that which 
makes the rubrics a little inconsistent. However the differ- 

" Concil. Agath. Can. 30, torn. iv. col. 1388, B. M Cone. Agath. Can. 47, torn. iv. 
col. 1391, A. See page 274. 



ence is not much. For the Collects are still to be said after 
the offertory, though not immediately after, as formerly, the 
prayer for the Church militant coming in between. 

SECT. XXX. Of the Rubrics after the Communion. 

Daiiv Commu- * N ^ e P" 01 ^ 6 Church, while Christians con- 
nion's in the pri- tinued in their strength of faith and devotion, 
rch> those who were qualified generally communicated 
once every day; 66 which custom continued till after St. Au- 
gustine's time: 67 but afterward, when charity grew cold, and 
devotion faint, this custom was broke off ; and they fell from 
every day to Sundays and holy-days only, and thence at Anti- 
och to once a year and no more. 6 " 

In regard of this neglect, canons were made by 
er h w'o^whitsun- severa ^ Councils to oblige men to receive three 
tide, why pre- times a year at least, viz. at Christmas, Easter, 
commuSng' and Whitsuntide, (probably in conformity to the 
ancient Jews, who were commanded by God him- 
self to appear before the Lord at the three great feasts that 
correspond to these ; viz. in the feast of unleavened Bread, 
and in the. feast of Weeks, and in the feast of Taberna- 
cles ,- 6s ) and those that neglected to communicate at those 
seasons were censured and anathematized. 70 

At the Reformation our Church took all the 
churchabout e care she could to reconcile her members to fre- 

on* C m quent Communion. And therefore in the first 
Common Prayer Book of king Edward VI. it 
was ordered that upon Wednesdays and Fridays, though there 
were none to communicate with the Priest, yet (after the Litany 
ended) the Priest should put upon him a plain alb or surplice, 
with a cope, and say all things at the altar, (appointed to be 
said at the celebration of the Lord's Supper,') until after the 
offertory. And the same order was to be used all other days, 
whensoever the people were accustomably assembled to pray in 
the Church, and none were disposed to communicate with the 
Priest. From whence it appears they took it for granted, that 
there would always be a sufficient number of communicants 
upon every Sunday and holy-day at the least ; so that they 

** Cypr. de Oral. Dom. p. 147. Basil. EpUt. 289, torn. iii. p. 279, A. B. Aug. 

Ep. 98, torn. 11. col. 267, E. Ep. 54, torn. ii. col. 124, C. " Ambr. de Sacrain. 1. 5, 

c. 4, torn. iv. col. 371, K. But ice this and the foregoing particulars proved at Urge in 
Mr. Bingham'i Antiquities, book XT. c. 9. Deut. xvi. 26. ' Concil. AgatU. 

Can. 18, torn. iv. col. 1380, C. But sec more in Mr. Bingham, as before. 


could not so much as suppose there would be no Communion 
upon any of those days. But it seems they feared that upon 
other days there might sometimes be none to communicate 
with the Priest, and so no Communion : and therefore they 
ordered, that if it should so happen for a whole week to- 
gether, yet nevertheless upon Wednesdays and Fridays in 
every week so much should be used of the Communion-ser- 
vice as is before limited. But afterwards, as piety grew 
colder and colder, the Sacrament began to be more and more 
neglected, and by degrees quite laid aside on the ordinary 
week-days. And then the Church did not think 
it convenient to appoint any of this service upon the cornmunfon- 
any other days than Sundays and holy-days. But office to t> e re ? d 

.. V , ..,, . .1 , / 7.7 7 on every Sunday 

upon those days she still requires that (although and holy-day, 
there be no Communion, yet] all shall be said ^communion 6 
that is appointed at the Communion, until the 
end of tJie general prayer, [for the whole state of Christ's 
Church militant here on earth,] together with one or more of 
the Collects at the end of the Communion-office, concluding 
with the blessing.* 

One reason of which order seems to be, that 
the Church may still shew her readiness to ad- 
minister the Sacrament upon these days ; and so that it is not 
hers nor the Minister's, but the people's fault, if it be not ad- 
ministered. For the Minister, in obedience to the Church's 
order, goes up to the Lord's table, and there begins the ser- 
vice appointed for the Communion ; and goes on as far as he 
can, till he come to the actual celebration of it : and if he stop 
there, it is only because there are none, or not a sufficient 
number of persons, to communicate with him. For if there 
were, he is there ready to consecrate and administer it to them. 
And therefore if there be no Communion on any Sunday or 
holy-day in the year, the people only are to be blamed. The 
Church hath done her part in ordering it, and the Minister his 
in observing that order ; and if the people would do theirs 
too, the holy Communion would be constantly celebrated in 

* In all the books between king Edward's first and our present one, it was said only, 
" upon the holy-days, if there be no Communion," &c., which supposed that upon the 
Sundays there would be a Communion. Upon the holy-days too this office is to be said 
" to the end of the Homily concluding with the prayer (for the whole state, &c.) and 
one or more of the Collects before rehearsed, as occasion should serve." Which shews 
that it was then the design of the Church, that upon all holy-days there should be a 
Homily at least, if not a Sermon. And though that direction be left out now, yet still 
it may be implied ; since the rubric that enjoins the Homily or Sermon comes within 
that part of the service which is here ordered to be used. 


every parish church in England, on every Sunday and holy- 
day throughout the year. But though this may hold in some 
places, yet I cannot say it will in all ; especially in populous 
towns and cities ; where ray charity obliges me to believe, that 
if the Ministers would but make the experiment, they would 
find that they should never want a sufficient number of com- 
municants, whenever they themselves should be ready to ad- 
minister the Sacrament. And even in other places it were to be 
wished, that the Elements were placed ready upon the table 
on all Sundays and holy-days : for then the people could not 
help being put in mind of what the Church looks upon as their 
duty at those times ; and I persuade myself, that the Minister 
would generally find a number sufficient ready to communi- 
cate with him. 

But another reason why so much of this service is ordered 
to be read, though there be no Communion, is because there 
are several particular things in that part of it, which ought 
to be read as well to those who do not communicate, as to 
those who do. As, first, the Decalogue, or Ten Command- 
ments, of Almighty God, the supreme Lawgiver of the world, 
which it is requisite the people should often hear and be put 
in mind of, especially upon those days which are immediately 
dedicated to his service. Secondly, the Collects, Epistles, and 
Gospels, proper to all Sundays and holy-days, without which 
those festivals could not be distinguished either from one an- 
other, or even from ordinary days, nor consequently celebrated 
so as to answer the end of their institution. Thirdly, the Ni- 
cene Creed, wherein the divinity of our blessed Saviour is 
asserted and declared, and therefore very proper to be used 
on those days which are kept in memory of him and of his 
holy Apostles, by whom that doctrine, together with our whole 
religion grounded upon it, was planted and propagated in the 
world. Fourthly, the offertory, or select sentences of Scrip- 
ture, one or more of which are to be read, to stir up the con- 
gregation to offer unto God something of what he hath given 
them, as an acknowledgment that they receive from him all 
they have; which, howsoever it be now neglected, the people 
ought to be put in mind of at least every Lord's day. 71 Fifthly, 
the prayer for the -whole state of Christ's Church tu'ilttmit 
here on earth, in which we should all join as fellow members 
of the same body, especially upon the great festivals of the 

' > Cor. xvi. J. 


year, which are generally celebrated by the whole Church we 
pray for. Most of these things made up the Missa Cateclnt- 
menarum of the ancient Church, i. e. that part of the service 
at which the catechumens, who were not admitted to the re- 
ception of the Eucharist, were allowed to be present. 72 And 
in our own congregations, when there is a Communion, those 
who do not communicate never depart till the end of the Ni- 
cene Creed, for the abovesaid reasons : which shews, that there 
is nothing in that part of the service but what may very pro- 
perly be used upon any Sunday and holy-day when there is no 
Communion. Nor is this a practice of our own Church alone, 
but such as is warranted both by Greeks and Latins. Socrates 
tells us, 73 that in Alexandria, upon Wednesdays and Fridays, 
the Scriptures were read and expounded by their teachers, 
and all things were done in the Communion, but only conse- 
crating the mysteries. And as for the Latin Church, Duran- 
dus gives direction how the Communion-service might be read 
without any Communion. 74 

. 2. I have supposed in one of the former para- 
graphs, that this part of the Communion-office office^cfbfsaid 
(though there be no Communion) is yet always at the altar, 
read at the Communion-table or altar. I know JSgSto 
indeed it is very frequently performed in the desk. 
But I think the very reason why the Church appoints so much 
of this office upon the Sundays and other holy-days, though 
there be no Communion, is also a reason why it should be said 
at the altar. For the Minister's reading the office till he can 
go no further for want of communicants, I have observed, was 
designed in order to draw communicants to the table. And 
therefore is it not fit that the Minister himself should be 
ready at the place, whither he himself is inviting others ? For 
this reason, in the first book of king Edward, the rubric above 
cited ordered expressly that it should be said at the altar. 
Bucer indeed thought this tended too much towards creating 
in people's minds superstitious notions of the Mass ; 75 and in 
the second book of king Edward, which was modelled accord- 
ing to his directions, those words were left out. Though it is 
not improbable that as the word altar was thrown out every 
where else in this office, so it might be left out of this rubric 
upon dislike of the name ; without any intention to alter the 

See Mr. Bingham's Antiquities, 1. 14. Socrat. Hist. 1. 5, c. 21. 7 * Durand. 
Rational. 1. 4, c. 1, num. 23, fol. 90. 7S Buceri Censura, p. 458. 


place where this part of the service on such days should be 
said. And indeed I cannot understand how this alteration 
could give any authority for the using any part of this office at 
any other place than the Lord's table ; so long as there was 
another rubric at the beginning of it, which still ordered that 
the Priest should stand at the north side of the table, and 
there say the Lord's Prayer with what follows, without any 
allowance or permission to say it any where else when there 
was no Communion. It is certain that our bishops still appre- 
hended, that it was to be said there ; since several of them, 
in their visitations, enjoined the Ministers to read it at the holy 
table ; and there, Mr. Hooker tells us, it was in his time com- 
monly read. 76 And that the Episcopal Commissioners appoint- 
ed to review the Liturgy at the Restoration of king Charles II. 
supposed and intended it should continue to be performed 
there, appears from the Account of the Proceedings of the 
Commissioners of both per suasions. The Puritans had desired, 
" That the Ministers should not be required to rehearse any 
part of the Liturgy at the Communion table, save only those 
parts which properly belong to the Lord's Supper ; and that at 
such times only when the said holy Supper is administered." 71 
How this was received by the Episcopal Ministers, may be ga- 
thered from the Puritans' reply. "You grant not," say they, 
"that the Communion-service be read in the desk when there 
is no Communion : but in the late form, (i. e. I suppose some 
occasional form that was then published,) instead thereof it is 
enjoined to be done at the table, (though there be no rubric in 
the Common Prayer Book requiring it.") 78 Now from hence 
I think it is plain, that they, who were commissioned to review 
the Liturgy, designed that this office should be always read at 
the altar, though they did not add any new rubric to order it, 
because, I suppose, they thought the general rubric above 
mentioned sufficient. 

The care of our ' ^' ^ Ut tO return to ^ e care ^ our Church 

church about in relation to frequency of Communions : how 
rnunion' C m zealous she is still to bring her members to com- 
municate oftener than she can obtain, is apparent 
Rubric 4. f rom her enjoining, that in Cathedral and Col- 
legiate Churches and Colleges, where there are many Priests 

F.rrU-siastiral Polity, 1. 5, \. 30. " See the Exceptions against the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer, page 6. " See the Preface to the Paper* that passed between the 


and Deacons, they shall all receive the Communion with the 
Priest every Sunday at least, except they have a reasonable 
cause to the contrary ; and from her further re- 
quiring every Parishioner in general to communi- 
cate at the least three times in the year, of which Easter to be 
one ;* because at that time Christ our Passover was sacrificed 
for us, and by his death (which we commemorate in this Sa- 
crament) obtained for us everlasting life. 

. 4. Every one may communicate as much R bric2 3 
oftener as he pleases : the Church only puts in Solitary Masse* 
this precaution, that there shall be no celebration not aUowed of - 
of the Lord's Supper, except there be a convenient number to 
communicate with the Priest, according to his discretion. And 
if there be not above twenty persons in the Parish of discretion 
to receive the Communion, yet there shall be no Communion, 
except four (or three at the least) communicate with the Priest. 
And this is to prevent the solitary masses which had been in- 
troduced by the Church of Rome, where the Priest says mass, 
and receives the Sacrament himself, though there be none to 
communicate with him : which our Church disallows, not per- 
mitting the Priest to consecrate the elements, unless he has 
three at least to communicate with him, because our Saviour 
seems to require three to make up a congregation. 79 

. 5. The fifth rubric is designed to take away 
all those scruples which over-conscientious peo- Erea whether 
pie used to make about the Bread and Wine, to be leavened or 

A ii_ T j j-i ,. i j. A.I. unleavened. 

As to the .Bread, some made it essential to the 
Sacrament to have leavened, others unleavened; each side, 
in that, as well as in other matters of as small moment, super- 
stitiously making an indifferent thing a matter of conscience. 

1 The rubric that related to the frequency of Communion in king Edward's first book 
at the receiving the Sacrament of the blessed Body and Blood of 

Matt, xyiii. 20. 


Our Saviour doubtless used such bread as was ready at hand : 
and therefore this Sacrament being instituted immediately 
after the celebration of the passover, at which they were nei- 
ther to eat leavened bread, nor so much as to have any in 
their houses, upon pain of being cut off from Israel,** does 

Sjrfectly demonstrate that he used that which was unleavened. 
ut this perhaps was only upon the account of the passover, 
when no other but unleavened bread could be used by the 
Jews. After his resurrection he probably celebrated (if he 
celebrated at all) in leavened bread, and such as was in com- 
mon use at all other times, except the time of the passover. 
And that the primitive Church always used common bread, 
appears, in that the elements for the holy Eucharist were al- 
ways taken out of the people's oblations of Bread and Wine, 
which doubtless were such as they themselves used upon 
other occasions. But when these oblations began to be left 
off about the eleventh or twelfth century, the Clergy were 
forced to provide the elements themselves ; and they, under 
pretence of decency and respect, brought it from leavened to 
unleavened, and from a loaf of common bread, that might be 
broken, to a nice wafer, formed in the figure of a denarius, or 
penny, to represent, as some imagine, the thirty pence for 
which our Saviour was sold. And then also the people, in- 
stead of offering a loaf, as formerly, were ordered to offer a 
penny ; which was either to be given to the poor, or to be 
expended upon something belonging to the sacrifice of the 
altar. 81 However, this abuse was complained of by some dis- 
cerning and judicious men, as soon as it began. But when 
once introduced, it was so generally approved, that it was not 
easy to lay it aside. For even after the Reformation, king 
Edward's first book enjoins these unleavened wafers to be 
used, though with a little alteration indeed in relation to their 
size. The whole rubric, as it stood then, runs thus : For 
avoiding all matters and occasions of dissension, it is meet that 
the Bread prepared for the Communion be made, through all 
this realm, after one sort and fashion ; that is to say, unlea- 
vened and round, as it was afore, but without all manner of 
print, and something more large and thicker than it was, so 
that it may be aptly divided in diverse pieces : and every one 
shall be divided in two pieces at the least, or more, by the dis- 

M I'vxl. zli. 15, 19. "> See all these particulars proved in Nona de Rebus Litur- 
gicis, 1. 1, c. 23, . 11, and in Mr. Bingham'i Antiquities, 1. 15, c. 2, {. 5, 6 


cretion of the Minister, atid so distributed. And men must 
not think less to be received in part than in the whole, but in 
each of them the whole body of our Saviour Jesus Christ. 

The bread, I suppose, was ordered to be round, in imita- 
tion of the wafers that had been used both in the Greek and 
Roman Church ever since the eleventh century : 82 upon 
which was stamped the figure either of a Crucifix or the Holy 
Lamb. But in the rubric above, it is ordered to be made 
without all manner of print, and something more large and 
thicker than it mas ; the custom before being to make it 
small, about the size of a penny, to represent, as some ima- 
gine, the thirty pence for which our Lord was sold. 83 These 
superstitions the Reformation had laid aside ; but the rubric 
above mentioned still affording matter for scruple, it was al- 
tered at the review in the fifth of king Edward, when, in his 
second book, this rubric was inserted in the room of it : And 
to take away the superstition which any person hath, or might 
have, in the Bread and Wine, it shall suffice that the Bread 
be such as is usually to be eaten at the table with other meats, 
but the best and purest wheat-bread that conveniently may be 
gotten. And the same rubric, with some little difference, is 
still continued in our present Liturgy. Though, by the In- 
junctions of queen Elizabeth, wafer-bread seems , ,. ,, 

J i n Wafer-Bread en- 

to have been again enjoined: tor among some joined by queen 
orders, at the end of those Injunctions, this was Ehzabeth - 
one : Where also it was in the time of king Edward the 
Sixth used to have the Sacramental Bread of common fine 
bread ; it is ordered, for the more reverence to be given to these 
holy mysteries, being the Sacraments of the Body and Blood 
of our Saviour Jesus Christ, that the said Sacramental Bread 
be made and formed plain, without any figure thereupon, of 
the same fineness and fashion, round, though somewhat bigger 
in compass and thickness, as the usual Bread and Wafer, 
heretofore named singing-cakes, which served for the use of 
private Mass.** Though bishop Cosin observes upon our 
present rubric, that " It is not here commanded that no un- 
leavened or wafer-bread be used ; but it is only said, that the 
other bread may suffice. So that though there was no ne- 
cessity, yet there was a liberty still reserved of using wafer- 

83 Bertoldus Constantiensis de Ordine Romano. Durand. Rational. 1. 4, c. 30, n. 8. 
83 Honorii Gemma Anime, 1. 1, c. 66, apud Bonam, and in Bingham, 1. 15, c. 2, \. 5. 
* See bishop Sparrow's Collection, page 84, 85. 


bread, which was used in diverse Churches of the kingdom, 
and Westminster for one, till the seventeenth of king Charles/' * 
And allowed ^ or w 'hich reason perhaps, though the Scotch 
by the Scotch Liturgy continues the rubric that was first in- 
serted in the fifth year of king Edward ; yet a 
Earenthesis is inserted, to shew that the use of wafer-bread is 
iwful ; (though it be lawful to have wafer -bread?) it shall 
suffice, and so on, as in the rubric of our own Liturgy. 

. 6. Another thing about which there might 
remainder of the be dissension, is, how the Elements that remain 
Elements how should be disposed of afterwards, and therefore 
it is provided by another rubric, that if any of 
the Bread and Wine remain unconsecrated, the Curate shall 
liave it to his own use.* For though it hath not been actually 
consecrated, yet by its being dedicated and offered to God, it 
ceases to be common, and therefore properly belongs to the 
Minister as God's steward. 

But if any remain of that which was consecrated, it shall 
not be carried out of the church, but the Priest, and such other 
' of the communicants as he shall then call unto him, shall im- 
mediately after the blessing, reverently eat and drink the same.\ 
In the primitive Church, whatever of the consecrated Ele- 
ments were left after all had communicated, were either 
reserved by the Priest to be administered to infirm persons 
in cases of exigency, that they might not die without re- 
ceiving the blessed Sacrament ; M or else were sent about to 
absent friends, as pledges and tokens of love and agreement 
in the unity of the same faith. 87 But this custom being 
abused, was afterwards prohibited by the Council of Laodi- 
cea, 88 and then the remains began to be divided among the 
Clergy; 89 and sometimes the other communicants were al- 
lowed to partake with them, 90 as is now usual in our Church, 
where care is taken to prevent the superstitious reservation 
of them formerly practised by the Papists. However, it would 
be convenient if the Scotch rubric were observed, by which, 
to the end there may be little left, he that officiates is required 
to consecrate mith the least. 

* First added in king Edward's second book. 

t Added first to the Scotch Liturgy, and then to our own at the last review. 
* See Dr. Nichols's additional Notes, page 54. * Euseh. Hist. Eccl. 1. 6, c. 44, 

p. 246, C. Excerpt. Egbert. 22. Concil. torn. vi. coL 1588. ' Just. Mart. Apol. 1. c. 

85, p. 127, 128. Euseb. Hist. Eccles. 1. 5, c. 24, p. 193, H. "Can. 14, torn. i. col. 150, 
A. Const. Apost. 1. 8, c. 31. *> Theophil. Alex. Can. 7, ap. Bevereg. Pandect. 
Canon. Apost. &c. tom. ii. p. 572, F. 


S. 7. The seventh rubric is a direction how _ 

TI 7 i fir 7 7i 7 -77 TT Rubric 7. The 

the Bread and trine shall be provided. How Bread and wine, 
they were provided in the primitive Church I ^ d to ** pr - 
have already shewed. Afterwards it seems it was 
the custom for every house in the parish to provide in their 
turns the holy Loaf, (under which name I suppose were com- 
prehended both the Elements of Bread and Wine ;) and the 
good Man and good Woman that provided were particularly 
remembered in the prayers of the Church. 91 But by the first 
book of king Edward, the care of providing was thrown upon 
the Pastors and Curates, who were obliged continually to find, 
at their costs and charges in their cures, sufficient Bread and 
Wine for the holy Communion, as oft as their parishioners 
should be disposed for their spiritual comfort to receive the 
same. But then it was ordered, that, in recompense of such 
costs and charges, the parishioners of every parish should offer 
every Sunday, at the time of the offertory, the just value and 
price of the holy Loaf, (with all such money and other things 
as were wont to be offered with the same,} to the use of the 
Pastors and Curates, and that in such order and course as 
they loere wont to find, and pay the said holy Loaf. And in 
Chapels annexed, where the people had not been accustomed to 
pay any holy Bread, there they were either to make some 
charitable provision for the bearing of the charges of the Com- 
munion ; or else (for receiving of the same) resort to the par- 
ish church. But now, since, from this method of providing, 
several unforeseen inconveniences might, and most probably 
did, arise, either from the negligence, or obstinacy, or poverty 
of the parishioners; it was therefore afterwards ordered, that 
the Bread and Wine for the Communion should be provided 
by the Curate and the Churchwardens, at the charges of the 
parish ; and that the parish should be discharged of such sums 
of money, or other duties which hitherto they have paid for the 
same, by order of their houses every Sunday. And this is the 
method the Church still uses ; the former part of this rubric 
being continued in our present Communion-office, though the 
latter part was left out, as having reference to a custom which 
had for a long while been forgotten. 

. 8. The next rubric, as far as it concerns the Rubric 8 Eccle . 
duty of communicating, has already been taken siasticai dutie& 

91 See L'Estrange's Alliance, p. 172. 


t wh be' *Sd When not ' ce f- But the chief design of it is to settle 
the payment of Ecclesiastical Duties. For it is 
hereby ordered, that yearly at Easter every parishioner shall 
reckon with his Parson, Vicar, or Curate, or his or their deputy 
or deputies, and pay to them or him all ecclesiastical duties, 
accustomably due, and then at that time to be paid.* What 
are the duties here mentioned is a matter of doubt : bishop 
Stillingfleet supposes them to be a composition for personal 
tithes, (i. e. the tenth part of every one's clear gains,) due at 
that time j 93 but the present bishop of Lincoln imagines them 
to be partly such duties or oblations as were not immediately 
annexed to any particular office ; and partly a composition for 
the holy Loaf, which the Communicants were to bring and 
offer, and which is therefore to be answered at Easter, be- 
cause at that festival every person was, even by the rubric, 
bound to communicate. 93 They both perhaps may have judged 
right : for by an act of parliament in the second and third of 
Edward VI. such personal tithes are to be paid yearly at or 
before the feast of Easter, and also all lawful and accustomarj/ 
offerings, which had not been paid at the usual offering days,** 
are to be paid for at Easter next following. 

j 8. 9. The last rubric is concerning the dis- 

The money <> , - , . , 

given at the posal of the money given at the Communion, 

Tf. 10 and was not added tul t ne last review ; but to 
prevent all occasion of disagreement, it was then 
ordered, that after the divine service ended, the money given at 
the offertory shall be disposed of to such pious and charitable 
uses as the Minister and Churchwardens shall think fit; where- 
in if they disagree it shall be disposed of as the Ordinary shall 

The rubric In king Edward's first book was this : " Furthermore, every man and 
woman to be bound to hear and be at the Divine Service in the parish church where 
they may be resident, and there with devout prayer, or godly silence and meditation, 
to occupy themselves: there to pay their duties, to communicate once in the year at 
the least ; and there to receive and take all other sacraments and rites in this book ap- 
pointed. And whosoever willingly upon no just cause doth absent themselves, or doth 
ungodly in the parish church occupy themselves ; upon proof thereof, by the ecclesias- 
tical laws of the realm to be excommunicated, or suffer other punishment, as shall to 
the ecclesiastical Judge (according to his discretion) seem convenient." In all the other 
old books it began thus : " And note, every parishioner shall communicate at the least 
three times in the year, of which Easter to be one ; and shall also receive the sacra- 
ments and other rites according to the order in this book appointed." The word tacra- 
mrnti I suppose is used here in a large sense, for the other ordinances of Confirmation, 
Matrimony, &c., which were all called tacramentt before, and for some time after the 

** Bishop Stillingfleet's Ecclesiastical Cases, page 252. Bishop Gibson's Codex, 
vol. II. p. 740. M The usual offering-days at first were Christmas, Easter, Whitsun- 
tide, and the feast of the dedication of the parish-church : but by an act of Henry VIII. 
A. D. 1530, they were changed to Christmas, Easter, Midsummer, and Michaelmas. 


appoint. The hint was taken from the Scotch Liturgy, in 
which immediately after the blessing this rubric follows : 
After the divine service ended, that which was offered shall be 
divided in the presence of the Presbyter and the Church- 
wardens, whereof one half shall be to the use of the Presbyter, 
to provide him books of holy divinity ; the other half shall be 
faithfully kept and employed on some pious or charitable use, 
for the decent furnishing of that church, or the public relief of 
their poor, at the discretion of the Presbyter and Church- 

SECT. XXXI. Of the Protestation. 

AT the end of the whole office is added a Pro- 
testation concerning the gesture of kneeling at the he jn! esta 
Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, and explaining 
the Church's notion of the presence of Christ's Body and 
Blood in the same. This was first added in the second book 
of king Edward, in order to disclaim any Adoration to be in- 
tended by that ceremony either unto the Sacramental Bread 
or Wine there bodily received, or unto any real and essential 
presence there being, of Christ's natural Flesh and Blood. 
But upon queen Elizabeth's accession this was laid aside. For 
it being the queen's design (as I have already observed more 
than once) to unite the nation as much as she could in one 
faith ; it was therefore recommended to the divines, to see 
that there should be no definition made against the aforesaid 
notion, but that it should remain as a speculative opinion not 
determined, but in which every one might be left to the free- 
dom of his own mind. And being thus left out, it appears no 
more in any of our Common Prayers till the last review : at 
which time it was again added, with some little amendment of 
the expression and transposal of the sentences ; but exactly 
the same throughout as to the sense ; excepting that the words 
real and essential Presence were thought proper to be changed 
for corporal Presence. For a real Presence of the Body 
and Blood of Christ in the Eucharist is what our Church fre- 
quently asserts in this very office of Communion, in her Arti- 
cles, in her Homilies, and her Catechism : particularly in the 
two latter, in the first of which she tells us, Thus much we 
must be sure to hold, that in the Supper of the Lord there is 
no vain ceremony, no bare sign, no untrue figure of a thing 
absent; but the Communion of the Body and Blood of the 

Y 2 


Lord in a marvellous incorporation, which by the operation of 
the Holy Ghost is through faith wrought in the souls of the 
faithful, &c., 95 ivho therefore (as she further instructs us in the 
Catechism) verily and indeed take and receive the Body and 
Blood of Christ in the Lord's Supper. This is the doctrine of 
our Church in relation to the real Presence in the Sacrament, 
entirely different from the doctrine of Transubstantiation, 
which she here, as well as elsewhere, 96 disclaims: a doctrine 
which requires so many ridiculous absurdities and notorious 
contradictions to support it, that it is needless to offer any 
confutation of it, in a Church which allows her members the 
use of their senses, reason, Scripture, and antiquity. 




HAVING now gone through the constant offices of the Church, 
I come, in the next place, to those which are only to be used 
as there is occasion. And of these the office of Baptism, be- 
ing the first that can regularly be administered, (as being the 
first good office that is done to us when we are born,) is there- 
fore properly set first. In order to treat of which in the same 
method I have observed hitherto, it will be necessary, in the 
first place, to say something of the Sacrament itself. 

. 1 . Water therefore (which is the matter of 
SuVby h aii it) 'hath 80 natural a property of cleansing, that it 
nations as a ym- hath been made the symbol of purification by all 
boiof purifica- nat j on8f and used wi { h that signification in the 

rites of all religions. 1 The heathens used divers 
kinds of baptism to expiate their crimes ; 2 and the Jews bap- 
tize such as are admitted proselytes at large ; 3 and when any 
of those nations turn Jews, who are already circumcised, they 
receive them by baptism only : with which ceremony also 

M First part of the Homily concerning the Sacrament. Article XXVIII. and 
Homilies. ' T<> Mp tyW(. Plut. Qutest. Rom. * Tcrt. de B.-ipt. c. 5, p. 225, 1), 
et 226, A. * See this proved in Bishop Hooper'* Discourse on Lent, part ii. chap. 2, 
*. 2, p. 159 ; and In Dr. Wall on Infant-Baptism, Introduction, {.1,2, 


they purified such heathen women as were taken in marriage 
by Jewish husbands. And this is that universal, plain, and 
easy rite, which our Lord Jesus adopted to be a mystery in 
his religion, and the sacrament of admission into the Christian 
Church. 4 

. 2. Nor can any thing better represent Re- 
generation or New Birth, which our Saviour H N e VS. s a 
requires of us before we can become Christians, 5 
than mashing with water. For as that is the first office done 
unto us after our natural births, in order to cleanse us from 
the pollutions of the womb; 6 so when we are admitted into 
the Church, we are first baptized, (whereby the Holy Ghost 
cleanses us from the pollutions of our sins, and renews us unto 
God, 7 ) and so become, as it were, spiritual infants, and enter 
into a new life and being, which before we had not. For this 
reason, when the Jews baptized any of their proselytes, they 
called it their New Birth, Regeneration, or being born again* 
And therefore when our Saviour used this phrase to Nicode- 
mus, he wondered that he, being a master in Israel, should 
not understand him. And even among the Greeks this was 
thought to have such virtue and efficacy, as to give new life 
as it were to those who were esteemed religiously dead. For 
if any one that was living was reported to be deceased, and 
had funeral solemnities performed upon his account ; he was 
afterwards, upon his return, abominated of all men, as a per- 
son unlucky and profane, banished and excluded from all hu- 
man conversation, and not so much as admitted to be present 
in the temples, or at the sacrifices of their gods, till he was 
born again, as it were, by being washed like a child from the 
womb : a custom founded upon the direction of the oracle at 
Delphos. For one Aristinus falling under this misfortune, 
and consulting Apollo to know how he might be freed from 
it, his priestess Pythia returned him this answer : 

"Oo-o-a irtp iv Xe^iforari yvvii TIKTOVCTCI -rtXil-rat, 
TauTa Tru\iv TtXiaavra Oveiv fj.aKaps.a'ffi 0toi<ri. 
What women do, when one in childbed lies, 
That do again ; so may'st thou sacrifice. 

Aristinus rightly apprehending what the oracle meant, offered 
himself to women as one newly brought forth, to be washed 
again with water. And from this example it grew a custom 

Matt, xxiii. 19. * j o hn iii. 37. Ezek. xvi. 4. ' Tit. iii. 5. See 
Dr. Wall on Infant-Baptism, Introduction, . C. 


among the Greeks, when the like calamity befell any man, to 
expiate and purify him after this manner. 9 And thus in the 
Christian Church, by our Saviour's institution and appoint- 
ment, those who are dead to God through sin, are born again 
by the mashing of 'Regeneration , and renewing of the Holy 
Ghost. 10 And how proper (by the way) water is to typify the 
Holy Glwst, may be seen by consulting several texts of Scrip- 
ture, where Water and the Blessed Spirit are mentioned as 
corresponding one to another. 11 

MHk,honey,and That the primitive Christians had this notion 
salt, and white of baptism, I think may very fairly be asserted 
c(enTiy n given~to fr m those other rites which they anciently used 
the new-bap- in the celebration of this mystery : such as were 
the giving the new-baptized milk and honey, and 
salt, which were all given to infants new-born ; 13 and the put- 
ting upon them white garments, to resemble the swaddling 
spoken of by Ezekiel. 13 

All these, the ancient Fathers tell us, were done 
to signify and represent spiritual birth and in- 
fancy, and out of reference to what was done at the natural 
birth of children. 11 And therefore who can doubt but that 
the principal rite of mashing with water (and the only one 
indeed ordained by our blessed Saviour) was chosen by him 
for this same reason, to be the sacrament of our initiation ; 
and that those who brought in the other rites above mentioned, 
did so conceive of it, and for that reason took in 
those imitations ? In some Churches indeed they 
have now for a long time been discontinued ; for 
they being only used as emblems to signify that the persons 
were become as new-born babes, they were left off at such 
times, when, whole nations becoming Christians, there were 
hardly any other baptisms than of babes in a proper sense, 
who needed no such representations to signify their infancy. 

. 3. As to the form of baptism, our Saviour 
Thefo n 0fBap ~ only instituted the essential parts of it, viz. that 
it should be performed by a proper Minister, 
with water, in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. , 1S 
But as for the rites and circumstances of the administration 
of it, he left them to the determination of the Apostles and 

Plutarch. Quest. Romanic. < Tit. iil. 5. " Isa. xliv. 3. John iv. 14. John 

vil. 37, 38, 39. Ita. vii. IS. Ezek. xvi. 4. Ezek. xvi. C. " Harnaba*. c.6. 
Tertul. de Bapt. c. 6, et contra Marclon. 1. i. c. 14. Hieron. adv. Luciferianos. Cyril. 
Catech. Mystag. 4. u Matt, xxviii. 19. 


the Church. Yet without doubt a. form of baptism was very 
early agreed upon, because almost all Churches in the world 
do administer it much after the same manner. The latter 
ages indeed had made some superfluous additions ; but our 
reformers removed them, and restored this office to a nearer 
resemblance of the ancient model, than any other Church can 
shew. We have now three several offices in our Liturgy, viz. 
one for Public Baptism of Infants in the Church, another for 
Private Baptism of Children in Houses, and a third for such 
as are of Riper Years, and able to answer for themselves. 

The first is what is now most commonly used ; for there be- 
ing but very few adult persons, who now come over to the 
Church, infants are generally the persons that are baptized : 
and they being appointed to be brought to church, except in 
danger of death, the public form of baptism is there ordered to 
be used. Of this therefore I propose to treat in order at large, 
and only to take notice of those particulars in the others 
which differ from this. 

. 4. And the office we are now upon being 
appointed for infants, it will be proper to premise In ju"tified Usm 
a few general hints in relation to baptizing them. 
For that reason I shall here observe, that as baptism was ap- 
pointed for the same end that circumcision was, and did suc- 
ceed in the place of it ; it is reasonable it should be admin- 
istered to the same kinds of persons. For since God 
commanded infants to be circumcised, 16 it is not to be doubted 
but that he would also have them to be baptized. Nor is it 
necessary that Christ should particularly mention children in 
his commission : n it is sufficient that he did not except 
them : for that supposeth he intended no alteration in this 
particular, but that children should be initiated into the Chris- 
tian as well as into the Jewish religion. And indeed if we 
consider the custom of the Jews at that time, it is impossible 
but that the Apostles, to whom he delivered his commission, 
must necessarily understand him as speaking of children, as 
well as of grown or adult persons. For it is well known that the 
Jews baptized, as well as circumcised, all prose- A custom among 
lytes of the nations or Gentiles that were con- the Jews to bap- 
verted to their religion. And if any of those tbe infants> 
converts had infant children then born to them, they also 
were, at their father's desire, both circumcised and baptized, 
if males ; or if females, only baptized, and so admitted as 

> 5 Gen. xvii. 12. Matt, xxviii. 18. 


proselytes. The child's inability to declare or promise for 
himself was not looked upon as a bar against his reception 
into the covenant : but the desire of the lather to dedicate 
him to God, was accounted available and sufficient to justify 
his admission.* Nor does the ceremony of baptism appear to 
have been used amongst the Jews upon such extraordinary 
occasions only ; hut it seems rather to have been an ordinary 
rite constantly administered by them, as well to their own as 
to the children of proselytes ; for the Mishna prescribes the 
solemn washing, as well as the circumcision of the child, 
which I know not how to interpret, if it is not to be under- 
stood of a Baptismal Washing. 18 
...... This therefore being the constant practice of 

iso alteration in , - , rf* . ... * . . 

that respect in- the Jews, and our oaviour in his commission 
8av1our by our making no exception, but bidding his Apostles^o 
and disciple all nations, baptizing them, &c., 
I think that is a sufficient argument to prove, that he intend- 
ed no alteration in the objects of Baptism, but only to exalt 
the action of baptizing to a nobler purpose, and a larger use. 
For when a commission is given in so few words, and there is 
no express direction what they should do with the infants of 
those who become disciples ; the natural and obvious inter- 
pretation is, that they must do in that matter as they and the 
Church in which they lived had always used to do. And we 
may assure ourselves, that had the Apostles left children out 
of the covenant, and not received them as members of the 
Church ; the Jews, who took such care that their children 
should not want their own sacrament of initiation, would cer- 
tainly have urged this as a great objection against the Chris- 
tian religion. But we do not read of any such objection ever 
made, and therefore we may depend upon it, that the Apostles 
gave them no room for it. 

It is true indeed, it has been often objected to 

the'NefTesta- U8> tnat tne Scriptures make no express mention 
mentnoargu- of the Baptism of Infants ; to which we might re- 
P lv > were tne objection true, that neither do the 
Scriptures make any express mention of the alter- 

* This is only to be understood or luch children as were born before their parents 
themselves were baptized : for til the children that were born to them afterwards, tlu-y 
reckoned were clean by their birth, as beinp born of parents that were cleansed from 
the polluted state of heathenism, and were in the covenant of Abraham, and so natural 

' Misna de Sabbato. c. 19, J. 19. Vide ct R. Obadiah de Bartenora, et Maimon. in 
loc. ' See this, and what is said above, proved at large in Dr. Wall's Introduction to 
his History of Infant-Baptism. 


ation of the Sabbath : and yet I believe there are but few of 
those who are of a different opinion from us, in the point be- 
fore us, but who think the observation of the first day of the 
week is sufficiently authorized from the New Testament : and 
yet this is not more clearly implied than the other. We read 
in several places of whole households being baptized with- 
out any exception of their infants or children. Now it is very 
unlikely that there should be so many households without 
children ; and therefore, since none such are excepted, we 
may conclude that they were baptized as well as the rest of 
the family : only the Baptism of adult persons being more for 
the honour of the Christian religion, the holy writers chose 
only to name the chief persons baptized, thinking it sufficient 
to include their children and servants under the general terms 
of all theirs, or their households. And what 
makes it still more probable that children were th^New Testa- 
really included in these terms is, that the Scrip- ment makes as 

,. ,, . ., . ., -P, . r much against 

tures no where mention the deterring the Baptism the Antipdo- 
of any Christian's child, or the putting it off till ^Fnsfus 883 " 
he came to years of discretion. An argument 
that surely may as justly be urged against the adversaries to 
Infant-Baptism, as the silence of the Scriptures is against us. 
But it seems this objection of the silence of the i n f ant _ Bapt j sm 
Scriptures is not true. For the learned Dr. proved from the 
Wall has sufficiently rescued a passage in the New Testament - 
New Testament from the gloss of the moderns ; and shewed, 
both by comparing it with other texts in Scripture, and from 
the interpretation of the ancients, that it cannot fairly be un- 
derstood in any other sense than of the Baptism of Infants. 
The passage I mean is a text in St. Paul's first Epistle to the 
Corinthians, 21 Else were your children unclean, but now are 
they Iwly : on which he shews from several places of the Old 
Testament, 22 (i. e. from the original texts, and the intepret- 
ation given of them by the learned Jews,) that to sanctify or 
make holy, was a common expression among the Jews for 
baptizing or washing. It is also plain from the New Testa- 
ment, that the same expression is twice used by this same 
Apostle in this same sense, viz. once in the Epistle from 
whence this text is taken, 21 and once again in his Epistle to 

*> Actsxvi. 15, 33. 1 Cor.i. 16. Chap. vii. 14. m Exod. xix. 10. Levit. vi. 
27. 2 Sam. xi. 4. Dr. Wall's History of Infant-Baptism, pan i. chap. 11, . 11. 
* 1 11. 


the Ephesians. 25 He also refers to a learned author to shew, 
that it was a common phrase with the ancients, to say that an 
infant or other person was sanctified or made holy, when they 
meant that he was baptized. 28 Some instances of which he 
also gives himself, as they come in his way upon other occa- 
sions.' 1 " And it is certain, that this sense of this place in St. 
Paul very much illustrates what goes before. The Apostle 
was directing, that if any man or woman had a husband or 
wife that did not believe, they should not separate or part, if 
the unbelieving person was still willing to cohabit ; the reason 
of which he says is, because the unbeliecing husband is sancti- 
fied, or, (as it is in the Greek, and as all commentators agree 
it should be translated,) an unbelieving husband has been 
sanctified by the imfe ; i. e. it has often come to pass, that an 
unbelieving husband has been brought to the faith, and so to 
Baptism, by his wife ; and an unbelieving mifeJtas, in the same 
sense, been sanctified by her husband. As a proof of which 
he observes in the close, Else mould your children be un- 
clean, but now are tlicy holy ; i. e. if it were not so, or if the 
wickedness or infidelity of the unbelieving party did usually 
prevail, the children of such would generally be kept unbap- 
tized, and so be unclean : but now, by the grace of God, we 
see a contrary effect ; for they are generally baptized, and so 
become sanctified or holy. This exposition (as Dr. Wall ob- 
serves) is so much the more probable, because there has been 
no other sense of those words yet given by expositors, but 
what is liable to much dispute : and that sense especially, 
which is given by our adversaries, (viz. of Legitimacy in op- 
position to Bastardy,) seems the most forced and far-fetched 
of all. 

But though we could not be able to produce 
proved from'the from Scripture any express mention of the Bap- 
writiiiKs of the tism of Infants; yet when we descend to the 
most anciei i- wr j terg o f fa c ncxt SUCC eeding ages, we have all 
their testimonies unanimous on our side. And 
surely they must be allowed to be competent witnesses of 
what was done by the Apostles themselves. They could tell 
whether themselves or their fathers were baptized in their 
infancy, or whether it was the Apostles' doctrine or advice to 

Eph. v. 25. Mr. Walker's Modest Plea for Infant-Baptism, chap. 29. 
*' Dr. Wall, ut supra, and chap. 15, $. 2, chap. 18, . 4, and chap. 19, . 19. See also 
his Defence of his History against Mr. Gale, p. 363, &e. 


stay till they were grown up to years of maturity. But now 
in none of these do we meet with any thing that favours the 
opinion of our adversaries, but almost in all of them a direct 
confutation of their errors. In some of them we have express 
and direct mention of the practice of the Church in baptizing 
Infants ; and even in those in whose way it does not come to 
say any thing as to the age when Baptism should be adminis- 
tered, we have frequent sentences from whence it may be in- 
ferred by way of implication. St. Clement, in the Apostles' 
time, speaks of Original Sin as affecting Infants : 28 if so, then 
Baptism is necessary to wash it away. Justin Martyr affirms, 
that Baptism is to us in the stead of Circumcision ; 29 from 
whence we may fairly conclude, that it ought to be ad- 
ministered to the same kinds of persons. In another place, 30 
he mentions several persons who mere discipled (or made 
disciples) to Christ whilst children . which plainly intimates, 
that children may be made disciples, and consequently may 
be baptized. For the only objection of the Antipsedobaptists 
against Infant-Baptism, is their incapacity of being made dis- 
ciples. Now here they may perceive that, if Justin rightly 
understood the word, children may be disciples. And it is 
worth observing, that the persons he here speaks of are said 
to be sixty and seventy years old : and therefore if they were 
discipled and baptized when children, it follows they must be 
baptized even in the days of the Apostles. But to proceed : 
Irenaeus, who lived but a little after Justin, reckons Infants 
among those who were born ayain to God. 31 A phrase which, 
in most ecclesiastical writers, and especially in Irenaeus, is 
generally used to signify that Regeneration, which is the 
effect of Baptism. 32 And that this must be the sense of the 
word here is plain, because Infants are not capable of being 
born again in any other sense. Tertullian again, a few years 
after him, speaks of Infant-Baptism as the general practice of 
his time ; though by the heretical notions which it is probable 
he had then imbibed, he thought the deferring of it was more 
profitable. 33 In the next century, Origen, in several places, 
expressly assures us that Infants mere baptized Iry the usage of 
the Church. And lastly, about the year 250, (which was but 

M Clem. Rom. Eph. i. ad Cor. cap. xvii. *> Dialog, cum Tryph. p. 59, ed. Steph. 
xo Just. Martyr. Apol. 1, prope ab initio. 3l Omnes enim venit per semetipsum sal- 
vare : omnes inquam qui per eum renascuntur in Deuin ; Infantes et Parvulos, et 
Pueros, et Juvenes, et Seniores. Irenaeus adv. Hares. 1. 2, c. 39. si See this proved 
at large in Dr. Wall's History of Infant-Baptism, part i. chap. 3. w Tertull. de Bapt. 
c. 18. * Orig. Horn. 8, in Lev. xii. xiii. part i. p. 90. Horn. 14, in Luc. ii. part ii. 

p. 142, L. 


150 years after the Apostles,) St. Cyprian, with sixty-six 
bishops in council with him, declared all unanimously, that 
none were to be hindered from Baptism and the grace of 
God: "Which rule," saith he, "as it holds for all, so we 
think it more especially to be observed in reference to Infants, 
and persons newly born." 35 * The same might be shewn 
from all the other Fathers of the three first centuries, who all 
speak of it as a doctrine, settled and established from the be- 
ginning of Christianity, without once questioning or opposing 
it ; which certainly they would have done in some or other 
of their works, had they known it to have been an innovation, 
contrary to the doctrine or practice of the Apostles. 

Hut 1 have already been too long upon a single particular, 
and must therefore refer the more inquisitive reader to the 
learned labours of an eminent divine, 36 who has exhausted the 
subject to the satisfaction and honour of the English Church. 

SECT. I. Of the Rubrics before the Offices. 

1. It appeareth by ancient rcr tiers, (as was 
s u m r rormeriy ap ~ expressed in the rubric till the last review,) 
administered that t/te Sacrament of Baptism in the old tune 
andwhifamntlde. roas not commonly ministered but at two times 
in the year, at Easter and at Whitsuntide : at 
Easter, in remembrance of Christ's resurrection, of which 
baptism is a figure ; 37 and at Whitsuntide, in remembrance of 
the three thousand souls baptized by the Apostles at that 
time. 38 For this reason in the Western Church, all that were 
born after Easter were kept until Whit-Sunday ; and all that 
were born after Whit-Sunday were reserved until next Easter: 
unless some imminent danger of death hastened the adminis~ 
tration of it before. 31 * Though in the Eastern Church, the 
feast of Epiphany was also assigned for the administration of 
this Sacrament, in memory of our Saviour's being, as it is 
supposed, baptized upon that day. 40 And about the eighth or 
ninth century, the time for solemn baptism was enlarged even 
in the Latin Church, all Churches being moved by reason of 
the thing, to administer baptism (as at first) at all times of the 
year. 41 

* This consultation was held, not to decide whether Infants were to be baptized, 
(that they took for granted.) but whether they might regularly be baptized before the 
eighth day. Upon which the resolution of the whole Council was formed, that Baptism 
it to be denied to none that is born. 

** Cypr. Kp. 64, p. 1S8. * Dr. Wall's History of Infant-Baptism. '' Rom. vi. 4. 
** AcU ii. 41. w Beatus Kenanus in Tertull. de t'oron. Milit. 40 Greg. Naz. 

Oral. 40, vol. i. p. 54, A. ' See this proved in Dr. Nichols's note (/<) upon this rubric. 


But yet tliouqh the custom above mentioned 

7 * ,. j / . i i j i To be adminis- 

be now grown out of use, ana (as the old rubric tered now only 
goes on) cannot, for many considerations, be upon Sundays 

77 / j '* .,7, 1^ J * j.- 77 or holy-days. 

well restored again ; it is thought good to follow 
tJie same, as near as conveniently may be. And therefore 
our present rubric still orders, that the people be admonished, 
that it is most convenient that baptism should not be adminis- 
tered but upon Sundays and other holy-days, when the most 
number of people come together: as well for that the congrega- 
tion there present may testify the receiving of them that b? 
newly baptized into the number of Christ's Church ; as also 
because in the baptism of infants every man present may be 
put in remembrance of his own profession made to God in his 
baptism. For this cause also it is further declared expedient, 
that baptism be administered in the vulgar tongue. Neverthe- 
less (if necessity so require) children may be bap- 
tized upon any other day, or (as it was worded ^f^ciLlty?* 
in the old Common Prayers) children may at all 
times be baptized at home ; or lastly, as it was expressed in the 
first book of king Edward, either at Church or else at home. 

. 2. But then it is to be observed, that if the 
occasion be so urgent as to require baptism at andscandaiofad- 
home, the Church has provided a particular office ministering Bap- 

f it j i i- <? -i T-- i_ j- ii. i. tism at home. 

for the administration of it : which directs, that 
the essential parts of the sacrament be administered immedi- 
ately in private ; but defers the performance of the other 
solemnities till the child can be brought into the church. As 
to the office we are now upon, it is by no means to be used in 
any place but the church. It is ordered to be said at the font, 
in the middle of the morning or evening prayer, and all along 
supposes a congregation to be present ; and particularly in one 
of the addresses which the Priest is to use, it is very absurd 
for him to tell the godfathers and godmothers in a chamber, 
that tJiey have brought the child thither to be baptized, when 
he himself is brought thither to baptize it. It is still more 
absurd for him in such a place to use that expression, Grant 
that whosoever is here dedicated to thee by our office and min- 
istry, &c. For he knows that the word here cannot be ap- 
plicable to the place he is in : nor yet has he any authority to 
omit or alter the form. 

If we look back into the practice of the primitive Church, 
we shall find that the place where this solemn act was per- 


formed was at first indeed unlimited : In any place wliere 
there mas mater, as Justin Martyr tells us; 4 - in ponds or 
lakes, in springs or rivers, as Tertullian speaks ; 43 but always 
as near as might be to the place of their public assemblies. 
For it was never (except upon extraordinary occasions) done 
without the presence of the congregation. A rule the primi- 
tive Christians so zealously kept to, that the Trullan Council 
does not allow this holy sacrament to be administered even in 
chapels that were appropriate or private, but only in the public 
or parish churches ; punishing the persons offending, if clergy, 
with deposition ; if laity, with excommunication. 44 

In our own Church indeed, since our unhappy confusions, 
this office hath been very frequently made use of in private : 
and some Ministers have thought themselves, to prevent the 
greater mischief of separation, necessitated to comply with 
the obstinacy of the greater and more powerful of their 
parishioners : who, for their ease or humour, or for the con- 
venience of a more splendid and pompous christening, re- 
solving to have their children baptized at home, if their own 
Minister refuse it, will get some other to do it. 

But such persons ought calmly to consider how contrary to 
reason and the plain design of the institution of this sacra- 
ment, this perverse custom, and their obstinate persisting in 
it, is. For what is the end of that sacred ordinance, but to 
initiate the person into the Church of Christ, and to entitle 
him to the privileges of it ? And where can there be a better 
representation of that society, than in a congregation assem- 
bled after the most solemn and conspicuous manner for the 
worship of God, and for the testifying of their communion in 
it ? Where can the profession be more properly made before 
such admission ; where the stipulation given, where the pro- 
mise to undertake the duties of a Christian, but in such an 
assembly of Christians ? How then can all this be done in 
confusion and precipitance, without any timely notice or pre- 
paration, in private, in the corner of a bed-chamber, parlour, 
or kitchen, (where I have known it to be administered,) and 
there perhaps out of a basin, or pipkin, a tea-cup, or a punch- 
bowl, (as the excellent Dr. Wall with indignation observes, 44 ) 
and in the presence of only two or three, or scarce so many 
as may be called a congregation ? The ordinance is certainly 

" Apol. l,c. 79, p. 516, lln.8, 9. De Bapt. c. 4, p. 223, C. Can. 59, torn. vi. 
col. 1170, A. See Dr. Wall against Mr. Gale, p. 405. 


public ; public in the nature and end of it, and therefore such 
ought the celebration of it to be ; the neglect whereof is the 
less excusable, because it is so easily remedied. 

II. The next rubric (which was added at the 
last review) is concerning the godfathers and ^"^ai'and^i 6 
godmothers. The use of which in the Christian tiquity of godfa- 
Church was derived from the Jews, as well as the 352? god 
initiation of infants itself. 46 And it is by some 
believed that the witnesses mentioned by Isaiah at the naming 
of his son? 1 were of the same nature with these sureties. 48 - 

8. 2. In the primitive Church they were so , 

i !.** * f. *u * c it, The use of them. 

early, that it is not easy to fix the time of their 
beginning. Some of the most ancient Fathers, make men- 
tion of them, 49 and through all the successive ages afterwards 
we find the use of them continued, without any scruple or in- 
terruption, till the Anabaptists, and other Puritans of late 
years, raised some idle clamours against them. Some of these 
I shall have a proper place to speak to hereafter. In the mean 
while I desire to observe in general, that since the laws of all 
nations (because infants cannot speak for themselves) have 
allowed them guardians to contract for them in secular mat- 
ters ; which contracts, if they be fair and beneficial, the in- 
fants must make good when they come to age ; it cannot, one 
would think, be unreasonable for the Church to allow them 
spiritual guardians, to promise those things in their name, 
without which they cannot obtain salvation. And this too, 
at the same time, gives security to the Church, 

., . ., , ., , ' 3 , ,i . * ' Whence called 

that the children shall not apostatize, from sureties, wit- 
whence they are called sureties ; provides mon- nesses, and .god- 

/"ii * j ii e> ..i fathers, &c. 

itors to every Christian, to remind them or the 
vow which they made in their presence, from whence they are 
called witnesses ; and better represents the new birth, by 
giving the infants new and spiritual relations, whence they are 
termed godfathers and godmothers. 

. 3. How long the Church has fixed the num- 
ber of these sureties, I cannot tell : but by a con- Ttien t h^ rof 
stitution of Edmund, archbishop of Canterbury, 
A. D. 1236, 50 and in a synod held at Worcester, A. D. 1240, sl 

See this proved in Dr. Lightfoot, voi ii. p. 119. Isaiah viii. 2. Vid. 

Jun. et Tremel. in locum. 4 npoff^tpon-et , Just. Mart, ad Orthodoxos. 'Avuiovu, 
Dionys. Areop. Eccles. Hier. c. 2, p. 77, B. C. Sponsores, Tert. de Wapt. c. 18, p. 231, C. 
Fidejussores, Augustin. Serm. 168, in Append, ad torn. v. col. 329, C. w Bp. Gib- 
son's Codex, vol. i. p. 439. i Synod. Wigorn. cap. 5, apud. Concil. per Labbee, torn, 
xi. par. i, col. 575, C. 


I find the same provision made as is now required by our ru- 
bric, viz. That there should be for every male child that is to 
be baptized, two godfathers and one godmother, and for every 
female one godfather and two godmothers. 

. 4. By the twenty-ninth canon of our Church, 
no P ar ^^ is to be admitted to answer as godfa- 
to be admitted ther for his orcn child.* 1 For the parents are 
godmo'thers" 1 ' 1 already engaged under such strict bonds, both by 
nature and religion, to take care of their chil- 
dren's education, that the Church does not think she can 
lay them under greater : but still makes provision, that if, 
notwithstanding these obligations, the parents should be 
negligent, or if it should please God to take them to him- 
self before their children be grown up ; there yet may be 
others, upon whom it shall lie to see that the children do not 
want due instructions, by means of such carelessness, or death 
of their parents. And for a further prevention of people's 
entering upon this charge, before they are capable of under- 
standing the trust they take upon themselves, it is further 
provided by the above-mentioned canon, that no person be 
admitted godfather or godmother, before the said person so un- 
dertaking hath received the holy Communion. 

III. When there are children to be baptized, 
the parents shall give knowledge thereof over 
night, or in the morning, before the beginning of Morning 
Prayer, to the Curate. And then the godfathers and godmo- 
thers, and the people with the children must be ready at the font,* 
so called, I suppose, because Baptism, at the be- 
gi" nm g f Christianity, was performed in springs 
or fountains. They were at first built near the 
church, then in the church-porch, and afterwards (as it is now 
usual amongst us) placed in the church itself, but 
st '^ keeping the lower end, to intimate that Bap- 
the church. tisin is the entrance into the mystical Church. 
Formerly very In the primitive times we meet with them very 
large and capacious, not only that they might 

" Must be ready at the church-door." So the first book of king Edward, which also 
order* in the last rubric at the end of the Office, that " if the number of children to be 
baptized, and the multitude of people present be so great that they cannot conveniently 
stand at the church-door, then let them stand within the church in some convenient 
place, nigh unto the church-door ; and there all things to be said and done appointed to 
be said and done at the church-door." 

" See also Queen Elizabeth's Advertisements, A. D. 1564, in Bishop Sparrow's Col- 
lection, page 125. 


comport with the general customs of those times, viz. of per- 
sons being immersed or put under water ; but also because 
the stated times of Baptism returning so seldom, great num- 
bers were usually baptized at the same time. In the middle 
of them was always a partition ; the one part for men, the other 
for women ; that so, by being baptized asunder, they might 
avoid giving offence and scandal. But immersion being now 
too generally discontinued, they have shrunk into little small 
fonts, scarce bigger than mortars, and only employed to hold 
less basins with water, though this last be expressly contrary 
to an ancient advertisement of our Church. 53 It is still indeed 
required that there be a font in every church 
made of stoned because, saith Durand, 55 the yrb &Sj' of 
water that typified Baptism in the wilderness 
flowed from a rock, and because Christ, who gave forth the 
living water, is in Scripture called the Corner-Stone and the 

. 2. At this font the children, &c., are to be 
ready, eitJter immediately after the last Lesson at ^performed 7 
morning prayer, or else immediately after the * fter the secotld 
last Lesson at evening prayer, as the Curate by 
his discretion shall appoint. The reason of which I take to 
be, because by that time the whole congregation is supposed 
to be assembled ; which shews the irregularity (which prevails 
much in some churches) of putting off christenings till the 
whole service is over, and so reducing them (by the departing 
of the congregation) to almost private baptism. 

SECT. II. Of the preparative Prayers and Exhortations, to 
be used before the Administration of Baptism. 

I. The people with the children, being ready, 
and the Priest coining to the font, (which is then The fi t "f 1 que8 " 
to be filled with pure water,) as our present ru- 
bric directs, and standing there, is, in the first place, to ask, 
Whether tlie child has been already baptized or no ? The 
reason of which is, because Baptism is never to be repeated : 
for as there is but one Lord and one Faith, so there is but 
one Baptism. And in the primitive Church, those that 
stood up so earnestly for rebaptizing those who had been bap- 

See the Advertisements of Queen Elizateth, A. D. 1564, in Bishop Sparrow, p. 125. 
M Canon XVIII. ** Rational. Div. Offic. 1. 6, c. 82, num. 25, fol. 354. M Exod. 
xvii. 6. Eph. iv. 5 



tized by heretics, did not look upon that as a second Baptism, 
but esteemed that which had been conferred by heretics as 
invalid ; seeing heretics, being out of the Church, could not 
give what they had not. 53 And others, rather than repeat 
that sacrament, allowed even that Baptism to be valid which 
was administered by heretics, if it appeared that it had been 
performed in tlie name of the Father, and of the Son, and 
of the Holy Ghost. 

II. If the Minister be answered, that the child 
Th " tion rta hath not been " baptized, he then begins the so- 
lemnity with an exhortation to prayer ; for there 

being a mutual covenant in this sacrament between God and 
man, so vast a disproportion between the parties, and so great 
a condescension on the part of the Almighty, (who designs 
only our advantage by it, and is moved by nothing but his 
own free grace to agree to it,) it is very reasonable the whole 
solemnity should be begun with an humble address to God. 

III. For which purpose follow two prayers : 
in the first of which we commemorate how God 

did typify this salvation, which he now gives by Baptism, in 
saving Noah and his family by water and by carrying the 
Israelites safe through the Red Sea, 60 as also how Christ him- 
self, by being baptized, sanctified mater to the mystical mash- 
ing amay of sin ; and upon these grounds, we pray that God 
by his Spirit mill mash and sanctify this child that he may 
be delivered from his mrath, received into the ark of hi# 
Church, and so filled with grace as to live holily here, and 
happily hereafter.* 

In the second prayer, to express our earnestness and im- 
portunity, we again renew our address, requesting, first, That 
this child maybe pardoned and regenerated; and, secondly, 
That it may be adopted and accepted by Almighty God. 

. 2. Between these two prayers in king Ed- 

ofTh b e le pn? 8 ward's first Liturgy, the Priest was to ask the 

baptized in the name of the child of its godfathers and god- 

rhurch Ve mothers, and then to make a cross upon its 

forehead and breast, saying, 

N. Receive the sign of the holy cross both in thy forehead 
and in thy breast, in token that thou shall not be ashamed to 

The first prayer in king Edward's book was a little differently expressed ; but to 
the same sense, the language only being afterwards amended. 

Tert. de Bapt. c. 15, p. 230, B. Cyprian. Hist. Concil. Carthag. p. 229, &c. Apost. 
Const. 1. 6, c. IS. Cyril. Hieros. Prsef. J. 4, p. 6. "I Pet. iii. 20, 21. 1 Cor. x. 2. 


confess thy faith in Christ crucified; and so on, as in our 
own form, only speaking all along to the child. This is now 
done only upon the forehead, and reserved till after the child 
is baptized : though it is manifest there were anciently in the 
primitive Church two several signings with the cross : viz. one 
before Baptism, 61 as was ordered by our first Liturgy ; and the 
other after it, which was used with Unction at the time of Con- 
firmation, of which I shall have occasion to speak hereafter. 
Why the crossing which we now retain is ordered after Bap- 
tism, will be shewn when I come to that part of the service. 

. 3. After the second of these prayers, in the Exorcising an 
first Liturgy of king Edward, follows a form of ancient practice 
exorcism, which I have printed in the margin,* m Ba P tlsm - 
which was founded upon a custom that obtained in the ancient 
ages of the Church, to exorcise the person baptized, or to cast 
the Devil out of him, who was supposed to have taken pos- 
session of the catechumen in his unregenerate state. And it 
cannot be denied but that possessions by evil spirits were 
very frequent before the spreading of the Gospel, when we 
read that many of them were ejected through the name of 
Christ. But the use of exorcism, as an ordinary rite in the 
administration of Baptism, cannot well be proved from any 
earlier authors than the fourth century, when it was taken in 
to denote that persons, before they were regenerate by Bap- 
tism, were under the kingdom of darkness, and held by the 
power of sin and the Devil. 62 But it being urged by Bucer, 
in his censure of the Liturgy, that this exorcism was originally 
used to none but demoniacs, and that it was uncharitable to 
imagine that all were demoniacs who came to Baptism ; 3 it 
was thought prudent by our reformers to leave it out of the 
Liturgy, when they took a review of it? in the fifth and sixth 
of king Edward. But to proceed in our own office. 

IV. The people standing up, (which shews 

.1 . .1 *,_ -i i "I .1 i' The Gospel, how 

that they were to kneel at the two foregoing properly chose. 

* Then let the Priest, looking upon the children, say, 

I command thee, unclean spirit, in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost, that thou come out and depart from these infants, whom our Lord Jesus 
Christ hath vouchsafed to call to his holy Baptism, to be made members of his body, 
and of his holy congregation. Therefore, thou cursed spirit, remember thy sentence, 
remember thy judgment, remember the day to be at hand, wherein thou shall burn in 
fire everlasting, prepared for thee and thy angels. And presume not hereafter to ex- 
ercise any tyranny towards these infants, whom Christ hath bought with his precious 
blood, and by this his holy Baptism calleth to be of his flock. 

61 Ambr. de iis qui initiantur, c. 4. August, de Symbolo, 1. 2, c. 1. <* Greg. Naz- 
Oral. 40. Cyril. Hieros. in Praef. ad Catech. Bucer. Script. Anglican, p. 480. 

Z 2 


prayers,) the Minister, in the next place, is to read to them 
a portion out of the Gospel of St. Mark.* Which, though 
anciently applied to the sacrament of Baptism, 04 has been 
censured by some as improper for this place ; because the 
children there mentioned were not brought to be baptized. 
But if people would but consider upon what account the Gos- 
pel is placed here, I cannot think but they would retract so 
impertinent a charge. In the making of a covenant, the ex- 
press consent of both parties is required : and therefore the 
covenant of Baptism being now to be made, between Al- 
mighty God and the child to be baptized ; it is reasonable, 
that, before the sureties engage in behalf of the infant, they 
should have some comfortable assurances that God on his part 
will be pleased to consent to and make good the agreement. 
For their satisfaction, therefore, the Priest, who is God's am- 
bassador, produces a warrant from Scripture, (the declaration 
of his will,) whereby it appears that God is willing to receive 
infants into his favoiir, and hath by Jesus Christ declared 
them capable of that grace and glory, which on God's part are 
promised in this baptismal covenant : wherefore the sureties 
need not fear to make the stipulation on t/ieir part, since they 
have God's own word that there is no impediment in children 
to make them incapable of receiving that which he hath 
promised, and will surely perform. 
. p . From all which premises, the Church, in a 

An Exhortation. . . , f , ' , ' 

bnei exhortation that lollows, concludes, that 
the sureties may cheerfully promise that which belongs to 
their part, since God by his Son hath given sufficient security 
that his part shall be accomplished. But this being the 
overflowings of God's pure mercy and goodness, and not 
owing to any merits or deserts in us, it is fit it should be ac- 
knowledged in an humble manner. 

V. And therefore next follows a thauksgiv- 

eThanksgiv- -^ ^ ouf Qwn call to the know l e d ge ofj an(J 

faith in God, which we are put in mind of by 
this fresh occasion : and wherein we also beg of God to give 

In the first book of king Edward, the Priest was to say, " The Lord be with you." 
The people were to answer, " And with thy spirit." And then followed the Gospel. 

t In the Common Prayer of 1549, the conclusion of this exhortation was thus : " Let 
us faithfully and devoutly give thanks unto him, and say the prayer which the Lord 
himself taught : and in declaration of our faith, let us also recite the articles contained 
in our Creed." Then the Minister, with the godfathers and godmothers and people 
present, were first to say the Lord's Prayer, and then the Creed. AfUr which followed 
the Thanksgiving. 

w Tert. de B.iptismo, c. IS, p. 231. 


a new instance of his goodness, by giving his holy Spirit to 
the infant now to be baptized, tbat so it may be born again, 
and made an lieir of everlasting salvation. 

. 2. After this thanksgiving in king Edward's An old ceremony 
first Liturgy, tJte Priest mas to lake one of the in king Edward's 
children by the right hand, the other being firstbook - 
brought after him ; and coming into the church toward the 
font (for all the former part of the service was then said at 
the church-door) he rvas to say, The Lord vouchsafe to re- 
ceive you into his holy household, and to keep and govern 
you always in the same, that you may have everlasting life. 

VI. And now no doubt remaining but that 
God is ready and willing to perform his part of 
the covenant, so soon as the child shall promise 

on his ; the Priest addresses himself to the godfathers and 
godmothers to promise for him, and from them takes security 
that the infant shall observe the conditions that are required 
of him. And in this there is nothing strange or new ; nothing 
which is not used almost in every contract. By an old law of 
the Romans, all magistrates were obliged, within five days 
after admission to their office, to take an oath to observe 
the laws. Now it happened that C. Valerius Flaccus was 
chosen edile, or overseer of the public buildings. But he be- 
ing before Flamen Dialis, or Jupiter's high priest, could not 
be admitted by the Romans to swear ; their laws supposing 
that so sacred a person would voluntarily do what an oath 
would oblige him to. C. Valerius however desired that his 
brother, as his proxy, might be sworn in his stead : to this 
the commons agreed, and passed an act that it should be all 
the same as if the edile had sworn himself. 65 Much after the 
same manner, whenever kings are crowned in their infancy, 
some of the nobility, deputed to represent them, take the 
usual oaths. The same do ambassadors for their principals 
at the ratifying of leagues or articles ; and guardians for their 
minors, who are bound by the law to stand to what is con- 
tracted for them. Since then all nations and orders of men 
act by this method, why should it be charged as a fault upon 
the Church, that she admits infants to baptism, by sponsors 
undertaking for them ? 

VII. Having thus justified the reasonableness The stipulation 
of a vicarious stipulation, let us now proceed to to be made by 

M Livii, lib. 31, c. 50. 


question and consider the form that is here used. It is drawn 
up all along by way of question and answer, 
which seems to have been the method even in the days of the 
Apostles : for St. Peter calls baptism the answer of a good 
conscience : 66 and in the primitive Church, queries were al- 
ways put to the persons baptized, which persons at age an- 
swered themselves, and children by their representatives, 67 
who are therefore to answer in the first person, (as the advo- 
cate speaks in the person of the client,) / renounce, &c., 
because the contract is properly made with the child. 

. 2. For which reason, in the first book of 
In the e chTd e f kin S Edward, the priest is ordered to demand 
of the child these several questions proposed ; 
and in our present Liturgy, though the Minister directs him- 
self to the godfathers and godmothers, yet he speaks by them 
to the child, as is manifestly apparent from the third question : 
and consequently the child is supposed to return the several 
answers which are made by the godfathers, &c., and to pro- 
mise by tliose that are his sureties (as the above preface ex- 
presses it) that he will renounce the Devil and all his works, 
and constantly believe God's holy word, and obediently keep 
his Commandments. 

. 3. The queries proposed are four, of which 
_ ; g of the last was added at the Restoration ; there 
being but three of them in any of the former 
books, though in the first of king Edward they are broken 
into eight. They being all of them exceedingly suitable and 
proper, I think it not amiss to take notice of them severally. 
_ .4. First, then, when we enter into covenant 

with God, we must have the same friends and ene- 
mies as he hath ; especially when the same that are enemies 
to him are also enemies to our salvation. And therefore, 
since children are by nature the slaves of the Devil, and, 
though they have not yet been actually in his service, will 
nevertheless be apt to be drawn into it, by the pomps and 
fflory of the world, and the carnal desires of the flesh ; it is 
necessary to secure them for God betimes, and to engage them 
to take all these for their enemies, since whoso loveth them 
cannot love God. 88 

. 5. Secondly, faith is a necessary qualifica- 
tion for baptism ; " and therefore before Philip 

M 1 Peter III. 21. Tertull. de Bapt.c. 18, p. 231, C. et S. August. EpUt. 93, Com. 
2, col. 267, F. 1 John II. 15. Mark xvi. 16. 


would baptize the eunuch, he asked him, if he believed with 
all his heart ; and received his answer that he believed Jesus 
to be the Son of God."' From which remarkable precedent 
the Church hath ever since demanded of all those who enter 
into the Christian profession, if they believe all the Articles 
which are implied in that profession : and this was either 
done by way of question and answer, 71 or else the party bap- 
tized (if of age) was made to repeat the whole Creed." 

. 6. But thirdly, it is not only necessary that 
the party to be baptized do believe the Christian 
faith ; but he must also desire to be joined to that society by 
the solemn rite of initiation : wherefore the child is further 
demanded, whetlier he mill be baptized in this faith ; because 
God will have no unwilling servants, nor ought men to be 
compelled by violence to religion. And yet the Christian re- 
ligion is so reasonable and profitable, both as to this world 
and the next, that the godfathers may very well presume to 
answer for the child, that this is his desire . since if the child 
could understand the excellency of this religion, and speak its 
mind, it would without doubt be ready to make the same reply. 

. 7. Lastly, St. Paul tells us, they that are Que 4 
baptized must walk in newness of life:"' 3 for 
which reason the child is demanded, fourthly. If he will keep 
God's holy will and commandments, and walk in the same 
all the days of his life ? For since he now takes Christ for his 
Lord and Master, and lists himself under his banner, it is fit 
he should vow, in the words of this sacrament, to observe 
the commands of his general. Wherefore as he promised to 
forsake all evil before, so now he must engage to do all that is 
good, without which he cannot be admitted into the Chris- 
tian Church. 

. 8. I cannot conclude this section till I have This baptismal 
observed, that this whole stipulation is so exactly vow very prim i- 
conformable to that which was used in the pri- tlve ' 
mitive Church, that it cannot be unpleasant to compare them 
together. All that were to be baptized were brought to the 
entrance of the baptistery or font, and standing with their faces 
towards the west, (which being directly opposite to the east, 
the place of light, did symbolically represent the prince of 
darkness, whom they were to renounce,) were commanded to 

*" Acts viii. 37. Cyril. Catech. Mystag. 2, . 4, p. 285. Ambr. de Sacr. 1. 2, c. 
7, torn. vi. col. 360, K. Aug. Serm. 58, in Matt. vi. torn. v. col. 337, D. E. 
" 3 Rom. vi. 4. 


stretch out their hands as it were in defiance of him ; and then 
the bishop asked them every one, " Dost thou renounce the 
Devil and all his works, powers, and service ? " To which each 
party answered, " I do renounce them." " Dost thou re- 
nounce the world, and all its pomps and vanities ? " Answer, 
"I do renounce them." 74 In the next place they made an 
open confession of their faith, the bishop asking, " Dost thou 
believe in God the Father Almighty, &c., in Jesus Christ his 
only Son our Lord, who, &c. Dost thou believe in the Holy 
Ghost, the holy Catholic Church, and in one baptism of re- 
pentance for remission of sins, and the life everlasting?" To 
all which each party answered, " I do believe ; " as our Church 
still requires in this office. 75 

SECT. III. Of the Administration of Baptism. 
T*. , .orfnr ! THE contract being now made, it is fit the 

i ne pra) eriur r i 11 i i j i 

thesanctuication Minister should more peculiarly intercede with 
lild> God for grace to perform it; and therefore, in 
the next place, he offers up four short petitions for the child's 
sanctification. Most of our commentators upon the Common 
Prayer think, that they were added to supply the place of the 
old Exorcisms. But it is certain they were placed in the first 
book of king Edward with no such intent. For by that (as I 
have observed) a form of Exorcism was to be used over every 
child that was brought to be baptized : whereas these petitions 
were only to be used at such times as the water in the font 
was to be changed and consecrated, which was not then order- 
ed to be done above once a month. For which reason the 
form for consecrating it did not, as now, make a part of the 
public office for baptism, but was placed by itself, at the end 
of the office for the administration of it in private, (i. e. at the 
end of the whole ; for there was no office then for the baptism 
of such as are of riper years.) 

And for the con- The form that was used then was something 
secretion of the different from what we use now. It was intro- 
duced with a prayer, that was afterwards left out 
at the second review.* And these petitions that are still re- 

" O most merciful God our Saviour Jeiu Christ, who hast ordained the element of 
water for the regeneration of thy faithful people, upon whom, being baptized in the 

74 Const. Apost. 1. 7, c. 41. Dion. Areop. de Ecclen. Hier. c. 2, p. 77, D. Ambr. de 
Init. c. 2, torn. iv. col. 343, K. De Sacrament. 1. 1, c. 2, torn. iv. col. 354, A. n Const. 
Apost. 1. 7, c. 41. Cyril. Catech. Mystag. 2, {. 4, p. 285. Ambr. de Sacram. 1. 2, c. 7 
torn. iv. col. SCO, K. 


tained, ran then in the plural number, and the future tense, 
in the behalf of all that should be baptized till the water 
should be changed again. And this is the reason that the last 
of these petitions still runs in general terms, it being con- 
tinued word for word from the old form. Between the two 
last also were four other petitions inserted, which are now 
omitted.* And after all (the usual salutation intervening, 
viz. The Lord be with you, And with thy spirit] followed 
the prayer, which we still retain for the consecration of the 
water. There is some little difference in it towards the con- 
clusion, because the water being sanctified by the first prayer 
above mentioned, there was no occasion to repeat the conse- 
cration in this ; for which reason the words then, and in all 
the books to the last review, ran in this form : Regard, we 
beseech thee, the supplications of thy congregation, and grant 
that all thy servants, which shall be baptized in this water, 
prepared for the ministration of thy holy Sacrament, \_ivJtich 
we here bless and dedicate in thy name to this spiritual wash- 
ing,^ may receive the fulness of 'thy grace ; and so on. 

Of this form Bucer, in his Censure, 16 could by no means 
approve. Such blessings and consecrations of things inanimate 
tends strangely (he tells us) to create in people's minds terrible 
notions of magic or conjuration. He allows such consecra- 
tions indeed to be very ancient, but however they are not to 
be found in the word of God. At the second reformation 
therefore, the Common Prayer Book comes out with all that 
relates directly to the consecration of the water omitted. The 

river of Jordan, the Holy Ghost came down in the likeness of a dove ; send down, we 
beseech thee, the same thy Holy Spirit to assist us, and to be present at this our invo- 
cation of thy holy name : sanctify-^-this fountain of baptism, tliou that art the sanctifier 
of all things, that by the power of thy word, all those that shall be baptized therein, 
may be spiritually]regenerated, and made the children of everlasting adoption. Amen." 
This was the first prayer for the consecrating of the water in the first Common Prayer 
From whence these words, " Sanctify this fountain of baptism, thou that art the sanc- 
tilier of all things," were taken by the compilers of the Scotch form, and inserted within 
crotchets [] in the first prayer at the beginning of the office after the words "mys- 
tical washing away of sin ; " against which was added a direction in the margin That 
" the water in the font should be changed twice in the month at least. And before any 
child should be baptized in the water so changed, the Presbyter or Minister should say 
at the font the words thus enclosed [ ]." 

* Whosoever shall confess thee, O Lord, recognise him also in thy kingdom. Amen. 

Grant that all sin and vice here may be so extinct, that they never have power to 
reign in thy servants. Amen. 

Grant that whosoever here shall begin to be of thy flock, may evermore continue in 
the same. Amen. 

Grant that all they which for thy sake, in this life, do deny and forsake themselve, 
may win and purchase thee. O Lord, which art everlasting treasure. Amen. 

t The words thus enclosed [ ] are only in the Scotch Liturgy. 
' Script. Anglican, p. 481. 


first prayer above mentioned was left out entirely, and the last 
purged from those words, prepared for the ministration of the 
Jioly Sacrament. And thus the form continued till the last 
review, when a clause was again added to invocate the Spirit, 
to sanctify the mater to the mystical mashing amay of sin. 
Now by this is meant, not that the water contracts any new 
quality in its nature or essence, by such consecration ; but 
only that it is sanctified or made holy in its use, and separated 
from common to sacred purposes. In order to which, though 
the primitive Christians believed, as well as we do, that water 
in general was sufficiently sanctified by the baptism of our 
Saviour in the river Jordan ;" yet when any particular water 
was at any time used in the administration of baptism, they 
were always careful to consecrate it first by a solemn invoca- 
tion of the Holy Spirit. 78 

II. All things being thus prepared forthebap- 
T tism of the child, the Minister is now to take it 
into his hands, and to ask the godfathers and 
godmothers to name it. For the Christian name being given 
as a badge that we belong to Christ, we cannot more properly 
take it upon us, than when we are enlisted under his banner. 
We bring one name into the world with us, which we derive 
from our parents, and which serves to remind us of our ori- 
ginal guilt, and that we are born in sin : but this new name is 
given us at our baptism, to remind us of our new birth, when, 
being washed in the laver of regeneration, we are thereby 
cleansed from our natural impurities, and become in a manner 
new creatures, and solemnly dedicate ourselves to God. So 
that the naming of children at this time hath been thought by 
many to import something more than ordinary, and to carry 
with it a mysterious signification. We find something like it 
even among the heathens : for the Romans had a custom of 
naming their children on the day of their lustration, (i. e. when 
they were cleansed and washed from their natural pollution,) 
which was therefore called D'ws nontinalis. And the Greeks 
also, when they carried their infants, a little after their birth, 
about the fire, (which was their ceremony of dedicating or 
consecrating them to their gods,) were used at the same time 
to give them their names. 

" Ignat. ad Ephes. f. 18. Greg. Na*. CTU rw0A. See also St. Jerome and St. Am- 
brose. * Cyprian. Ep. 70, p. 190. Sacram. 1. 2, c. 5, torn, iv.col. 359, K. 
Daill. de Splr. Sanct. c. 27, torn. il. p. 211, A. 


And that the Jews named their children at the time of cir- 
cumcision, the holy Scriptures, 79 as well as their own writers, 
expressly tell us. And though the rite itself of circumcision 
was changed into that of baptism by our Saviour, yet he made 
no alteration as to the time and custom of giving the name, 
but left that to continue under the new, as he had found it 
under the old dispensation. Accordingly we find this time 
assigned and used to this purpose ever since : the Christians 
continuing from the earliest ages to name their children at the 
time of baptism. And even people of riper years commonly 
changed their name, (as Saul, saith St. Ambrose, 80 at that time 
changed his name to Paul,) especially if the name they had 
before was taken from any idol or false god. For .. 

_^ -i / i i i n i i Heathen orwan- 

. the Nicene Council forbids the giving of heathen ton names pro- 
names to Christians, and recommends the giving hlblted - 
the name of some apostle or saint : 81 not that there is any for- 
tune or merit in the name itself, but that, by such means, the 
party might be stirred up to imitate the example of that holy 
person whose name he bears. And by a provincial constitu- 
tion of our own Church, made by archbishop Peccham, A. D. 
1281, it is provided, that no wanton names be given to chil- 
dren ; or if they be, that they be changed at Confirmation. 82 

. 2. As to the appointment of the name, it To ^ . n . 
may be pitched upon by the relations, (as we the godfathers, 
may see has been the custom of old:) 83 but the andwh y- 
rubric directs that it be dictated by the godfathers and god- 
mothers. For this being the token of our new birth, it is fit 
it should be given by those who undertake for our Christian- 
ity, and engage that we shall be bred up and live like Chris- 
tians; which being confirmed by the custom and authority of 
the Church in all ages, is abundantly enough to justify the 
practice, and satisfy us of the reasonableness of it. 

III. After the name is thus given, tlte Priest 
(if the godfather s< $c. certify him that the child T ^^^ sn 
may well endure it} is to dip it in the water dis- 
creetly and tcarily ; which was in all probability the way by 
which our Saviour, and for certain was the usual and ordinary 
way by which the primitive Christians did receive their bap- 
tism. 84 And it must be allowed that by dipping, the ends and 

79 Gen. xxi. 3, 4. Luke i. 59, 60, and chap. ii. 21. f In Dominic. Prim. Quadrag. 
Serm. 2, Ordine 31, torn. v. col. 43, K. Vid. Canon. Arabic. Can. 30, torn. ii. col. 
209, E. 8S See bishop Gibson's Codex, vol. i. p. 440. See also Cainden's Remains. 
83 Ruth iv. 1 7. Luke i. 59. " Acts viii. 28. Rom. vi. 3, 4. Col. ii. 12. Const. Apost. 1. 3, 
C. 17. Barnabas, c. 11, p. 70, edit. Oxon. 1685. Tert. de Bapt. c. 4, et de Orat. c. 11. 


effects of baptism are more significantly express- 
immersion or 3 f .1 .1 J i 
dipping most ed ; for as in immersion there are three several 

primitive and acts, viz. the putting the person under water, his 

significant. ,.,'. , , , . . . 

abiding there for some time, and his rising up 
again ; so by these were represented Christ's death, burial, 
and resurrection ; and in conformity thereunto (as the Apos- 
tle plainly shews 85 ) our dying unto sin, the destruction of its 
But the ends of P ower > a d our resurrection to newness of life, 
baptism answer- Though indeed affusion is not wholly without its 
lon - signification, or entirely inexpressive of the end 
of baptism. For as the immersing or dipping the body of the 
baptized represents the burial of a dead person under ground ; 
so also the affusion or pouring mater upon the party answers 
to the covering or throwing earth upon the deceased. So 
that both ceremonies agree in this, that they figure a death 
and burial unto sin : and therefore though immersion be the 
most significant ceremony of the two, yet it is not so neces- 
sary but that affusion in some cases may supply the room of 
it. For since baptism is only an external rite, representing 
an internal and spiritual action, such an act is sufficient, as 
fully represents to us the institution of baptism ; the divine 
grace which is thereby conferred, being not measured by the 
quantity of water used in the administration of it. It is true, 
dipping and affusion are two different acts ; but yet the word 
baptize implies them both : it being used frequently in Scrip- 
ture to denote not only such washing as is performed by dip- 
ping, but also such as is performed by pouring or rubbing 
water upon the thing or person washed. 86 And therefore 
when the Jews baptized their children, in order to circum- 
cision, it seems to have been indifferent with them, whether 

it was done by immersion or affusion. 87 And 
" that the primitive Christians understood it in this 
ome occasions latitude, is plain, from their administering this 
ChrUtians" UtlVe holy sacrament in the case of sickness, haste, 

want of water, or the like, by affusion, or pour- 
ing water upon the face. Thus the jailor and his family, who 
were baptized by St. Paul in haste, the same hour of the night 
that they were converted and believed, 88 are reasonably sup- 

Cosed to have been baptized by affusion : since it can hardly 
e thought that at such an exigency they had water sufficient 

* Rom. vi. 3.4. See Mark vii. 4, and Luke xi. 38, in the Greek, and Heb. ix. 
10, also in the Greek, compared with Numbers viii. 7, and xix. 18, 19. ** Mischna 
de Sabbat o, c. 19, f. 3. ** Act* xri. 33, 


at hand to be immersed in. The same may be said concern- 
ing Basilides, who, Eusebius tells us, was baptized by some 
brethren in prison. 89 For the strict custody under which Chris- 
tian prisoners were kept, (their tyrannical jailors hardly allow- 
ing them necessaries for life, much less such conveniences as 
they desired for their religion,) makes it more than probable 
that this must have been done by affusion only of some small 
quantity of water. And that baptism in this way was no un- 
heard-of practice before this, may be gathered from Tertullian, 
who, speaking of a person of uncertain repentance offering him- 
self to be baptized, asks, Who mould help him to one single 
sprinkling of water? 90 The Acts also of St. Laurence, who 
suffered martyrdom about the same time as St. Cyprian, tell 
us how one of the soldiers that were to be his executioners, 
being converted, brought a pitcher of water for St. Laurence 
to baptize him with. And lastly, St. Cyprian, being consulted 
by one Magnus, in reference to the validity of clinick baptism, 
(i. e. such as was administered to sick persons on their beds 
by aspersion or sprinkling,) not only allows, but pleads for it 
at large, both from the nature of the sacrament, and design of 
the institution. 01 It is true, such persons as were so baptized, 
were not ordinarily capable of being admitted to any office 
in the Church ; 92 but then the reason of this, as is intimated 
by the Council of Neocaesarea, was not that they thought this 
manner of baptism was less effectual than the other, but be- 
cause such a person's coming to the faith was not voluntary, 
but of necessity. And therefore it was provided by the same 
Council, that if the diligence and faith of a person so baptized 
did afterwards prove commendable, or if the scarcity of others, 
fit for the holy offices, did by any means require it, a clinick 
Christian might be admitted into holy orders. 93 However, 
except upon extraordinary occasions, baptism was seldom, or 
perhaps never, administered for the four first centuries, but 
by immersion or dipping. Nor is aspersion or sprinkling or- 
dinarily used, to this day, in any country that was never sub- 
ject to the pope. 94 And among those that submitted to his 
authority, England was the last place where it was received. 95 
Though it has never obtained so far as to be enjoined, dipping 

89 Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 1. 6, c. 5. *> Quis enim tibi, tarn infida Pcenitentise Viro, 

asperginem unam cujuslibet Aquae commodabit 1 Tertull. de Pcenitentia, c. 6. 9I Cypr. 
Ep. 69, ad Magnum, p. 185, &c. w Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 1. 6, c. 43. *> Concil. 

Neocaes. Can. 12. <* See this proved in Dr. Wall's History of Infant-Baptism, part 
ii. chap. 9, . 2. Dr. Wall, ibid. 


having been always prescribed by the rubric. The Salisbury 
Missal, printed in 1530, (the last that was in force before the 
Reformation,) expressly requires and orders dipping. And 
in the first Common Prayer Book of king Edward VI., the 
Priest's general order is to dip it in the mater, so it be dis- 
creetly and warily done ; the rubric only allowing, if the child 
be weak, that then it shall suffice to pour water upon it. Nor 
was there any alteration made in the following books, except 
the leaving out the order to dip it thrice, which was prescribed 
by the first book. 

HOW affusion or However, it being allowed to weak children 
sprinkling first (though strong enough to be brought to church) 
' ice - to be baptized by affusion ; many fond ladies at 
first, and then by degrees the common people, would persuade 
the Minister that their children were too tender for dipping. 
But what principally tended to confirm this practice was, that 
several of our English divines flying into Germany and Switzer- 
land, &c. during the bloody reign of queen Mary, and return- 
ing home when queen Elizabeth came to the crown, brought 
back with them a great love and zeal to the customs of those 
Protestant Churches beyond sea, where they had been shel- 
tered and received. And consequently having observed that 
in Geneva, and some other places, baptism was ordered to be 
performed by affusion, 96 they thought they could not do the 
Church of England a greater piece of service, than to intro- 
duce a practice dictated by so great an oracle as Calvin. So 
that in the latter times of queen Elizabeth, and during the 
reigns of king James and king Charles I., there were but very 
few children dipped in the font. And therefore when the 
questions and answers in relation to the sacraments were first 
inserted at the end of the Catechism, upon the accession of 
king James I. to the throne, the answer to the question, What 
is the outward visible sign or form in baptism ? was this that 
follows : Water, wherein the person baptized is dipped, or 
sprinkled with it in the name of the Father, &c. And after- 
wards, when the Directory was put out by the Parliament, 
affusion (to those who could submit to their ordinance) began 
to have a shew of establishment ; it being declared not only 
lawful, but sufficient and most expedient that children sliould 
be baptized, by pouring or sprinkling of water on the face. 

** See Calvin's Institutes, 1. 4, c. IS, . 19, and Tractat. Theolog. CatechUmus, p. 57, 
ed. Uezae, 1576. 


And as it were for the further prevention of immersion or 
dipping, it was particularly provided that baptism should not 
be administered in the places where fonts, in the time of 
popery, mere unfitly and superstitiously placed. And accord- 
ingly (which was equal to the rest of their reformation) they 
changed the font into a basin : which being brought to the 
Minister in his reading desk, and the child being held below 
him, he dipped in his fingers, and so took up water enough 
just to let a drop or two fall on the child's face. 87 These re- 
formers, it seems, could not recollect that fonts to baptize in 
had been long used before the times of popery, and that they 
had no where been discontinued from the beginning of Christi- 
anity, but in such places where the pope had gained authority. 
But our divines at the Restoration, understanding a little bet- 
ter the sense of Scripture and antiquity, again restored the 
order for immersion ; however, for prevention of any danger 
to the child, the Priest is advised to be first certified that it 
mitt well endure it. So that the difference between the old 
rubric, and what it is now, is only this : As it stood before, 
the Priest was to dip, unless there was an averment or allega- 
tion of weakness ; as it stands now, he is not to dip, unless 
there be an averment or certifying of strength, sufficient to 
endure it. 

This order, one would think, should be the most unexcep- 
tionable of any that could be given ; it keeping as close to 
the primitive rule for baptism, as the coldness of our region 
and the tenderness wherewith infants are now used, will some- 
times admit. Though Sir John Floyer, in a discourse on cold 
baths, hath shewn, from the nature of our bodies, from the 
rules of medicine, from modern experience, and from ancient 
history, that nothing would tend more to the preservation of 
a child's health, than dipping it in Baptism. However, the 
parents not caring to make the experiment, take so much the 
advantage of the reference that is made to their judgments 
concerning the strength of their children, as never to certify 
they may well endure dipping. It is true, indeed, the ques- 
tion is now seldom asked ; because the child is always brought 
in such a dress, as shews that there is no intention that it 
should be dipped. For whilst dipping in the font continued 
in fashion, they brought the child in such sort of clothing, as 
might be taken off and put on again without any hinderance or 

OT See Dr. Wall's History of Infant-Baptism, part ii. chap. 9, p. 403. Oxf. edit. 


trouble. But since the Church not only permits, but requires 
dipping, where it is certified the child may reell endure it . 
and consequently since the Minister is always ready to dip, 
whensoever it is duly required of him ; it is very hard that 
any should urge the not dipping or immersing, as a plea for 

Trine immersion , ; 2 - But to proceed : by king Edward's first 
an ancient prac- book, the Minister is to dip the child in the wa- 
ter thrice ; first dipping the right side ; secondly, 
the left side : the third time, dipping the face toward the 
font. This was the general practice of the primitive Church, 
viz. to dip the person thrice, i. e. once at the name of each 
Person in the Trinity, the more fully to express that sacred 
mystery. 98 Though some later writers say this was done to re- 
present the death, burial, and resurrection of our Saviour, to- 
gether with his three days' continuance in the grave." St. 
Austin joins both these reasons together, as a double mystery 
of this ancient rite, as he is cited by Gratian to this purpose. 100 
Several of the Fathers, that make mention of this custom, own, 
that there is no command for it in Scripture : but then they 
speak of it as brought into use by the Apostles ; l and therefore 
the fiftieth of the Canons that are called Apostolical, deposes 
any Bishop or Presbyter that administers Baptism without it. 
But afterwards, when the Arians made a wick- 
e ^ advantage of this custom, by persuading the 
people that it was used to denote that the Persons 
in the Trinity were three distinct substances ; it first became 
a custom, 2 and then a law, 3 in the Spanish Church, only to use 
one single immersion ; because that would express the Unity 
of the Godhead, while the Trinity of Persons would be suf- 
ficiently denoted by the person's being baptized in the name 
of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. However, in other 
parts of the Church, trine immersion most commonly prevailed, 
as it does in the Greek Church to this very day. 4 Upon what 
account it was omitted in the second book of king Edward, I 
do not find : but there being no order in the room of it to con- 

Tertull. adv. Prax. c. 26, p. 510, A. et de Coron. Mil. c. 3. Basil, de Sp. Sanct. c. 
27. Hieron. adv. T.ucif. c. 4. Hierar. Ecclei. c. 2. Amhroa. de Sacram. 1. 2, c. 7. Can. 
Ap. 50, Bas. 92, Leo. IX. Greg. Nys. de Bapt. Christi, torn. iii. p. 3, 72. Cyril. 
Catech. Myotag. 2, n. 4. Leo, Ep.4, ad F.pU. Siculos, c. 3. > M Aug. Horn. 3, apud 
Gratian. de Consecrat. Dist. 4. c. 78. ' Tertull. de Coron. Mil. c. 3, p. 102, A. Cyril. 
Catcch. Mystag. 2, f. 4,paRe28, B. Sozomen. Hist. F.cclcs. 1. G,c. 26, p. 673, 1). Hieron. 
adv. l.ucif. * Concil. Constant. Can. 7. Greg. Eplt. ad Leandrum, Rep. 1. 1, c. 41. 
Coneil. Tolet. 4, Can. 6, torn. v. col. 1700. See Sir Paul Rycaut and Dr. Smith's 
Account* of the Greek Church. 


fine the Minister to a single immersion, I presume it is left to 
his judgment and discretion to use which he pleases. 

IV. When the Priest dips or pours water upon 

the child, he is to say, (calling the child by its The W or f 
name,) N. / baptize thee, which was always the 
form of the Western Church. The Eastern Church useth a 
little variation, Let N. be baptized, &c., 5 or else, The servant 
of God, such a one is baptized, &c. ;" but the sense is much the 
same : however, in the next words, viz. in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, all orthodox 
Christians did ever agree ; because they are of Christ's own 
appointment, and for that reason unalterable. Wherefore, 
when the heretics presumed to vary from this form, they were 
censured by the Church, and those baptisms declared null, 
which were not administered in the name of the Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost. Some indeed took liberty to mingle a pa- 
raphrase with them, baptizing in the name of the Father who 
sent, of the Son that came, and of the Holy Ghost that wit- 
nessed ,- 7 but our reformers thought it more prudent to pre- 
serve our Lord's own words entire, without addition or di- 

Now by baptizing in the name of three Persons, is not only 
meant that it is done by the commission and authority of 
God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost ; but also that we are 
baptized into the faith of the holy Trinity ; and are received 
into that society of men, who are distinguished from all false 
professions in the world, by believing in three Persons and 
one God. 

V. By the first Common Prayer of king Ed- 
ward, after the child was thus baptized, t